The Royal Opera House is an opera house and major performing arts venue in the London district of Covent Garden, one of the foremost opera houses in the world. The Royal Opera House is located in Mumbai, India. It was built in 1912 and is India's only Opera house. An opera house is a theater building used for Opera performances that consists of a stage an orchestra pit audience seating and backstage facilities for costumes London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. Covent Garden (Pronunciation kɒvʌnt is a district in London, England, located on the easternmost parts of the City of Westminster and the southwest The large building, often referred to as simply "Covent Garden", is the home of the Royal Opera, the Royal Ballet and the Orchestra of the Royal Opera House. Covent Garden (Pronunciation kɒvʌnt is a district in London, England, located on the easternmost parts of the City of Westminster and the southwest This article is about the post-1945 opera company at the Royal Opera House Covent Garden The Royal Ballet is an internationally renowned Classical ballet company based at the Royal Opera House in Covent Garden, London, England An orchestra is an instrumental ensemble, usually fairly large with string brass woodwind sections and possibly a percussion section as well
The current building is the third theatre on the site. Theatre (or theater, see spelling differences) is the branch of the Performing arts defined by Bernard Beckerman as what "occurs when one The façade, foyer and auditorium date from 1858, but almost every other element of the present complex dates from an extensive reconstruction in the 1990s. A facade or façade (fəˈsɑːd is generally one side of the exterior of a Building, especially the front but also sometimes the sides and rear A foyer is a safe, large and vast Room or complex of rooms in a Theatre, Opera, Concert hall, Showroom, cinema An auditorium (plural auditoriums, or less commonly auditoria) is the area within a theatre, Concert hall, or other performance space where the The Royal Opera House seats 2,268 people and consists of four tiers of boxes and balconies and the amphitheatre gallery. In Theater, a box is a small separated area in the Auditorium for a limited number of people Balcony (from Italian balcone, scaffold cf High German balcho, beam balk probably cognate with Persian term بالكانه An amphitheatre (alternatively amphitheater) is an open-air venue for spectator sports concerts rallies or theatrical performances The proscenium is 12. Proscenium theatre is a Theatre space whose primary feature is a large Archway (the proscenium arch) at or near the front of the stage, through 20 m wide and 14. 80 m high.
The main auditorium is a Grade 1 listed building. A listed building in the United Kingdom is a building or other structure officially designated as being of special architectural historical or cultural significance
The foundation of the Theatre Royal, Covent Garden lies in the letters patent awarded by Charles II to Sir William Davenant in 1660, allowing Davenant to operate one of only two patent theatre companies (The Duke's Company) in London. Letters patent are a type of Legal instrument in the form of an Open letter issued by a Monarch or Government, granting an office right Charles II (Charles Stuart 29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685 was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. Sir William Davenant (baptised 3 March, 1606 &ndash April 7, 1668) also spelled D'Avenant, was an English Poet The patent theatres were the Theatres that were licensed to perform "spoken Drama " after the English Restoration of Charles II in 1660 The Duke's Company was one of the two theatre companies (the other being the King's Company) that were chartered by King Charles II at the start of the English The letters patent remained in the possession of the Opera House until shortly after the First World War, when the document was sold to an American university library. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All
In 1728, John Rich, actor-manager of the Duke's Company at Lincoln's Inn Fields Theatre, commissioned The Beggar's Opera from John Gay. Year 1728 ( MDCCXXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a John Rich (1692 - 1761 was an important director and theatre manager in 18th century London. The Beggar's Opera is a Ballad opera in three acts written in 1728 by John Gay. John Gay ( 30 June, 1685 - 4 December, 1732) was an English Poet and Dramatist. The success of this venture provided him with the capital to build the Theatre Royal (designed by Edward Shepherd) at the site of an ancient convent garden, part of which had been developed by Inigo Jones in the 1630s with a piazza and church. Iñigo Jones ( July 15, 1573 &ndash June 21, 1652) is regarded as the first significant British architect, and the first to bring In addition, a Royal Charter had created a fruit and vegetable market in the area, a market which survived in that location until 1974. At its opening on December 7, 1732, Rich was carried by his actors in processional triumph into the theatre for its opening production of William Congreve's The Way of the World. Events 43 BC - Marcus Tullius Cicero assassinated 1696 - Connecticut Route 108, one of the oldest highways Year 1732 ( MDCCXXXII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a William Congreve ( 24 January 1670 &ndash 19 January 1729) was an English Playwright and Poet. The Way of the World is a play written by British Playwright William Congreve. 
During the first hundred years or so of its history, the theatre was primarily a playhouse, with the Letters Patent granted by Charles II giving Covent Garden and Theatre Royal, Drury Lane exclusive rights to present spoken drama in London. The Theatre Royal Drury Lane is a West End theatre in Covent Garden, in the City of Westminster, a borough of London. Despite the frequent interchangeability between the Covent Garden and Drury Lane companies, competition was intense, often presenting the same plays at the same time. Rich introduced pantomime to the repertoire, himself performing (under the stage name John Lun, as Harlequin) and a tradition of seasonal pantomime continued at the modern theatre, until 1939. Pantomime (informally panto) (not to be confused with a Mime artist, referring to a theatrical performer of mime is a performance genre traditionally found Harlequin ( Arlecchino in Italian, Arlequin in French) is the most popular of the Zanni or comic servant characters from Year 1939 ( MCMXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
In 1734 Covent Garden presented its first ballet, Pygmalion. Year 1734 ( MDCCXXXIV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Marie Sallé discarded tradition and her corset and danced in diaphanous robes. Marie Sallé (1707 &ndash 1756 was a French Dancer and Choreographer known for her expressive dramatic performances  George Frideric Handel was named musical director of the company, at Lincoln's Inn Fields, in 1719, but his first season of opera, at Covent garden, was not presented until 1735. Year 1719 ( MDCCXIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Year 1735 ( MDCCXXXV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a His first opera was Il pastor fido followed by Ariodante (1735), the premiere of Alcina, and Atalanta the following year. Il pastor fido is an Opera in three acts by George Frideric Handel. For the opera by Étienne Méhul, see Ariodant. Ariodante ( HWV 33 is an Opera seria in three acts by Handel Year 1735 ( MDCCXXXV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Alcina (HWV 34 is an Opera seria by George Frideric Handel. The Libretto 's author is unknown but the plot is taken (like those of the Handel Atalanta (Αταλάντη English translation: "balanced" is a character from ancient Greek mythology. There was a royal performance of the Messiah in 1743 which was a success and began a tradition of Lenten oratorio performances. Messiah ( HWV 56 is an Oratorio by George Frideric Handel based on a Libretto by Charles Jennens. Year 1743 ( MDCCXLIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Lent, in some Christian denominations, is the forty-day-long liturgical season of fasting and prayer before Easter. From 1735 until his death in 1759 he gave regular seasons there, and many of his operas and oratorios were written for Covent Garden or had their first London performances there. Year 1735 ( MDCCXXXV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Year 1759 ( MDCCLIX) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year He bequeathed his organ to John Rich, and it was placed in a prominent position on the stage, but was among many valuable items lost in a fire that destroyed the theatre in 1808. Year 1808 ( MDCCCVIII) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year
In 1775, Richard Brinsley Sheridan's The Duenna premiered at Covent Garden. Richard Brinsley Sheridan (30 October 1751 &ndash 7 July 1816 was an Irish playwright and Whig Statesman. The Duenna is a three-act Comic opera, mostly composed by Thomas Linley the elder and his son Thomas Linley the younger, to an English-language
Rebuilding began in December 1808, and the second Theatre Royal, Covent Garden (designed by Robert Smirke) opened on September 18, 1809 with a performance of Macbeth followed by a musical entertainment called The Quaker. Sir Robert Smirke (1781-18 April 1876 was an English Architect. Events 96 - Nerva is proclaimed Roman Emperor after Domitian is assassinated Year 1809 ( MDCCCIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Macbeth is among the best-known of William Shakespeare 's plays, and is his shortest tragedy, believed to have been written some time between The actor-manager John Philip Kemble, raised seat prices to help recoup the cost of rebuilding, but the move was so unpopular that audiences disrupted performances by beating sticks, hissing, booing and dancing. John Philip Kemble ( February 1, 1757 &ndash February 26, 1823) was an English Actor. The Old Price Riots lasted over two months, and the management was finally forced to accede to the audience's demands. The Old Price Riots of 1809 (also sometimes referred to as the O
During this time, entertainments were varied; opera and ballet were presented, but not exclusively. Ballet is a formalized form of Dance with its origins in the French court further developed in France and Russia as a Concert dance Kemble engaged a variety of acts, including the child performer Master Betty; the great clown Joseph Grimaldi made his name at Covent Garden. Clowns are comic performers stereotypically characterized by their Grotesque appearance colored wigs stylistic makeup, outlandish Costumes unusually Joseph Grimaldi ( December 18, 1778 &ndash May 31, 1837) the most celebrated of English Clowns Grimaldi's performances Many famous actors of the day appeared at the theatre, including the tragedienne Sarah Siddons, the Shakespearean actors William Charles Macready, Edmund Kean and his son Charles. Sarah Siddons ( 5 July 1755 &ndash 8 June 1831) was a British actress, the best-known Tragedienne of the William Shakespeare ( baptised William Charles Macready ( March 3, 1793 - April 27, 1873) English Actor, was born in London, and educated at Edmund Kean (March 17 1789 &ndash May 15 1833 was an English Actor, regarded in his time as the greatest ever Charles John Kean ( January 18, 1811 - January 22, 1868) was born at Waterford Ireland, the son of the Actor Edmund On March 25, 1833 Edmund Kean collapsed on stage while playing Othello, and died two months later. Year 1833 ( MDCCCXXXIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common
In 1806 the pantomime clown Joseph Grimaldi (The Garrick of Clowns) had performed his greatest success in Harlequin and Mother Goose; or the Golden Egg at Covent Garden, and this was subsequently revived, at the new theatre. Joseph Grimaldi ( December 18, 1778 &ndash May 31, 1837) the most celebrated of English Clowns Grimaldi's performances Pantomime (informally panto) (not to be confused with a Mime artist, referring to a theatrical performer of mime is a performance genre traditionally found Mother Goose is a well-known figure in the Literature of Fairy tales and Nursery rhymes Mother Goose is best known in the United States, in the Grimaldi was an innovator: his performance as Joey introduced the clown to the world, building on the existing role of Harlequin derived from the Commedia dell'arte. Harlequin ( Arlecchino in Italian, Arlequin in French) is the most popular of the Zanni or comic servant characters from Commedia dell'Arte ( Italian: "the comedy of artists" is a form of Improvisational theatre that began in Italy in the 16th century His father had been ballet-master at Drury Lane, and his physical comedy, his ability to invent visual tricks and buffoonery, and his ability to poke fun at the audience were extraordinary. Ballet is a formalized form of Dance with its origins in the French court further developed in France and Russia as a Concert dance Comedy (from the Greek κωμωδίαkomodia has a popular meaning (any discourse generally intended to amuse especially in Television, Film, and TRICK is an album released by Panic Channel on March 24, 2005. A jester, joker, jokester, fool, wit-cracker, prankster, or buffoon is a member of a profession that came into popularity
Early pantomimes were performed as mimes accompanied by music, but as Music hall became popular, Grimaldi introduced the pantomime dame to the theatre and was responsible for the tradition of audience singing. Music hall is a form of British theatrical Entertainment which was popular between 1850 and 1960 A pantomime dame is a traditional character in British Pantomime. By 1821 dance and clowning had taken such a physical toll on Grimaldi that he could barely walk, and he retired from the theatre.  By 1828, he was penniless, and Covent Garden held a benefit concert for him.
In 1817, bare flame gaslight had replaced the former candles and oil lamps that lighted the Covent Garden stage. This was an improvement, but in 1837 Macready employed limelight in the theatre for the first time, during a performance of a pantomime, Peeping Tom of Coventry. Limelight is a type of Stage lighting once used in Theatres and Music halls An intense illumination is created when an oxyhydrogen flame is directed Limelight used a block of quicklime heated by an oxygen and hydrogen flame. Calcium oxide ( CaO) commonly known as burnt lime, lime or quicklime, is a widely used Chemical compound. This allowed the use of spotlights to highlight performers on the stage. 
The Theatres Act 1843 broke the patent theatres' monopoly of drama. The Theatres Act 1843 (6 & 7 Vict c 68 (also known as the Theatre Regulation Act) was an Act of Parliament in the United Kingdom. Drama is the specific mode of Fiction represented in Performance. At that time Her Majesty's Theatre in the Haymarket was the main centre of ballet and opera but after a dispute with the management in 1846 Michael Costa, conductor at Her Majesty's, transferred his allegiance to Covent Garden, bringing most of the company with him. Her Majesty's Theatre is a West End theatre, located on The Haymarket, in the City of Westminster. Sir Michael Andrew Angus Costa ( 14 February 1808 - 29 April 1884) was an Italian -born conductor and Composer Conducting is the act of directing a Musical performance by way of visible gestures The auditorium was completely remodelled and the theatre reopened as the Royal Italian Opera on April 6, 1847 with a performance of Rossini's Semiramide. Semiramide is an Opera in two acts by Gioacchino Rossini. The Libretto was written by Gaetano Rossi, based on Voltaire 's
In 1852, Louis Antoine Jullien the French eccentric composer of light music and conductor presented an opera of his own composition, Pietro il Grande. Louis Antoine Jullien ( April 23, 1812 - March 14, 1860) was a French conductor. Five performances were given of the 'spectacular', including live horses on the stage and very loud music. Critics considered it a complete failure and Jullien was ruined and fled to America. 
On March 5, 1856, the theatre was again destroyed by fire. Events 363 - Roman Emperor Julian moves from Antioch with an army of 90000 to attack the Sassanid Empire, in a Year 1856 ( MDCCCLVI) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap year Work on the third theatre, designed by Edward Middleton Barry, started in 1857 and the new building, which still remains as the nucleus of the present theatre, opened on May 15, 1858 with a performance of Meyerbeer's Les Huguenots. Edward Middleton Barry ( 7 June 1830 &ndash 27 January 1880) was an English Architect of the 19th century Events 1252 - Pope Innocent IV issues the Papal bull Ad exstirpanda, which authorizes but also limits the Year 1858 ( MDCCCLVIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common Giacomo Meyerbeer ( September 5, 1791 &ndash May 2, 1864) was a noted German -born Opera Composer, and Les Huguenots is a French Opera by Giacomo Meyerbeer, one of the most popular and spectacular examples of the style of Grand opera.
The Royal English Opera company under the management of Louisa Pyne and William Harrison, made their last performance at Theatre Royal, Drury Lane on December 11, 1858 and took up residence at the theatre on December 20, 1858 with a performance of Michael Balfe's Satanella  and continued at the theatre until 1864. Louisa Bodda-Pyne ( August 27, 1832 - March 20, 1904) was an English soprano and opera company manager William Harrison may refer to William Harrison (clergyman (1534–1593 William Harrison (Catholic clergyman (1553–1621 The Theatre Royal Drury Lane is a West End theatre in Covent Garden, in the City of Westminster, a borough of London. Events 359 - Honoratus, the first known Prefect of the City of Constantinople, takes office Year 1858 ( MDCCCLVIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common Events 69 - Vespasian, formerly a general under Nero, enters Rome to claim the title of Emperor. Year 1858 ( MDCCCLVIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common Michael William Balfe ( May 15, 1808 - October 20, 1870) was an Irish Composer, best known today for his Opera
The theatre became the Royal Opera House (ROH) in 1892, and the number of French and German works in the repertory increased. Winter and summer seasons of opera and ballet were given, and the building was also used for pantomime, recitals and political meetings.
During the First World War the theatre was requisitioned by the Ministry of Works for use as a furniture repository. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All
From 1934 to 1936 Geoffrey Toye was Managing Director, working alongside the Artistic Director, Sir Thomas Beecham. Edward Geoffrey Toye (February 17 1889 - June 11 1942 was an English conductor, Composer and Opera producer Sir Thomas Beecham 2nd Baronet, CH (29 April 1879 &ndash 8 March 1961 was a British conductor and Impresario. Despite early successes Toye and Beecham eventually fell out, and Toye resigned. 
During the Second World War the ROH became a dance hall. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including There was a possibility that it would remain so after the war but, following lengthy negotiations, the music publishers Boosey & Hawkes acquired the lease of the building. Boosey & Hawkes is a British music publisher that claims to be the largest specialist Classical music publisher in the world David Webster was appointed General Administrator, and Sadler's Wells Ballet was invited to become the resident ballet company. Sir David Webster (3 July 1903 - 9 May 1971 was the chief executive of the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden, from 1945 to 1970 Sadler's Wells Theatre is the name of six theatres that have been built since 1683 at a site on Rosebery Avenue Clerkenwell in the London Borough of Islington The Covent Garden Opera Trust was created and laid out plans "to establish Covent Garden as the national centre of opera and ballet, employing British artists in all departments, wherever that is consistent with the maintenance of the best possible standards…"
The Royal Opera House reopened on February 20, 1946 with a performance of The Sleeping Beauty in an extravagant new production designed by Oliver Messel. Events 1472 - Orkney and Shetland are left by Norway to Scotland, due to a Dowry payment Year 1946 ( MCMXLVI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Sleeping Beauty ( Спящая Красавица, Spyashchaya Krasavitsa) is a Ballet in a prologue and three acts Opus 66 by Pyotr Oliver Hilary Sambourne Messel ( 13 January 1904 – 13 July 1978) was an English artist and one of the foremost Stage designers Webster, with his music director Karl Rankl, immediately began to build a resident company. Karl Rankl (1 October 1898&ndash 6 September 1968 was a British conductor and Composer of Austrian birth In December, 1946 they shared their first production, Purcell's The Fairy-Queen, with the ballet company. Henry Purcell (ˈpɜrsəl 10 September 1659 (? – 21 November 1695 was an English Baroque Composer. The Fairy-Queen (Z629 is a Masque or Semi-opera by Henry Purcell; a Restoration spectacular It was first performed on 2 May 1692 On January 14, 1947 the Covent Garden Opera Company gave its first performance of Bizet's Carmen. Events 1129 - Formal approval of the Order of the Templar at the Council of Troyes. Year 1947 ( MCMXLVII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Georges Bizet (25 October 1838 – 3 June 1875 was a French Composer and Pianist of the Romantic era Carmen is a French Opéra comique by Georges Bizet. The Libretto is by Henri Meilhac and Ludovic Halévy, based
Several renovations had taken place to parts of the house in the 1960s, including improvements to the amphitheatre and an extension in the rear, but the theatre clearly needed a major overhaul. In 1975 the Labour government gave land adjacent to the Royal Opera House for a long-overdue modernisation, refurbishment and extension. By 1995, sufficient funds had been raised to enable the company to embark upon a major reconstruction of the building by Carillion, which took place between 1996 and 2000, under the chairmanship of Sir Angus Stirling. Carillion plc ( is a British -based construction-services business headquartered in Wolverhampton, West Midlands. Sir Angus Stirling KBE DLitt, (born 1938 is a former director general of the National Trust and has served on many other charitable bodies in the This involved the demolition of almost the whole site including several adjacent buildings to make room for a major increase in the size of the complex. The auditorium itself remained, but well over half of the complex is new.
The design team was lead by Jeremy Dixon and Ed Jones of Dixon Jones BDP as architects. The acoustic designers were Rob Harris and Jeremy Newton of Arup Acoustics. The building engineer was Arup.
The new building has the same traditional horseshoe-shaped auditorium as before, but with greatly improved technical, rehearsal, office and educational facilities, a new studio theatre called the Linbury Theatre, and much more public space. The inclusion of the adjacent old Floral Hall, long a part of the old Covent Garden Market but in general disrepair for many years, into the actual opera house created a new and extensive public gathering place. Covent Garden (Pronunciation kɒvʌnt is a district in London, England, located on the easternmost parts of the City of Westminster and the southwest The venue is now claimed by the ROH to be the most modern theatre facility in Europe.
Surtitles, projected onto a screen above the proscenium, are used for all opera performances. Surtitles, also known as supertitles, are translated or transcribed Lyrics projected above a stage or displayed on a screen commonly used in Opera or other Also, the electronic libretto system provides translations onto small video screens for some seats, and additional monitors and screens are to be introduced to other parts of the house. The Electronic libretto system is used primarily in opera houses and is a device which presents translations of lyrics into an audience's language or transcribes lyrics that