The Royal Society of London for the Improvement of Natural Knowledge, known simply as The Royal Society, is a learned society for science that was founded in 1660 and claims to be the oldest such society still in existence. A learned society is an Organization that exists to promote an Academic discipline or group of disciplines Although a voluntary body, it serves as the academy of sciences of the United Kingdom (in which role it receives £40 million annually from the UK Government). The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The Royal Society is a member organization of the Science Council. The Science Council is the umbrella body for scientific professional institutes and learned societies in the UK.
The Royal Society of Edinburgh (founded 1783) is a separate Scottish body. The Royal Society of Edinburgh is Scotland 's National academy of science and letters The Royal Irish Academy (founded 1785) is a separate Irish body. The Royal Irish Academy ( RIA) (Acadamh Ríoga na hÉireann is an all-Ireland, independent academic body that promotes study and excellence in the Sciences
The Royal Society was founded in 1660, only a few months after the Restoration of King Charles II, by members of one or two either secretive or informal societies already in existence. The English Restoration, or simply The Restoration began in 1660 when the English monarchy, Scottish monarchy and Irish monarchy were restored Charles II (Charles Stuart 29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685 was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. The Royal Society enjoyed the confidence and official support of the restored monarchy. A monarchy is a Form of government in which supreme power is actually or nominally lodged in an individual who is the Head of state, often for life or The "New" or "Experimental" form of philosophy was generally ill-regarded by the Aristotelian (and religious) academies, but had been promoted by Sir Francis Bacon in his book The New Atlantis. Philosophy is the study of general problems concerning matters such as existence knowledge truth beauty justice validity mind and language Aristotle (Greek Aristotélēs) (384 BC – 322 BC was a Greek philosopher a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. Francis Bacon 1st Viscount St Alban KC QC (22 January 1561 – 9 April 1626 was an English Philosopher, Statesman, and author In 1623 Sir Francis Bacon expressed his aspirations and ideals in The New Atlantis.
Robert Boyle refers to the "Invisible College" as early as 1646. Robert Boyle was a Natural philosopher, chemist physicist inventor and early Gentleman scientist, noted for his work in Physics and Chemistry The Invisible College was a precursor to the Royal Society of United Kingdom A founding meeting was held at the premises of Gresham College in Bishopsgate on 28 November 1660, immediately after a lecture by Sir Christopher Wren, who was at that time Gresham Professor of Astronomy. Gresham College is an unusual institution of higher learning off Holborn in central London. See Bishopsgate Insurance for the Australian insurance company bankrupted in 1982 For the town in Argentina, see 28 de Noviembre. Events Sir Christopher Wren ( 20 October 1632 &ndash 25 February 1723) was a 17th century English Designer, Astronomer Astronomy (from the Greek words astron (ἄστρον "star" and nomos (νόμος "law" is the scientific study At a second meeting a week later, Sir Robert Moray, an influential Freemason who had helped organise the public emergence of the group, reported that the King approved of the meetings. Sir Robert Moray FRS ( 10 March 1609 – 4 July 1673) was a Scottish soldier freemason and natural philosopher The Royal Society continued to meet at the premises of Gresham College and at Arundel House, the London home of the Dukes of Norfolk, until it moved to its own premises in Crane Court in 1710. 
A formal Royal Charter of incorporation passed the Great Seal on 15 July 1662, creating "The Royal Society of London", with Lord Brouncker as the first President, and Robert Hooke was appointed as Curator of Experiments in November 1662. A Royal Charter is a Charter granted by the Sovereign on the advice of the Privy council to legitimize an incorporated body such as a city company The Great Seal of the Realm or Great Seal of the United Kingdom (prior to the Union the Great Seal of England, then Great Seal of Great Britain Events 1099 - First Crusade: Christian soldiers take the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem after the final William Brouncker 2nd Viscount Brouncker, FRS (1620 – 5 April 1684) was an English Mathematician. The President of the Royal Society ( PRS) is the elected head of the Royal Society of London. Robert Hooke, FRS (18 July 1635 – 3 March 1703 was an English Natural philosopher and Polymath who played an important role in the A second Royal Charter was sealed on 23 April 1663, naming the King as Founder and changing the name to "The Royal Society of London for the Improvement of Natural Knowledge". Events 215 BC - A temple is built on the Capitoline Hill dedicated to Venus Erycina to commemorate the Roman defeat at Her Majesty The Queen is the current patron, and the reigning monarch has always been the patron of the Royal Society since its foundation. For the ship see RMS Queen Elizabeth 2 Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Context States headed by Elizabeth II 
The motto of the Royal Society, "Nullius in Verba" (Latin: "On the words of no one",The full quote from Horace -- Nullius addictus judicare in verba magestri -- expands into the gold standard of objectivity: "Not compelled to swear to any master's words. A motto (from the Italian word motto, meaning witticism sentence is a phrase meant to formally describe the general motivation or intention of a social group Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Quintus Horatius Flaccus, ( Venosa, December 8, 65 BC - Rome, November 27, 8 BC known in the English-speaking world as Horace " although the Royal Society itself now prefers the translation "Nothing in words",and its erstwhile president Robert May favours "Respect the facts"), signifies the Society's commitment to establishing the truth of scientific matters through experiment rather than through citation of authority. Although this seems obvious today, the philosophical basis of the Royal Society differed from previous philosophies such as Scholasticism, which established scientific truth based on deductive logic, concordance with divine providence and the citation of such ancient authorities as Aristotle. Scholasticism was the dominant form of theology and philosophy in the Latin West in the Middle Ages, particularly in the 12th 13th and 14th centuries
The Royal Society imagined a network across the globe as a public enterprise, an "Empire of Learning", and strove to remove language barriers within the sciences. The Royal Society was dedicated to the free flow of information and encouraged communication. Boyle, in particular, began the practice of reporting his experiments in great detail so that others could replicate them, unlike previous alchemists. Alchemy a part of the Occult Tradition is both a philosophy and a practice with an ultimately unknown aim involving the improvement of the alchemist as well as the making of Sir Isaac Newton was a practising alchemist and his assistant, J. T. Desaguliers, a demonstrator for the Royal Society, was a prominent Freemason and Grand Master of the Premier Grand Lodge of England. Sir Isaac Newton, FRS (ˈnjuːtən 4 January 1643 31 March 1727) Biography Early years See also Isaac Newton's early life and achievements Isaac Newton (1643 &ndash 1727 the noted British scientist and mathematician wrote many works that would now be classified as Occult studies John Theophilus Desaguliers (pronounced day-za-güly-ay ( 13 March 1683 &ndash 29 February 1744) was a Natural philosopher born in The Premier Grand Lodge of England was founded on 24 June 1717 as the Grand Lodge of London and Westminster and it existed until 1813 when it During the eighteenth century, masonic lodges in France became conduits for circulating scientific texts which could not be made available publicly (see John Toland). This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. John Toland ( November 30, 1670 - March 11, 1722) was an Irish Philosopher. While the proceedings of the Royal Society reported for instance Chinese alchemists' immortality potions as fact, the Royal Society did actually put the superstitions then current to rigorous testing, for instance placing a spider on a table and sprinkling a circle of salt around it; on the theory that it could not walk across the salt. The spider promptly left the circle, thus disproving that myth.
In 1821 Humphry Davy became president and marked a shift in membership towards practising scientists, rather than gentlemen and amateurs. Year 1821 ( MDCCCXXI) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common year Sir Humphry Davy 1st Baronet FRS MRIA (17 December 1778 &ndash 29 May 1829 was a British Chemist and inventor The Industrial Revolution and the needs of business had alerted society to the demand for a professional body for leading scientists. The Industrial Revolution was a period in the late 18th and early 19th centuries when major changes in agriculture manufacturing and transportation had a profound effect on the However, the Society's royal charter guaranteed the Fellows an unfettered right to elect to Fellowship whoever they chose and regulation of the number of new members and their scientific qualifications became a pressing concern. A Royal Charter is a Charter granted by the Sovereign on the advice of the Privy council to legitimize an incorporated body such as a city company In 1823, a committee was established to review the statutes of the Society but it was only in 1827 that the question of membership was considered. Year 1823 ( MDCCCXXIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common Year 1827 ( MDCCCXXVII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common James South succeeded in establishing a committee to "consider the best means of limiting the members admitted to the Royal Society, as well as to make such Suggestions on that subject as may seem to them conducive to the Welfare of the Society. Sir James South (October 1785 &ndash October 19 1867) was a British Astronomer. " However, the committee, chaired by William Hyde Wollaston and comprising South, Davies Gilbert, John Herschel, Thomas Young, Charles Babbage, Francis Beaufort and Henry Kater, had little impact when it reported. William Hyde Wollaston FRS ( August 6, 1766 &ndash December 22, 1828) was an English Chemist and physicist Davies Gilbert (born Davies Giddy) ( 6 March 1767 &ndash 24 December 1839) was a British Engineer, Sir John Frederick William Herschel 1st Baronet KH, FRS ( March 7, 1792 &ndash May 11, 1871)was an Thomas Young refers to Thomas Young (American Revolutionary (1732 – 1777 a member of the Sons of Liberty Thomas Young (scientist (1773 Rear-Admiral Sir Francis Beaufort, FRS, FRGS (7 May 1774 &ndash 17 December 1857 was a Hydrographer and officer in Britain 's Royal Navy Henry Kater ( April 16, 1777 &ndash April 26, 1835) English Physicist of German descent was born at Bristol 
A new crisis was precipitated when Davy resigned as president in July 1827. Gilbert canvassed Sir Robert Peel as a new president. Sir Robert Peel 2nd Baronet (5 February 1788 &ndash 2 July 1850 was the Conservative Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 10 December 1834 to 8 April Peel had been an important political intermediary in establishing the Royal Medals, but many were appalled at the prospect of a political, rather than scientific, president. The Royal Medals of the Royal Society of London, also as The Queen's Medals were established by King George IV. In the face of a deadlock, Davies took the presidency for the remainder of the year but was then succeeded by two non-scientists; first the Duke of Sussex, and then the Marquess of Northampton. Prince Augustus Frederick Duke of Sussex ( 27 January 1773 &ndash 21 April 1843) was the sixth son of George III of the United Kingdom Spencer Joshua Alwyne Compton 2nd Marquess of Northampton ( 2 January 1790 &ndash 17 January 1851) known as Lord Compton from 1796 
In 1846, the Society established a Charters Committee "with a view to obtaining a supplementary Charter from the Crown", and a particular remit to consider the membership issue. For the game see 1846 (board game. Year 1846 ( MDCCCXLVI) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display Throughout the Commonwealth realms The Crown is an abstract metonymic concept which represents the legal authority for the existence of any government When he was elected to the Council that year, William Robert Grove was co-opted to the committee, his experience in both science and law making him particularly qualified. Sir William Robert Grove PC QC FRS ( 11 July, 1811 &ndash 1 August, 1896) was a British Lawyer The committee recommended:
However, the Society sought the opinion of the Attorney General and Solicitor General who held that it would not be lawful to limit the membership under the current charter. Her Majesty's Attorney General for England and Wales, usually known simply as the Attorney General, is the chief legal adviser of the Crown in England and Wales Her Majesty's Solicitor General for England and Wales, often known as the Solicitor General, is one of the Law Officers of the Crown, and the deputy of the Attorney It was Grove who resolved the deadlock by proposing that a limited intake of fifteen be proposed by the council to the Fellows for election, effectively limiting the new membership. Grove facilitated the adoption of the new rules against opposition from the amateurs and from some professionals who regretted any weakening of links with the political establishment. During the 1870s, membership of the Society fell to about 500. Events and Trends Technology The invention of the prototype telephone by Alexander G 
The Royal Society publishes seven, high quality peer-reviewed journals covering: biological and physical sciences; history and philosophy of science; and cross-disciplinary research at the interface between the physical and life sciences. The list includes the world's longest running scientific journal, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society.
The Society is governed by its Council of Trustees, which is chaired by its President. The Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, or Phil Trans Proceedings of the Royal Society is the parent title of two Scientific journals published by the Royal Society. Biology Letters ( is a journal covering a wide spectrum of the biological sciences published both in print and online Journal of the Royal Society Interface is an international journal publishing reviews research articles and short The Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society, (formerly known as Obituary Notices of Fellows of the Royal Society) is a journal published by An obituary is an attempt to give an account of the texture and significance of the life of someone who has recently died The Royal Society of London for the Improvement of Natural Knowledge, known simply as The Royal Society, is a Learned society for science that was founded in 1660 The members of Council and the President are elected from its Fellowship.
As with many learned societies, the Society's governance structure is based on its Fellowship. A learned society is an Organization that exists to promote an Academic discipline or group of disciplines Fellows must be citizens or ordinarily resident of the Commonwealth or Republic of Ireland, otherwise they may be elected as a Foreign Member. Ireland ( Irish: Éire, ˈeːrʲə is a country in north-western Europe. Up to 44 new Fellows are elected each year by ballot of the existing Fellows of the Society based on a shortlist drawn up by Council and its 10 Sectional Committees. The Royal Society of London for the Improvement of Natural Knowledge, known simply as The Royal Society, is a Learned society for science that was founded in 1660 The Society's statutes state that candidates for election must have made "a substantial contribution to the improvement of natural knowledge, including mathematics, engineering science and medical science". Mathematics is the body of Knowledge and Academic discipline that studies such concepts as Quantity, Structure, Space and Engineering is the Discipline and Profession of applying technical and scientific Knowledge and Medicine is the art and science of healing It encompasses a range of Health care practices evolved to maintain and restore Human Health by the
There are two additional categories: Royal Fellow, for a member of the Royal family to be admitted, and Honorary Fellow, for someone who has "rendered signal service to the cause of science, or whose election would significantly benefit the Society by their great experience in other walks of life". A Royal Fellow of the Royal Society is elected to the Fellowship and Foreign Membership of the Royal Society. An Honorary Fellow of the Royal Society is a person elected under special criteria to Fellowship of the Royal Society. A maximum of forty-four Fellows, six Foreign Members and one Honorary Fellow may be elected each year. 
Foreign Member of the Royal Society is an honorary position within the Royal Society. It is a position at the same rank as a Fellow of the Royal Society to which scientists from outside the Commonwealth and the Republic of Ireland may be elected.
Fellows are entitled to use the post-nominal letters FRS. Post-nominal letters, also called " post-nominal initials " or " post-nominal titles " are letters placed after the name of a person to indicate that Foreign Members may use the post-nominal letters ForMemRS.
Prior to the creation of the position of Honorary Fellow in 2000, people distinguished in other walks of life would sometimes be elected as Fellows; examples of this are the British Prime Ministers Benjamin Disraeli, Winston Churchill, Clement Attlee, and Margaret Thatcher. This article is about the government position For other uses see Prime Minister (disambiguation. Benjamin Disraeli 1st Earl of Beaconsfield, KG, PC, FRS (born Benjamin D'Israeli; 21 December 1804 &ndash 19 April 1881 was Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG, OM, CH, TD, FRS, PC, PC (Can ( 30 November 1874 Clement Richard Attlee 1st Earl Attlee, KG, OM, CH, PC ( 3 January 1883 &ndash 8 October 1967 Margaret Hilda Thatcher Baroness Thatcher LG, OM, PC, FRS (born 13 October 1925
The Fellowship elects twenty-one members of Council, the governing body and trustees of the society. The chair of the council is the President of the Royal Society, currently Lord Rees of Ludlow. Martin John Rees Baron Rees of Ludlow, OM, PRS (born 23 June 1942 in York) is an English cosmologist There are four other titled posts, variously referred to as Vice-Presidents, Secretaries and Officers: the Treasurer, the Foreign Secretary, the Physical Secretary and the Biological Secretary. The current holders of these posts are respectively Sir Peter Williams , Professor Lorna Casselton, Professor Martin J. Taylor, and Sir David Read. Sir Peter Michael Williams, CBE, FRS (born 1945 is a British Physicist. Professor Lorna Ann Casselton FRS is Emeritus Professor of fungal Genetics in the Department of Plant Science at University of Oxford Martin J Taylor FRS, is professor of pure Mathematics at the University of Manchester and prior to its formation and merger the UMIST where Professor Sir David Read FRS is Emiritus Professor of Plant Science in the Department of Animal and Plant Sciences at University of Sheffield. 
The Society's 15 Sections are administered by the permanent staff, led by the Executive Secretary, Stephen Cox CVO. Sir Christopher Wren ( 20 October 1632 &ndash 25 February 1723) was a 17th century English Designer, Astronomer Samuel Pepys, FRS (23 February 1633 – 26 May 1703 was an English naval administrator and Member of Parliament, who is now most famous for Charles Montagu 1st Earl of Halifax, KG, PC, FRS ( 16 April 1661 &ndash 19 May 1715) was an English John Somers 1st Baron Somers, PC, FRS ( 4 March 1651 &ndash 26 April 1716) was Lord High Chancellor of England Sir Isaac Newton, FRS (ˈnjuːtən 4 January 1643 31 March 1727) Biography Early years See also Isaac Newton's early life and achievements Sir Joseph Banks 1st Baronet, GCB, PRS (13 February 1743 &ndash 19 June 1820 was an English naturalist, botanist and patron of Sir Humphry Davy 1st Baronet FRS MRIA (17 December 1778 &ndash 29 May 1829 was a British Chemist and inventor Prince Augustus Frederick Duke of Sussex ( 27 January 1773 &ndash 21 April 1843) was the sixth son of George III of the United Kingdom William Parsons 3rd Earl of Rosse KP ( June 17, 1800 &ndash October 31, 1867) built the world's largest telescope in 1845 and it Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker, OM, GCSI, MD, FRS (30 June 1817 – 10 December 1911 was an English Botanist and Explorer Thomas Henry Huxley PC FRS (4 May 1825 – 29 June 1895 was an English Biologist, known as "Darwin's Bulldog" for his advocacy Sir George Gabriel Stokes 1st Baronet FRS ( 13 August 1819 &ndash 1 February 1903) was a mathematician and physicist William Thomson 1st Baron Kelvin (or Lord Kelvin) OM, GCVO, PC, PRS, FRSE, (26 June 1824 &ndash 17 December 1907 Joseph Lister 1st Baron Lister, OM, FRS ( 5 April 1827 &ndash 10 February 1912) was an English surgeon Sir William Huggins, OM, FRS ( February 7 1824 &ndash May 12 1910) was an English Astronomer John William Strutt 3rd Baron Rayleigh OM (12 November 1842 &ndash 30 June 1919 was an English Physicist who with William Ramsay, discovered Sir Joseph John “JJ” Thomson, OM, FRS (18 December 1856 &ndash 30 August 1940 was a British Physicist and Nobel laureate Ernest Rutherford 1st Baron Rutherford of Nelson, OM, PC, FRS (30 August 1871 – 19 October 1937 was a New Zealand Physicist Sir William Henry Bragg OM, KBE (2 July 1862 – 10 March 1942 was a British Physicist and Chemist who uniquely shared the Sir Henry Hallett Dale OM GBE FRS ( June 9, 1875 &ndash July 23, 1968) was an English Pharmacologist Robert McCredie May Baron May of Oxford, OM, AC, FRS (born Australia, 8 January 1936) has been Chief Scientific Adviser Martin John Rees Baron Rees of Ludlow, OM, PRS (born 23 June 1942 in York) is an English cosmologist The Executive Secretary is supported by the Senior Managers of the Society:
The Society bestows ten medals, seven awards (prizes) and nine prize lectureships variously annually, biennially or triennially, according to the terms of reference for each award. The Society also runs The Aventis Prizes for Science Books. The Royal Society Prizes for Science Books is an annual award for the previous year's best general science writing and best science writing for children
Medals and prize lectures are awarded to scientists in honour of the excellence of their science. Only Fellows can make nominations, which are assessed by committees of Fellows which recommends to the Society's Council who should receive them. Nominees need not be Fellows. Medalists and s and Prize Lecturers receive a struck medal, a scroll, and an honorarium from the Society's private funds. Prize lecturers are required to give a public lecture. 
The Prizes often have the word Award in their title, and are open to nomination from all. They have a variety of assessment criteria and selection process. Some, such as the Michael Faraday Prize, require the recipient to give a public lecture, whereas others, such as the Kohn Award, provide funds for the recipient to undertake a project. The Michael Faraday Prize is a Science Award given annually by the Royal Society.
A full list of recipients is on the Awards section of the Society's website.
The early Royal Society is satirised in Jonathan Swift's 1726 novel Gulliver's Travels when the eponymous protagonist visits the flying island of Laputa. For the New York City skycraper see Burlington House (New York City Burlington House is a building on Piccadilly in London Piccadilly is a major London street running from Hyde Park Corner in the west to Piccadilly Circus in the east Carlton House Terrace refers to a street in the St James's district of London, England, and in particular to two terraces of white Stucco -faced Science is a body of empirical, theoretical, and practical knowledge about the natural world, produced by a global community of researchers A learned society is an Organization that exists to promote an Academic discipline or group of disciplines The following is a list of professional bodies in the United Kingdom. The British Academy is the United Kingdom 's National academy for the Humanities and the Social sciences It was established by Royal Charter The Royal Institution of Great Britain is an organization devoted to scientific education and research based in London. This is a list of Royal Societies. Royal Academy 1768 Royal Aeronautical Society 1866 Royal Anthropological Institute This is a list of people who are or were Fellows or Foreign Members of the Royal Society of London. The first issue of Science Abstracts was published in January 1898 A gentleman scientist is a Scientist with a Private income who can pursue Scientific study independently as he wishes without excessive external financial The Royal Society for the encouragement of Arts Manufactures and Commerce ( RSA) is a British multi-disciplinary institution based in London. The Academy of Medical Sciences is the United Kingdom 's National academy of Medical sciences It was established in 1998 on the recommendation of a group Royal Society Range ( is a majestic Mountain range rising to 4025 metres at its highest point Mount Lister, along the western shore of McMurdo Sound Satire is often strictly defined as a literary genre or form; although in practice it is also found in the graphic and Performing arts In satire human Jonathan Swift (30 November 1667 Gulliver's Travels (1726 amended 1735 officially Travels into Several Remote Nations of the World in Four Parts A floating island is a mass of floating aquatic plants mud and peat ranging in thickness from a few inches to several feet Laputa is a fictional place from the book Gulliver's Travels by Jonathan Swift.
Professor Henry Higgins is revealed to be a member of the Society in George Bernard Shaw's Pygmalion. Pygmalion (1913 is a play by George Bernard Shaw based on the Greek myth of the same name.
The early days of the Royal Society also form the backdrop for the events of Neal Stephenson's Baroque cycle of novels—Quicksilver, The Confusion, and The System of the World. Neal Town Stephenson (born October 31, 1959) is an American writer known primarily for his Science fiction works in the Postcyberpunk genre Quicksilver by Neal Stephenson is the first volume of his series The Baroque Cycle. The Confusion is a Novel by Neal Stephenson. It is the second volume in The Baroque Cycle. The System of the World, a Novel by Neal Stephenson, forms the third volume in The Baroque Cycle.
The founding members of the Royal Society (such as Robert Boyle) are used as secondary characters in the historical mystery novel An Instance of the Fingerpost, published in 1997 by English writer and art historian Iain Pears. Robert Boyle was a Natural philosopher, chemist physicist inventor and early Gentleman scientist, noted for his work in Physics and Chemistry An Instance of the Fingerpost is a 1997 historical mystery novel by Iain Pears. Iain Pears (born in 1955) is an English Art historian, Novelist and journalist Purposes of the organisation and membership are discussed in parts of the novel, and a days proceedings forms an integral part of the story.
Both Stephen Maturin and Jack Aubrey (main characters in Patrick O'Brian's series of popular novels) are members of the Royal Society. Stephen Maturin (ˈmætyʊərˌɪn is a Fictional character in the Aubrey&ndashMaturin series of novels by Patrick O'Brian. Rear Admiral Sir John Aubrey, KB, MP, JP, FRS, is a Fictional character in the Aubrey&ndashMaturin series Patrick O'Brian, CBE ( 12 December 1914 &ndash 2 January 2000; born as Richard Patrick Russ) was an English