|History of the Royal Navy|
|History of the Royal Marines|
|Future of the Royal Navy|
|Officer rank insignia|
|Ratings rank insignia|
|Related Civilian Agencies of the MOD|
|Royal Fleet Auxiliary|
|Royal Maritime Auxiliary Service|
The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore known as the Senior Service). The Naval Service is the Naval branch of the British Armed Forces, which includes civilian agencies under the control of the Navy Board. The Surface Fleet is the name given to the collection of surface vessels (as opposed to Submarines or Aircraft) of the British Royal Navy. The Fleet Air Arm is the branch of the Royal Navy responsible for the operation of the aircraft on board their ships The Royal Navy Submarine Service is the collective name given to the Submarine element of the Royal Navy. The Royal Navy Police ( RNP) or Royal Naval Police, formerly known as the Royal Navy Regulating Branch, is the Military police branch of Queen Alexandra's Royal Naval Nursing Service ( QARNNS) is the Nursing branch of the British Royal Navy. The Royal Marines ( RM) are the marine corps and amphibious Infantry of the United Kingdom and along with the Royal Navy The role of the Royal Marines Reserve ( RMR) of the United Kingdom is to support the regular Royal Marines[http //www The British Royal Navy was formally created after the Union between England and Scotland in 1707 which merged the English Navy with the Royal Scots Navy The Corps of Royal Marines, the Infantry land fighting element of the Royal Navy, was formed as part of the naval service in 1755 At the beginning of the 1990s the Royal Navy was a force designed for the Cold War - with its three small aircraft carriers and a force of ASW frigates and destroyers its main This is a list of active Royal Navy ships, complete and correct as of July 2008 Although the majority of the Royal Navy fleet unless required remains training and exercising in and around Home Waters the Navy has a number of standing commitments including those Fictional Many novels about the Royal Navy feature fictional ships, but most use real names. The Admiralty was formerly the authority in the United Kingdom responsible for the command of the Royal Navy. This is a list of senior officers of the Royal Navy. Lord High Admirals 1413&ndash1628 Thomas Beaufort Duke of Exeter 1413&ndash1426 The uniforms of the Royal Navy have evolved gradually since the first uniform regulations for officers were issued by Lord Anson in 1748 Officers Uniforms for naval officers were not authorised until 1748 Trade (Branch Badges Ratings in the Royal Navy also carry trade badges on the right sleeve to indicate their specific job (the information carried on the left arm is the individual's The Ministry of Defence ( MoD) is the United Kingdom government department responsible for implementation of government defence policy and is the headquarters The Royal Fleet Auxiliary ( RFA) is a component of the Naval Service that keeps the Royal Navy of the United Kingdom running around the world Organisation The RMAS merged with the former Port Auxiliary Service in 1976 to form a component of the Naval Service that is known as Marine Services The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The Armed forces of the United Kingdom, commonly known as the British Armed Forces or Her Majesty's Armed Forces, and sometimes legally the Armed Forces From the early 18th century to the middle of the 20th century, it was the largest and most powerful navy in the world, playing a key part in establishing the British Empire as the dominant power of the 19th and early 20th centuries. The British Empire was the largest empire in history and for over a century was the foremost global power. In World War II, the Royal Navy operated almost 900 ships. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including A ship /ʃɪp/ is a large vessel that floats on water Ships are generally distinguished from Boats based on size During the Cold War, it was transformed into a primarily anti-submarine force, hunting for Soviet submarines, mostly active in the GIUK gap. Cold War is the state of conflict tension and competition that existed between the United States and the Soviet Union (USSR and their respective allies from the Anti-submarine warfare (ASW or in older form A/S is a branch of Naval warfare that uses surface Warships Aircraft, space craft or other Submarines GIUK gap is an area in the northern Atlantic Ocean that forms a Naval warfare Chokepoint. With the collapse of the Soviet Union, its role for the 21st century has returned to focus on global expeditionary operations. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 The term blue-water navy is a Colloquialism used to describe a maritime force capable of operating across the deep waters of open oceans
The Royal Navy is the second-largest navy of the NATO allies, in terms of the combined displacement of its fleet, after the U.S. Navy. The North Atlantic Treaty In Fluid mechanics, displacement occurs when an object is immersed in a Fluid, pushing it out of the way and taking its A fleet, or naval fleet is a large formation of Warships, and the largest formation in any Navy.  There are currently 91 commissioned ships in the Royal Navy, including aircraft carriers, nuclear submarines, mine counter-measures and patrol vessels. This is a list of active Royal Navy ships, complete and correct as of July 2008 There are also the support of 24 vessels of the Royal Fleet Auxiliary. The Royal Fleet Auxiliary ( RFA) is a component of the Naval Service that keeps the Royal Navy of the United Kingdom running around the world The Royal Navy's ability to project power globally is considered second only to the United States Navy.  The Royal Navy also has the second largest carrier fleet in the world, with 2 carriers of the Invincible class in service (HMS Ark Royal and HMS Illustrious), another of the same class in reserve (HMS Invincible) and 2 of the Queen Elizabeth class planned to replace the current fleet of aircraft-carriers. Development The Invincible class has its origins in a sketch design for a 6000  ton, guided-missile armed helicopter carrying escort cruiser intended as Construction Her keel was laid by Swan Hunter at Wallsend on 7 December 1978 See HMS ''Illustrious'' for other ships of the same name Construction She was laid down at Swan Hunter on the River Tyne History Invincible was built at Barrow-in-Furness by Vickers Shipbuilding and Engineering. History Requirement The 22000 tonne Invincible class aircraft carriers ''Invincible'', ''Illustrious'' and ''Ark Royal'' (However, to place this in perspective, the combined full load displacement of the Royal Navy's two active carriers is only 42,000 tons, while the single Russian carrier Admiral Kuznetsov displaces more than 65,000 tons full load and the combined displacement of the US carrier fleet is more than one million tons). Role While designated an aircraft carrier by the West the design of the Admiral Kuznetsov' class implies a mission different from that of either the United States
The Royal Navy is a constituent component of the Naval Service, which also comprises the Royal Marines, Royal Fleet Auxiliary, Royal Naval Reserve and Royal Marines Reserve. The Naval Service is the Naval branch of the British Armed Forces, which includes civilian agencies under the control of the Navy Board. The Royal Marines ( RM) are the marine corps and amphibious Infantry of the United Kingdom and along with the Royal Navy The Royal Fleet Auxiliary ( RFA) is a component of the Naval Service that keeps the Royal Navy of the United Kingdom running around the world The role of the Royal Marines Reserve ( RMR) of the United Kingdom is to support the regular Royal Marines[http //www The Royal Navy numbers 37,500 people of whom approximately 6,000 are in the Royal Marines. 
(all headings after 1603 and the Union of the Crowns apply to the United Kingdom)
England's first navy was established in the 9th century by Alfred the Great but, despite inflicting a significant defeat on the Vikings in the Wantsum Channel at Plucks Gutter near to Stourmouth, Kent, it fell into disuse. The British Royal Navy was formally created after the Union between England and Scotland in 1707 which merged the English Navy with the Royal Scots Navy The Union of the Crowns was the Accession of James VI, King of Scots, to the throne of England in March 1603 thus uniting Scotland and England England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland Alfred the Great (also Ælfred from the Old English Ælfrēd ˈælfreːd (c A Viking is one of the Norse ( Scandinavian Explorers Warriors Merchants, and pirates who raided and colonized wide areas The Wantsum Channel is the name given to a now silted-up watercourse separating the Isle of Thanet and what was the mainland of the English county of Kent Plucks Gutter is a small hamlet in Kent, England where the River Little Stour and River Great Stour meet Stourmouth is a Civil parish in the Dover local government district of Kent, England. KENT (1400 AM) is a Radio station broadcasting a Adult Standards/MOR format It was revived by King Athelstan and at the time of his victory at the Battle of Brunanburh in 937, the English navy had a strength of approximately 400 ships. The Battle of Brunanburh was a West Saxon victory in 937 by the army of Athelstan, King of England, and his brother Edmund, When the Norman invasion was imminent, King Harold had trusted to his navy to prevent William the Conqueror's invasion fleet from crossing the Channel. Harold Godwinson, (c 1022 &ndash 14 October 1066 also known as Harold II, is widely regarded as the last Anglo-Saxon King of England before the William I of England ( 1027 His reign which brought Norman culture to England had an enormous impact on the subsequent course of England in the Middle Ages However, not long before the invasion the fleet was damaged in a storm and driven into harbour, and the Normans were able to cross unopposed and defeat Harold at the Battle of Hastings. The Battle of Hastings was the decisive Norman victory in the Norman Conquest of England. The Norman kings created a naval force in 1155, or adapted a force which already existed, with ships provided by the Cinque Ports alliance. The Normans were the people who gave their names to Normandy, a region in northern France. Cinque Ports is also the name of a 1703 Galleon (ship The Confederation of Cinque Ports (sɪŋk pɔrts is a historic series of coastal The Normans are believed to have established the post of Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports. The Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports is a ceremonial official in the United Kingdom.
The English Navy began to develop during the 12th and 13th centuries and King John had a fleet of 500 sails. John (24 December 1167 &ndash 19 October 1216 reigned as a King of England from 6 April 1199 until his death During the Hundred Years' War, the French fleet was initially stronger than the English fleet, but was almost completely destroyed at the Battle of Sluys in 1340. The Hundred Years' War (Guerre de Cent Ans was a prolonged conflict lasting from 1337 to 1453 between two royal houses for the French throne vacant with the extinction of the senior The decisive naval Battle of Sluys (slœys in Dutch, but frequently anglicised as /slɔɪz/ was fought on 24 June 1340 as one of the opening In the mid-fourteenth century Edward III's navy had some 712 ships. Edward III (13 November 1312 &ndash 21 June 1377 was one of the most successful English monarchs of the Middle Ages. There then followed a period of decline: the navy suffered disastrous defeats off La Rochelle in 1372 and 1419 to Franco - Castilian fleets, and English ports were ravaged by fleets commanded by Jean de Vienne and Fernando Sánchez de Tovar. La Rochelle is a city in western France, and a Seaport on the Bay of Biscay, a part of the Atlantic Ocean. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. The Crown of Castile, as a historic entity is usually considered to have begun in 1230 with the third and definitive union of the two kingdoms of León and Castile Jean de Vienne (1341 Dole &ndash 1396 Nicopolis) was a French Knight, General and Admiral during the Hundred Fernando (or Fernán Sánchez de Tovar († Lisbon, 1384 was a Castilian soldier and Admiral of the Middle Ages.
The first reformation and major expansion of the Navy Royal, as it was then known, occurred in the 16th century during the reign of Henry VIII, whose ships Henri Grâce a Dieu ("Great Harry") and Mary Rose engaged the French navy in the battle of the Solent in 1545. Sir Francis Drake, Vice Admiral, (c 1540 &ndash 27 January 1595 was an English Privateer, navigator, Slaver, and politician Henry VIII (28 June 1491 &ndash 28 January 1547 was King of England and Lord of Ireland, later King of Ireland and claimant to the Kingdom of For other meanings of "Grace-Dieu" see Grace Dieu (disambiguation. The Mary Rose was an English Tudor Carrack warship and one of the first to be able to fire a full Broadside of cannons The French Navy, officially the Marine nationale ( National Navy) and often called La Royale ( The Royal Navy) is the maritime arm The naval Battle of the Solent took place on 18 and 19 July, 1545 during the Italian Wars, fought between the fleets of Francis I of By the time of Henry's death in 1547 his fleet had grown to 58 vessels. In 1588 the Spanish Empire, at the time Europe's superpower and the leading naval power of the 16th century, and the Spanish Armada set sail to enforce Spain's dominance over the English Channel and transport troops from the Spanish Netherlands to England. The Spanish Empire (Imperio Español was one of the largest Empires in history and one of the first Global empires In the 15th and 16th centuries The Spanish Armada ( Spanish: Grande y Felicísima Armada, "Great and Most Fortunate Navy" or Armada Invencible, "Invincible The Southern Netherlands (Zuidelijke Nederlanden Países Bajos del Sur Pays-Bas du sud were a part of the Low Countries controlled by Spain ( Spanish The Spanish plan failed due to maladministration, logistical errors, English harrying, blocking actions by the Dutch, and bad weather. However, England led a similar large-scale expedition against Spain a year later in what is known as the Drake-Norris Expedition of 1589, which resulted in defeat for the Royal Navy. The English Armada (also known as the Counter Armada, or the Drake-Norris Expedition) was a fleet of warships sent to the Iberian coast by Queen Elizabeth
A permanent Naval Service did not exist until the mid 17th century, when the 'General-at-Sea' (equivalent to Admiral) Robert Blake took the Fleet Royal under Parliamentary control following the defeat of Charles I. Robert Blake (1599 — August 17, 1657) was one of the most important military commanders of the Commonwealth of England, and one of the most famous The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative body in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories Charles I, (19 November 1600 &ndash 30 January 1649 was King of England, Scotland and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution. After defeats in the second and third Anglo-Dutch Wars the Royal Navy gradually developed into the strongest navy in the world. The Anglo-Dutch Wars ( Dutch: Engels-Nederlandse Oorlogen or Engelse Zeeoorlogen) were fought in the 17th and 18th centuries between England From 1692 the Dutch navy was placed under the command of the Royal Navy's admirals (though not incorporated into it) by order of William III following the Glorious Revolution. William III or William of Orange (14 November 1650 &ndash 8 March 1702 He is informally known in Northern Ireland and Scotland as "King Billy" The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England (VII of Scotland in 1688 by a union
Under the Acts of Union in 1707 the Royal Scots Navy merged with the English Navy and the modern Royal Navy came into being. The Acts of Union were a pair of Parliamentary Acts passed during 1706 and 1707 by the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland to put into The Royal Scots Navy (or Old Scots Navy) was the Navy of the Kingdom of Scotland from its foundation in the 11th century until its merger with England's The Royal Navy had become the British navy.
The early 18th century saw the Royal Navy with more ships than other navies. Although it suffered severe financial problems throughout the earlier part of this period, modern methods of financing government and in particular, the Navy were developed.  This financing enabled the navy to become the powerful force of the later 18th century without bankrupting the country. Naval operations in the War of the Spanish Succession were at first focused on the acquisition of a Mediterranean base, culminating in an alliance with Portugal and the capture of Gibraltar (1704) and Port Mahon (1708). In the War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714 several European powers combined to stop French succession to the Spanish throne and what would likely have been a resulting Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. Gibraltar (dʒɨˈbrɒltər is a British overseas territory located near the southernmost tip of the Iberian Peninsula overlooking the Strait of Gibraltar Mahón (alternately Maó in Catalan) is a Municipality and the capital city of the Balearic Island of Minorca (the Balearic Islands The middle part of the century was occupied with the War of the Austrian Succession and the lesser known War of Jenkins' Ear against Spain. The War of the Austrian Succession (1740-1748 involved nearly all the powers of Europe The War of Jenkins' Ear was a conflict between Great Britain and Spain that lasted from 1739 to 1748 Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. In the latter war, the British deployed a very large amphibious force under Admiral Edward Vernon in the Battle of Cartagena, aiming to capture this major Spanish colonial port in modern day Colombia. Admiral is the rank, or part of the name of the ranks of the highest Naval officers Edward Vernon ( "Old Grog") (12 November 1684 &ndash 30 October 1757 was an English naval officer The Battle of Cartagena de Indias was the decisive battle of a massive amphibious expedition by the forces of Britain under Vice-Admiral Edward Colombia (kəˈlʌmbɪə officially the Republic of Colombia () is a country in northwestern South America. Following an able defense assisted by strong fortifications, and the ravages of disease, the British failed in their attempts suffering heavy casualties.  The Navy also saw action in the Seven Years' War which was later described by Winston Churchill as the first world war. The Seven Years' War (1756&ndash1763 involved all of the major European powers of the period causing 900000 to 1400000 deaths Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG, OM, CH, TD, FRS, PC, PC (Can ( 30 November 1874 A world war is a War affecting the majority of the world's most powerful and populous nations  The latter part of the century saw action in the American Revolutionary War where the Navy was defeating the fledgling Continental Navy until French intervention in 1778. In this article the inhabitants of the thirteen colonies that supported the American Revolution are primarily referred to as "Americans" with occasional references to "Patriots" The Continental Navy was formed during the American Revolution in 1775 The most important operation of the war came in 1781 when during the Battle of the Chesapeake the British failed to lift the French blockade of Lord Cornwallis, resulting in a British surrender in the Battle of Yorktown. Background After a strategically indecisive campaign in the southern states, in the summer of 1781 British troops under Lord Cornwallis headed to the coast at Yorktown The Siege of Yorktown or Battle of Yorktown in 1781 was a decisive victory by a combined assault of American forces led by General George Washington Although combat was over in North America, it continued in the Caribbean (Battle of the Saintes) and India, where the British experienced both successes and failures. Origins On April 7 1782, the Comte de Grasse set out from Martinique with 35 Ships of the line, including 2 50-gun ships and a large convoy
The Napoleonic Wars saw the Royal Navy reach a peak of efficiency, dominating the navies of all Britain's adversaries. The Napoleonic Wars (1803-1815 involved Napoleon's French Empire and a shifting set of European allies and opposing coalitions Initially Britain did not involve itself in the French Revolution, but in 1793 France declared war. The French Revolution (1789–1799 was a period of political and social upheaval in the History of France, during which the French governmental structure previously an The next 12 years saw battles such as the Cape St Vincent and the Nile and short lived truces such as the Peace of Amiens. In the Battle of Cape St Vincent ( 14 February, 1797) a British fleet under John Jervis defeated a larger Spanish fleet under The Battle of the Nile or Aboukir Bay (August 1-2 1798 saw a British fleet under Rear-Admiral Horatio Nelson defeat a French The Treaty of Amiens temporarily ended the hostilities between France and the United Kingdom during the French Revolutionary Wars. In the early stages of the wars, the navy had several mutinies caused mostly by the sailors' poor conditions of service. Mutiny is a conspiracy among members of a group of similarly-situated individuals (typically members of the Military; or the Crew of any ship even The two major mutinies at the Spithead and the Nore in 1797, were potentially very dangerous for Britain, because at the time the country was at risk of a French invasion. The Spithead and Nore mutinies were two major mutinies by sailors of the Royal Navy in 1797 The Kingdom of Great Britain, also known as the United Kingdom of Great Britain, was a State in northwest Europe, in existence from 1707 to 1800 This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics.
The height of the Navy's achievements though came on 21 October 1805 at the Battle of Trafalgar where a numerically smaller but more experienced British fleet under the command of Admiral Lord Nelson decisively defeated a combined French and Spanish fleet. Events 1512 - Martin Luther joins the theological faculty of the University of Wittenberg. Year 1805 ( MDCCCV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or The Battle of Trafalgar ( 21 October 1805) was a historic sea battle fought between the British Royal Navy and the combined fleets of the Vice-Admiral Horatio Nelson 1st Viscount Nelson 1st Duke of Bronté, KB (29 September 1758– 21 October 1805 was a British This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. This eventually led to almost uncontested power over the world's oceans from 1805 to 1914, when it came to be said that "Britannia ruled the waves". An ocean (from Greek, ''Okeanos'' (Oceanus) is a major body of saline water, and a principal component of the Hydrosphere. Britannia was the term originally used by the Romans to refer first to the British Isles, and later to the island of Great Britain.
In the years following the battle of Trafalgar there was increasing tension at sea between Britain and the United States. American traders took advantage of their country's neutrality to trade with both the French-controlled parts of Europe and Britain. Both France and Britain tried to prevent each other's trade, but only the Royal Navy was in a position to enforce a blockade. In 1812, the United States declared war on the United Kingdom and invaded Canada. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page At sea, the American War of 1812 was characterised by single-ship actions between small ships, and disruption of merchant shipping. The War of 1812 was fought between the United States of America and the British Empire, particularly Great Britain and her North American colonies This is a list of notable single-ship actions, naval bombardments and other naval events Single-ship actions 1618 about May - Maltese Between 1793 and 1815 the Royal Navy lost 344 vessels due to non-combat causes: 75 by foundering, 254 shipwrecked and 15 from accidental burnings or explosions. In the same period it lost 103,660 seamen: 84,440 by disease and accidents, 12,680 by shipwreck or foundering, and 6,540 by enemy action. During the 19th century the Royal Navy enforced a ban on the slave trade, acted to suppress piracy, and continued to map the world. The history of slavery uncovers many different forms of human exploitation across many cultures throughout history Piracy is Robbery committed at sea or sometimes on shore without a commission from a sovereign Nation (as distinct from Privateering To this day, Admiralty charts are maintained by the Royal Navy. Royal Navy vessels on surveying missions carried out extensive scientific work. Charles Darwin travelled around the world on HMS Beagle, making scientific observations which led him to the theory of evolution. Charles Robert Darwin (February 12 1809 &ndash April 19 1882 was an English naturalist, who realised and demonstrated that all Species of life First Voyage On 27 September 1825 Beagle docked at Woolwich for repairs and fitted out for her new duties at a total cost of £5913 eVolution is the third Album by eLDee, it was due to be released in 2008
The end of the 19th century saw structural changes brought about by the First Sea Lord (Chief of Staff) Jackie Fisher who retired, scrapped, or placed into reserve many of the older vessels, making funds and manpower available for newer ships. Admiral of the Fleet John Arbuthnot "Jackie" Fisher 1st Baron Fisher of Kilverstone, GCB, OM, GCVO ( 25 January 1841 He also oversaw the development of HMS Dreadnought, the first all-big-gun ship and one of the most influential ships in naval history. Genesis Battleships of the era typically carried four large guns mounted fore and aft in twin turrets with a number of smaller-calibre guns ranged along the sides of the This ship rendered all other battleships then existing obsolete, and started an arms race in Europe. Admiral Percy Scott introduced several new programs such as gunnery training programs and central fire control which greatly improved the effectiveness in battle of the Navy's ships. Admiral Sir Percy Moreton Scott 1st Baronet GCB KCVO ( July 10, 1853 &ndash October 18, 1924) was a British The First Lord of the Admiralty is a civilian and a member of the Government.
During the two World Wars, the Royal Navy played a vital role in keeping the United Kingdom supplied with food, arms and raw materials and in defeating the German campaigns of unrestricted submarine warfare in the first and second battles of the Atlantic. A world war is a War affecting the majority of the world's most powerful and populous nations Food is any substance usually composed primarily of Carbohydrates Fats water and/or Proteins that can be eaten or drunk by an A weapon is a Tool used either in Hunting, or attack or defence in Combat for the purpose of subduing enemy personnel or to destroy enemy weapons Materials are physical Substances used as inputs to production or Manufacturing. Unrestricted submarine warfare is a type of Naval warfare in which Submarines sink merchant ships without warning as opposed to attacks per prize regulations The First Battle of the Atlantic ( 1914 &ndash 1918) was a naval campaign of World War I, largely fought in the seas around the British The Battle of the Atlantic was the longest continuous Military campaign of World War II, (though some say it was a series of naval Military campaigns During the First World War, the majority of the Royal Navy's strength was deployed at home in the Grand Fleet. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All The Grand Fleet was a Fleet of the British Royal Navy during the First World War. The primary aim was to draw the Hochseeflotte (the German "High Seas Fleet") into an engagement. The High Seas Fleet (Hochseeflotte was the main battle fleet of the Kaiserliche Marine (Imperial German Navy during World War I. No decisive victory ever came though. The Royal Navy and the Kaiserliche Marine fought many engagements including the Battle of Heligoland Bight, and the Battle of Jutland. The Kaiserliche Marine or Imperial Navy was the German Navy created by the formation of the German Empire. The First Battle of Heligoland Bight was the first Naval battle of the First World War, fought on 28 August 1914 after the British planned to attack fix various bugs per WikipediaHow to fix bunched-up edit links --> Although it suffered heavier losses than the Hochseeflotte it did succeed in preventing the German Fleet from putting to sea in the latter stages of the War.
In the inter-war period the Royal Navy was stripped of much of its power. The Washington Naval Treaty of 1922, together with the deplorable financial conditions during the immediate post-war period and the Great Depression, forced the Admiralty to scrap some capital ships and to cancel plans for new construction. The Washington Naval Treaty, also known as the Five-Power Treaty, limited the naval armaments of its five signatories the United States of America, the The Admiralty was formerly the authority in the United Kingdom responsible for the command of the Royal Navy. The London Naval Treaty of 1930 deferred new capital ship construction until 1937 and reiterated construction limits on cruisers, destroyers and submarines. The London Naval Treaty was an agreement between the United Kingdom, the Empire of Japan, France, Italy and the United States, signed As international tensions increased in the mid-1930s the Second London Naval Treaty of 1935 failed to halt the development of a naval arms race and by 1938 treaty limits were effectively ignored. The Second London Naval Disarmament Conference opened in London, the United Kingdom, on December 9, 1935. The term arms race, in its original usage describes a competition between two or more parties for real or apparent military supremacy The re-armament of the Royal Navy was well under way by this point; the Royal Navy had begun construction of the King George V class and several aircraft carriers including Ark Royal. Development The King George V class were the outcome of a design process dating from 1928 Design In 1923 the Admiralty prepared plans for a ten year building programme which included a new aircraft carrier and 300 aircraft for the Fleet Air Arm In addition to new construction, several existing old battleships, battlecruisers and heavy cruisers were reconstructed, and anti-aircraft weaponry reinforced. However around this time, the Imperial Japanese Navy and the United States Navy began to surpass the Royal Navy in power. For Combined Fleet, please see that article For Carrier Striking Task Force, please see that article
During the early phases of World War II, the Royal Navy provided critical cover during British evacuations from Dunkirk. History Construction Construction of Hood began at the John Brown & Company shipyards in Clydebank, Scotland, on 1 September The Dunkirk evacuation, codenamed Operation Dynamo by the British was the Evacuation of Allied soldiers from the beaches and harbour of Dunkirk At the Battle of Taranto Admiral Cunningham commanded a fleet that launched the first all-aircraft naval attack in history. The naval Battle of Taranto took place on the night of 11 November 1940 &ndash 12 November 1940 during World War II Admiral of the Fleet Andrew Browne Cunningham 1st Viscount Cunningham of Hyndhope, Bt, KT, GCB, OM, DSO (7 January Later Cunningham was determined that as many Commonwealth soldiers as possible should be evacuated after their defeat on Crete. The Battle of Crete ( German Luftlandeschlacht um Kreta; Greek Μάχη της Κρήτης) was a battle during World War II When army generals feared he would lose too many ships, he famously said, "It takes three years to build a ship; it takes three centuries to build a tradition". 
The Royal Navy suffered huge losses in the early stages of the war including HMS Hood, HMS Repulse and HMS Prince of Wales despite successes against enemy surface ships, in particular at Norway. History Construction Construction of Hood began at the John Brown & Company shipyards in Clydebank, Scotland, on 1 September Service in World War I Repulse first saw action on 17 November 1917 at the Second Battle of Heligoland Bight. Naming The Admiralty ordered construction of two new ''King George V''-class Battleships on 29 July 1936 (the other became HMS ''King George V'') As well as providing cover in operations it was also vital in guarding the sea lanes that enabled British forces to fight in remote parts of the world such as North Africa, the Mediterranean and the Far East. North Africa or Northern Africa is the Northernmost Region of the African Continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan The Far East is a term often used by people in the Western world to refer to the countries of East Asia. Naval supremacy in the Atlantic was vital to the amphibious operations carried out, such as the invasions of Northwest Africa, Sicily, Italy, and Normandy. Operation Torch (initially called Operation Gymnast) was the British - American invasion of French North Africa in World War II The Allied invasion of Sicily, codenamed Operation Husky, was a major World War II campaign in which the Allies took Sicily from the Axis The process Allied invasion of Italy, was the Allied landing on mainland Italy in September 1943 by General Harold Alexander 's 15th Army Group Operation Overlord was the code name for the invasion of northwest Europe during World War II by Allied forces During the war however, it became clear that aircraft carriers were the new capital ship of naval warfare, and that Britain's former naval superiority in terms of battleships had become irrelevant. An aircraft carrier is a Warship designed with Naval warfare is Combat in and on Seas Oceans or any other major bodies of water such as large Lakes and wide Rivers History Though Britain was an early innovator in aircraft carrier design and in many naval technologies, it did not have the resources to pursue this in the post-war period.
After World War II, the decline of the British Empire and the economic hardships in Britain at the time forced the reduction in the size and capability of the Royal Navy. The increasingly powerful U.S. Navy took on the former role of the Royal Navy as global naval power. However, the threat of the Soviet Union and British commitments throughout the world created a new role for the Navy.
The 1960s saw the peak of the Royal Navy's capabilities in the post-war era. The two Audacious class fleet carriers HMS Ark Royal, HMS Eagle, the rebuilt HMS Victorious and the four Centaur class light carriers gave the Royal Navy the most powerful carrier fleet outside the United States. Construction and modifications Ark Royal was the sister ship to HMS ''Eagle'' which was initially named HMS ''Audacious'', hence the name of the class Service Her first wartime service came in 1956 when she took part in the Suez Crisis. Service Bismarck Episode In 1941 just 2 weeks after commissioning her first active mission began when she took part in the hunt for the German The navy also had a large fleet of frigates and destroyers. For the bird see Frigatebird. A frigate /ˈfrɪgɪt/ is a warship In naval terminology a destroyer is a fast and maneuverable yet long-endurance Warship intended to escort larger vessels in a fleet, Convoy New, more modern units like the County-class destroyers and Leander-class frigates also began to enter service in the 1960s. Ships of the class Eight of the vessels were built in two batches between 1962 and 1970 the later four vessels carrying Mark 2 SeaSlug and updated electronics requiring rearranged Batch 1 The first batch comprising 8 ships and built between 1963 and 1965 were general purpose alternatives to the far more expensive single-role classes such as the Rothesay
The 1960s also saw the launch of HMS Dreadnought, the Royal Navy's first SSN. Design and construction The Royal Navy had been researching designs for nuclear propulsion plants since 1946 but this work was suspended indefinitely in October SSN is the United States Navy Hull classification symbol for a general-purpose fast Attack submarine. The navy also received its first nuclear weapons with the introduction of the first of the Resolution class submarines and was later to become responsible for the maintenance of the UK's entire nuclear deterrent. History Background During the 1950s and early 1960s Great Britain's nuclear deterrent was through the RAF's V-bombers. The United Kingdom was the third state to test an independently developed Nuclear weapon in October 1952
The Navy began plans for a replacement of its fleet of aircraft carriers in the mid 1960s. A plan was drawn up for 3 large aircraft carriers each displacing about 60,000 tons; the plan was designated CVA-01. Origin In the 1960s the Royal Navy was still one of the premier carrier fleets in the world second only to the US Navy which was in the process of building the 80000 These carriers would be able to operate the latest aircraft that were coming into service, and would keep the Royal Navy’s place as a major naval power. However, the new Labour government that came into power in the mid 1960s was determined to cut defence expenditure as a means to reduce public spending, and in the 1966 Defence White Paper the project was cancelled. The Labour Party is a Political party in the United Kingdom. Founded at the start of the 20th century it has been since the 1920s the principal party of the The 1966 Defence White Paper was a major review of the United Kingdom 's defence policy brought about by the Labour Party government under the Prime Minister Harold
After this the navy began to fall in size and by 1979 the last fleet carrier, HMS Ark Royal, was scrapped. The navy was forced to make do with three much smaller Invincible-class aircraft carriers, and the fleet was now centred around anti-submarine warfare in the north Atlantic as opposed to its former position with world wide strike capability. Development The Invincible class has its origins in a sketch design for a 6000  ton, guided-missile armed helicopter carrying escort cruiser intended as
The most important operation conducted predominantly by the Royal Navy after the Second World War was the defeat in 1982 of Argentina in the Falkland Islands War. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Argentina topics. The Falklands War (Guerra de las Malvinas/Guerra del Atlántico Sur also called the Falklands Conflict/Crisis, was fought in 1982 between Argentina and the Despite losing four naval ships and other civilian and RFA ships the Royal Navy proved it was still able to fight a battle 8,345 miles (12,800 km) from Great Britain. The Royal Fleet Auxiliary ( RFA) is a component of the Naval Service that keeps the Royal Navy of the United Kingdom running around the world HMS Conqueror is the only nuclear-powered submarine to have engaged an enemy ship with torpedoes, sinking the Argentine cruiser ARA General Belgrano. Further reading Footnotes General history The warship was built as, the sixth of the s in New Jersey by the New York Shipbuilding Corporation starting in 1935 and launched in March 1938 The war also underlined the importance of aircraft carriers and submarines and exposed the service's late 20th century dependence on chartered merchant vessels. The Royal Navy also took part in the Gulf War, the Kosovo conflict, the Afghanistan Campaign, and the 2003 Iraq War, the last of which saw RN warships bombard positions in support of the Al Faw Peninsula landings by Royal Marines. The term Kosovo War or Kosovo Conflict is often used to describe two sequential and at times parallel armed conflicts in Kosovo: 1996–1999 The War in Afghanistan, which began on October 7 2001 as the U The 2003 invasion of Iraq, from March 20 to May 1 2003 was spearheaded by the United States, backed by British forces and smaller contingents from Australia Naval gunfire support (NGFS is the use of Naval artillery to provide Fire support for amphibious assault and other troops operating within their range This article is about the Iraqi peninsula See also the Al-Fao artillery system In August 2005 the Royal Navy rescued seven Russians stranded in a submarine off the Kamchatka peninsula. Using its Scorpio 45, a remote-controlled mini-sub, the submarine was freed from the fishing nets and cables that had held the Russian submarine for three days. The Scorpio Craft for Ocean Repair Position Inspection and Observation is a brand of underwater submersible remotely operated Deep Submergence Vehicle manufactured
In numeric terms the Royal Navy has significantly reduced in size since the 1960s, reflecting the reducing requirement of the state. At the beginning of the 1990s the Royal Navy was a force designed for the Cold War - with its three small aircraft carriers and a force of ASW frigates and destroyers its main This is a list of active Royal Navy ships, complete and correct as of July 2008 This raw figure does not take into account the increase in technological capability of the Navy's ships, but it does show the general reduction of capacity.  The following table is a breakdown of the fleet numbers since 1960. The separate types of ship and how their numbers have changed are shown. 
|Year||Submarines||Carriers||Assault Ships||Surface Combatants||Mine Counter Measure Vessels||Patrol Ships and Craft||Total|
|Total||SSBN||SSN||SS & SSK||Total||CV||CV(L)||Total||Cruisers||Destroyers||Frigates|
Before the Falklands War in 1982, the then Defence Secretary John Nott had advocated, and initiated, a series of cutbacks to the Navy. The Falklands War (Guerra de las Malvinas/Guerra del Atlántico Sur also called the Falklands Conflict/Crisis, was fought in 1982 between Argentina and the Sir John William Frederic Nott (born 1 February 1932 in Bideford, Devon) is a former British Conservative Party Politician prominent  The Falklands War though, proved a need for the Royal Navy to regain an expeditionary and littoral capability which, with its resources and structure at the time, would prove difficult. Littoral refers to the coast of an ocean or sea or to the banks of a river lake or estuary With the end of the Cold War at the beginning of the 1990s, the Royal Navy was a force focused on blue water anti-submarine warfare. The term blue-water navy is a Colloquialism used to describe a maritime force capable of operating across the deep waters of open oceans Its purpose was to search for and destroy Soviet submarines in the North Atlantic, and to operate the nuclear deterrent submarine force. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 A submarine is a Watercraft that can operate independently below water as distinct from a Submersible that has only limited underwater capability A nuclear deterrent is the phrase used to refer to a country's nuclear weapons arsenal when considered in the context of Deterrence theory.
UK foreign policy after the end of the Cold War has given rise to a number of operations which have required an aircraft carrier to be deployed globally such as the Adriatic, Peace Support Operations in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Kosovo, Sierra Leone, the Persian Gulf. Bosnia and Herzegovina ( Latin script: Bosna i Hercegovina, Cyrillic script: Босна и Херцеговина is a country on the Balkan Sierra Leone, officially the Republic of Sierra Leone, is a country in West Africa. The Persian Gulf, in the Southwest Asian region is an extension of the Destroyers and frigates have been deployed against piracy in the Malacca Straits and Horn of Africa. Consequently in the 1990s the navy began a series of projects to modernise the fleet and convert it from a North Atlantic-based anti-submarine force to an expeditionary force. This has involved the replacement of much of the Fleet and has seen a number of large procurement projects. 
The two recently ordered Queen Elizabeth-class aircraft carriers are to be a new generation of aircraft carrier to replace the three Invincible class ships. History Requirement The 22000 tonne Invincible class aircraft carriers ''Invincible'', ''Illustrious'' and ''Ark Royal'' An aircraft carrier is a Warship designed with Development The Invincible class has its origins in a sketch design for a 6000  ton, guided-missile armed helicopter carrying escort cruiser intended as The two vessels are expected to cost £3. The Pound Sterling ( symbol £; ISO code: GBP) subdivided into 100 pence (singular penny) is the Currency 9 billion, will displace 65,000 tons and are expected to enter service in 2014 and 2016 respectively.  They will be STOVL carriers, operating the STOVL variant of the F-35 Lightning II, which has been ordered by both the Fleet Air Arm and the Royal Air Force to replace the Harrier. STOVL is an acronym for S hort T ake O ff and V ertical L anding WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout The Fleet Air Arm is the branch of the Royal Navy responsible for the operation of the aircraft on board their ships
The introduction of the 4 vessels of the Bay class of landing ship dock into the Royal Fleet Auxiliary in 2006 and 2007, together with the Albion class means that the Royal Navy has a significantly enhanced amphibious capability. An amphibious transport dock (also called a landing platform dock or LPD) is an Amphibious warfare ship, a warship that embarks transports and lands elements The Royal Fleet Auxiliary ( RFA) is a component of the Naval Service that keeps the Royal Navy of the United Kingdom running around the world In November 2006 the First Sea Lord, Admiral Sir Jonathon Band, said, "These ships represent a major uplift in the Royal Navy's war fighting capability. The First Sea Lord is the professional head of the Royal Navy and the whole Naval Service. Admiral Sir Jonathon Band GCB, ADC (born 1950 since 2006 is the First Sea Lord of the United Kingdom the most senior serving officer "
The escort fleet, in the form of frigates and destroyers, is the traditional workhorse of the Navy. Construction and launch Daring' s construction began at the BAE Systems Naval Ships yard (now BVT Surface Fleet) at Scotstoun on the Background The UK had sought to procure the ships in collaboration with 7 other NATO nations under the NFR-90 project which later collapsed  The escort fleet is also being updated. The ageing Type 42 destroyer is to be replaced with the Type 45 destroyer. History The class was designed in the late 1960s to provide fleet area air-defence Background The UK had sought to procure the ships in collaboration with 7 other NATO nations under the NFR-90 project which later collapsed
Six Type 45 destroyers are on order or under construction. Under the terms of the original contract, the Navy was to order 12 vessels but, as of November 2007, only eight are expected to be ordered from BAE Systems.  The main role of the Type 45 destroyer is anti-air warfare. In order to fulfil this role, it will be equipped with the PAAMS integrated anti-aircraft system. The Principal Anti Air Missile System (PAAMS is a joint French / Italian / British program for a naval anti-aircraft weapon This will fire Aster 15 and Aster 30 missiles. The Type 45 will operate the highly sophisticated Sampson radar system that will be fully integrated into the PAAMS system. The Principal Anti Air Missile System (PAAMS is a joint French / Italian / British program for a naval anti-aircraft weapon 
The last frigate to enter service was the Type 23 frigate, HMS St Albans. Design Origin The Type 23 was initially conceived as an Anti-submarine warfare platform with a Westland Lynx or EHI Merlin Helicopter History The ship was launched on the River Clyde on Saturday 6th May 2000 On July 21, 2004, in the Delivering Security in a Changing World review of defence spending, Defence Secretary Geoff Hoon announced that 3 frigates would be paid off as part of a continuous cost-cutting strategy. Events 356 BC - Herostratus sets fire to the Temple of Artemis in Ephesus, one of the Seven Wonders of the World "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " The 2003 Defence White Paper, entitled Delivering Security in a Changing World sets out the future of the British military, and builds on the 1998 Geoffrey 'Geoff' William Hoon (born 6 December 1953 is a British Politician. Several designs have been created for a new generation frigate such as the Future Surface Combatant, but these concepts have not yet obtained Main Gate approval. The Future Surface Combatant is a Royal Navy programme to replace Britain's Type 23 frigates and a variety of smaller escort/patrol ships
The submarine force is being replaced and replenished, with 4 new Astute-class submarines ordered. Background As the ''Swiftsure''-class submarines aged the Royal Navy began to design their replacements These are much larger than their predecessors, the Trafalgar class and are expected to displace 7,800 tons submerged. Description The Trafalgar is a refinement of the ''Swiftsure'' class and designed six years later than its predecessor  In December 2006, plans were unveiled for a new class of three submarines to replace the Vanguard-class submarine, which is due to be replaced by 2024. Design The Vanguard s were designed from the outset as an unlimited-range nuclear powered ballistic missile submarine unlike the previous ''Resolution'' class This new class will mean that the United Kingdom will maintain a nuclear ballistic missile submarine fleet and the ability to launch nuclear weapons. A ballistic missile submarine is a Submarine equipped to launch Ballistic missiles ( SLBMs) A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from Nuclear reactions either fission or a combination of fission and fusion. 
At the beginning of the 1990s the Royal Navy had two classes of Offshore Patrol vessel, the Island class, and the larger Castle class. However, in 1997 a decision was taken to replace them. An order for three much larger offshore patrol vessels, the River class was placed in 2001. Design The three ships HMS ''Tyne'' (P281 commissioned July 2003 HMS ''Mersey'' (P283 commissioned December 2003 and HMS ''Severn'' (P282 commissioned Unusually, the three River class ships are owned by Vosper Thorneycroft, and leased to the Royal Navy until 2013. VT Group plc is a British defence and services company formerly known as Vosper Thornycroft. A modified River class vessel, HMS Clyde, was commissioned in July 2007 and will become the Falkland Islands guardship. The Royal Navy also has the Sandown-class minehunter and the Hunt class mine countermeasure vessel. Ships Ships The Hunt class of 8 vessels are mine countermeasure vessels that combine the separate role of the traditional minesweeper and that of the active minehunter in one hull. A mine countermeasures vessel or MCMV is a type of Naval ship designed for the location of and destruction of Naval mines which combines the role of a A minesweeper is a Naval Warship designed to counter the threat posed by Naval mines The dedicated purpose-built minesweeper first appeared during Minehunters are mine countermeasure vessels that actively detect and destroy individual Naval mines Minesweepers on the other hand clear mined areas as a whole When needed they take on the role of offshore patrol vessels. The Royal Navy has a mandate to provide support to the British Antarctic Survey (BAS), which comes in the form of the dedicated Antarctic Patrol Ship HMS Endurance. The British Antarctic Survey (BAS is the United Kingdom 's national Antarctic operator and has an active role in Antarctic affairs Gallery See also Red Sea rig The four Hecla class vessels were replaced by the survey vessel HMS Scott which surveys the ocean floor. Special modifications Besides the strengthened hull for work in ice and the provision of air conditioning necessary for work in all climates they had modifications particular for Affiliations 42 Engineer Regiment Royal Engineers HMS Roebuck meanwhile, surveys the UK continental shelf or other shallow waters in support of the larger vessels. The continental shelf is the extended perimeter of each Continent and associated Coastal plain, which is covered during interglacial periods such The other survey vessels of the Royal Navy are the two multi-role ships of the Echo class which came into service in 2002 and 2003. The two ships of Echo class are the latest vessels to join the Royal Navy 's Hydrographic Squadron
The current role of the Royal Navy (RN) is to protect British interests at home and abroad, executing the foreign and defence policies of Her Majesty's Government through the exercise of military effect, diplomatic activities and other activities in support of these objectives. The RN is also a key element of the UK contribution to NATO, with a number of assets allocated to NATO tasks at any time.  These objectives are delivered via a number of core capabilities:
The Royal Navy is currently deployed in many areas of the world, including a number of standing Royal Navy deployments. Although the majority of the Royal Navy fleet unless required remains training and exercising in and around Home Waters the Navy has a number of standing commitments including those These include several home tasks as well as oversea deployments. The Royal Navy is deployed in the Mediterranean as part of standing NATO deployments including mine countermeasures and NATO Maritime Group 2. In both the North and South Atlantic Royal Naval vessels are patrolling. There is always a Falkland Islands Patrol Vessel on deployment, currently the new vessel HMS Clyde. The Royal Navy is also deployed in the Middle East to provide "maritime security and surveillance in the Northern Persian Gulf". 
The head of the Royal Navy is the Lord High Admiral, a position which has been held by the Sovereign since 1964 (the Sovereign being the overall head of the Armed Forces). The Admiralty was formerly the authority in the United Kingdom responsible for the command of the Royal Navy. TalkCommonewalth realm.--> The monarchy The Armed forces of the United Kingdom, commonly known as the British Armed Forces or Her Majesty's Armed Forces, and sometimes legally the Armed Forces
The professional head of the Naval Service is the First Sea Lord, an Admiral and member of the Defence Council. The First Sea Lord is the professional head of the Royal Navy and the whole Naval Service. Please see “ Admiral ” for other nations which use this rank The Defence Council of the United Kingdom is the body legally entrusted with the defence of the United Kingdom and its overseas territories and with control over the The Defence council delegates management of the Naval Service to the Admiralty Board, chaired by the Secretary of State for Defence, which directs the Navy Board, a sub-committee of the Admiralty Board comprising only Naval Officers and Ministry of Defence (MOD) Civil Servants. For the Admiralty Board of Imperial Russia see Admiralty Board (Russia. The Secretary of State for Defence is the senior United Kingdom government minister in charge of the Ministry of Defence. The Navy Board is today the body responsible for the day-to-day running of the British Royal Navy. The Ministry of Defence ( MoD) is the United Kingdom government department responsible for implementation of government defence policy and is the headquarters These are all based in MOD Main Building in London, where the First Sea Lord, also known as the Chief of the Naval Staff, is supported by the Naval Staff Department.
As of July 2007, the following persons were in office:
Full command of all deployable fleet units (including the Royal Marines and the Fleet Auxiliary) is the responsibility of Commander-in-Chief Fleet (CINCFLEET), with a Command Headquarters at HMS Excellent in Portsmouth and an Operational Headquarters at Northwood, Middlesex. Commander-in-Chief Fleet ( CINCFLEET) is the Admiral responsible for the operation resourcing and training of the ships submarines and aircraft and personnel of HMS Excellent is a Royal Navy shore establishment sited on Whale Island near Portsmouth, Hampshire. Middlesex is one of the 39 historic counties of England and the second smallest by area. The latter is co-located with the Permanent Joint Headquarters of the United Kingdom's armed forces, and a NATO Regional Command, Allied Maritime Component Command Northwood (AMCCN). The Permanent Joint Headquarters ( PJHQ) is the British tri-service Headquarters from where all overseas military operations are planned and controlled CINCFLEET is also Commander AMCCN. The purpose of CINCFLEET is to provide ships and submarines and commando forces at readiness to conduct military and diplomatic tasks as required by the UK government, including the recruitment and training of personnel.
The Royal Navy currently operates three bases in the United Kingdom where commissioned ships are based; Portsmouth, Clyde and Devonport. Major General or Major-General is a Military rank used in many countries The Commandant General Royal Marines is the professional head of the Royal Marines. Along with HMNB Devonport and HMNB Portsmouth, Her Majesty's Naval Base (HMNB Clyde is one of the Royal Navy 's three operational bases Along with HMNB Devonport and HMNB Portsmouth, Her Majesty's Naval Base (HMNB Clyde is one of the Royal Navy 's three operational bases Design The Vanguard s were designed from the outset as an unlimited-range nuclear powered ballistic missile submarine unlike the previous ''Resolution'' class This is a list of fleet bases of the Royal Navy. Current Fleet Bases HMNB Devonport HMNB Clyde Her Majesty's Naval Base (HMNB Portsmouth ( HMS ''Nelson'') is one of three operating bases for the Royal Navy (the others being HMNB Clyde and Along with HMNB Devonport and HMNB Portsmouth, Her Majesty's Naval Base (HMNB Clyde is one of the Royal Navy 's three operational bases Her Majesty's Naval Base (HMNB Devonport ( HMS ''Drake'') is one of three UK operating bases for the Royal Navy (the others being HMNB Clyde and Each base hosts a Flotilla Command under a Commodore, or in the case of Faslane a Captain, responsible for the provision of Operational Capability using the ships and submarines within the flotilla. Please see Commodore (rank for other versions of this rank Commodore is a rank of the Royal Navy above Captain and Along with HMNB Devonport and HMNB Portsmouth, Her Majesty's Naval Base (HMNB Clyde is one of the Royal Navy 's three operational bases 3 Commando Brigade Royal Marines is similarly commanded by a Brigadier and based in Plymouth. 3 Commando Brigade is a commando formation of the British Armed Forces and the main manoeuvre formation of the Royal Marines. This article refers to the military rank For the Doctor Who character known as the Brigadier see Brigadier Lethbridge-Stewart.
Historically the Royal Navy maintained Royal Navy Dockyards around the world. Dockyards of the Royal Navy are harbours where either commissioned ships are based or where ships are overhauled and refitted  Dockyards of the Royal Navy are harbours where ships are overhauled and refitted. Shipyards and dockyards are places which repair and build ships These can be Yachts military Only four are operating today; at Devonport, Faslane, Rosyth and at Portsmouth. Her Majesty's Naval Base (HMNB Devonport ( HMS ''Drake'') is one of three UK operating bases for the Royal Navy (the others being HMNB Clyde and Along with HMNB Devonport and HMNB Portsmouth, Her Majesty's Naval Base (HMNB Clyde is one of the Royal Navy 's three operational bases Rosyth Dockyard is a large naval dockyard in Rosyth, Fife, Scotland, which today primarily undertakes refitting of Royal Navy surface vessels Her Majesty's Naval Base (HMNB Portsmouth ( HMS ''Nelson'') is one of three operating bases for the Royal Navy (the others being HMNB Clyde and  A Naval Base Review was undertaken in 2006 and early 2007, the outcome being announced by Secretary of State, Des Browne the Defence secretary confirming that all would remain however some reductions in manpower were anticipated. The Rt Hon Desmond Henry Browne MP (born 22 March 1952 commonly known as Des Browne, is a Scottish Labour Party Politician. 
The academy where initial training for future Royal Navy officers takes place is Britannia Royal Naval College, located on a hill overlooking Dartmouth, Devon, England. Britannia Royal Naval College (BRNC is the initial officer training establishment of the Royal Navy, located on a hill overlooking Dartmouth, Devon Dartmouth is a town in Devon in the south-west of England. It is a Tourist destination set on the banks of the estuary of the River Dart
Significant numbers of naval personnel are employed within the Ministry of Defence, Defence Equipment and Support and on exchange with the Army and Royal Air Force. The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. Small numbers are also on exchange within other government departments.
The Royal Navy, through the Royal Marines, provides the Special Boat Service (SBS), one of the three Special Forces units within the United Kingdom Special Forces group. The Special Boat Service ( SBS) is the Special forces unit of the British Royal Navy. The United Kingdom Special Forces ( UKSF) is a UK Ministry of Defence Directorate which also has the capability to provide a Joint Special Operations The Special Boat Service ( SBS) is the Special forces unit of the British Royal Navy. In most countries special forces (SF is a generic term for highly-trained Military teams/units that conduct specialized operations such as Reconnaissance The United Kingdom Special Forces ( UKSF) is a UK Ministry of Defence Directorate which also has the capability to provide a Joint Special Operations The SBS is a maritime Special Forces capability is an independent force element of the Royal Marines. Based at RM Poole in Poole, Dorset it is made up of 4 operational squadrons and an element of the Royal Marines Reserve which provides individual trained ranks to the regular force. Poole ( is a large coastal town and seaport in Dorset on the south coast of England Dorset ( (or archaically, Dorsetshire) is a county in South West England on the English Channel coast The role of the Royal Marines Reserve ( RMR) of the United Kingdom is to support the regular Royal Marines[http //www
Roles include maritime activities such as covert shore reconnaissance, small boat operations, amphibious raiding and Maritime Counter-Terrorism however the force also conducts traditional land-centric activities.
The SBS provides the special forces element of 3 Commando Brigade when deployed. 3 Commando Brigade is a commando formation of the British Armed Forces and the main manoeuvre formation of the Royal Marines.
The British Royal Navy is commonly referred to as the "Royal Navy" both in the United Kingdom and other countries. Navies of Commonwealth of Nations countries where the British monarch is also head of state also include their national name e. A Commonwealth realm is any one of 16 sovereign states within the Commonwealth of Nations that each have Elizabeth II as their respective Monarch g. Royal Australian Navy. The Royal Australian Navy ( RAN) is the naval branch of the Australian Defence Force. Some navies of other monarchies, such as the Koninklijke Marine (Royal Netherlands Navy) and Kungliga Flottan (Royal Swedish Navy), are also called "Royal Navy" in their own language. A monarchy is a Form of government in which supreme power is actually or nominally lodged in an individual who is the Head of state, often for life or
Royal Navy ships in commission are prefixed with Her Majesty's Ship (His Majesty's Ship), abbreviated to HMS, e. There are four lists of Royal Navy ships Current Royal Navy ships lists all currently commissioned vessels in the Royal Navy His or Her Majesty's Ship ( HMS) is the Ship prefix used for ships of the navy in some monarchies either formally or informally His or Her Majesty's Ship ( HMS) is the Ship prefix used for ships of the navy in some monarchies either formally or informally His or Her Majesty's Ship ( HMS) is the Ship prefix used for ships of the navy in some monarchies either formally or informally g. , HMS Ark Royal. Five ships of the Royal Navy have borne the name HMS Ark Royal: HMS ''Ark Royal'' was built as Ark Raleigh in 1587 to the order Submarines are styled HM Submarine, similarly HMS. Names are allocated to ships and submarines by a naming committee within the MOD and given by class, with the names of ships within a class often being thematic (e. g. . the Type 23 class are named after British Dukes) or traditional (e. Design Origin The Type 23 was initially conceived as an Anti-submarine warfare platform with a Westland Lynx or EHI Merlin Helicopter A duke is a member of the Nobility, historically of highest rank below the Sovereign, and historically controlled a Duchy or a Dukedom g. , the Invincible class all carry the names of famous historic ships). Development The Invincible class has its origins in a sketch design for a 6000  ton, guided-missile armed helicopter carrying escort cruiser intended as Names are frequently re-used offering a new ship the rich heritage, battle honours and traditions of her predecessors.
As well as a name each ship, and submarine, of the Royal Navy and the Royal Fleet Auxiliary is given a pennant number which in part denotes its role. In the modern Royal Navy and other navies of Europe and the Commonwealth, ships are identified by pennant numbers (sometimes referred to as pendant
The Royal Navy has several formal customs and traditions including the use of ensigns and ships badges. See List of destroyer classes of the Royal Navy for a full list of classes. The Type system is a classification system used by the British Royal Navy to classify surface escorts by function There are many customs and traditions associated with the Royal Navy of the United Kingdom. Royal Navy ships have several ensigns used when under way and when in port. Commissioned ships and submarines wear the White Ensign at the stern whilst alongside during daylight hours and at the main-mast whilst under way. The White Ensign is an Ensign flown on British Royal Navy ships and Shore establishments It consists of a red St George's Cross on When alongside, the Union Jack (as distinct from the Union Flag, often referred to as the Union Jack) is flown from the jackstaff at the bow, and can only be flown under way either to signal a court-martial is in progress or to indicate the presence of an Admiral of the Fleet on-board (including the Lord High Admiral, the Monarch). The Union Flag, also known as the Union Jack, is the national flag of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. A jackstaff is a small vertical spar (pole in the bow of a ship on which a particular type of Flag, known as a jack, is flown 
The Fleet Review is an irregular tradition of assembling the fleet before the monarch. Fleet Review Royal Navy redirects here This article is on reviews of the Royal Navy The first review is purported to have been held in 1400 and the most recent review was held on 28 June 2005. Events 1098 - Fighters of the First Crusade defeat Kerbogha of Mosul. Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. This was to mark the bi-centenary of the Battle of Trafalgar; 167 ships from many different nations attended with the Royal Navy supplying 67. 
Another popular tradition of the British Navy is that they play several cricket matches with local teams. They even play matches against the Australian Navy in what they call 'The Ashes. '
There are several less formal traditions including service nicknames and Naval slang. The nicknames include "The Andrew" (of uncertain origin, possibly after a zealous press ganger) and "The Senior Service". Impressment (colloquially " the Press " or " press-ganging " is the act of conscripting people to serve in the military or navy usually  The RN has evolved a rich volume of slang, known as "Jack-speak". Slang is the use of highly informal Words and expressions that are not considered standard in the speaker's Dialect or Language. Nowadays the British sailor is usually "Jack" (or "Jenny") rather than the more historical "Jack Tar". Jack Tar was a common English term used to refer to seamen of the Merchant or Royal Navy, particularly during the period of the British Royal Marines are fondly known as "Bootnecks" or often just as "Royals". The current compendium of Naval slang was brought together by Commander A. Covey-Crump and his name has in itself become the subject of Naval slang; Covey Crump. Commander A Covey-Crump, Royal Navy (RN a former Naval Assistant to the Chief of Naval Information was responsible in the mid-1950s for compiling a record of naval Slang  A game traditionally played by the Navy is the four player board game called Uckers. Uckers is a two or four player board game traditionally played in the Royal Navy, Royal New Zealand Navy and Royal Australian Navy where a six-sided game This is similar to Ludo and it is regarded as extremely difficult to learn. Ludo (from Latin ludo, "I play" is a simple Board game for two to four players in which the players race their four tokens from start to
The Royal Navy's Napoleonic campaigns are a popular subject of historical novels. Some of the best-known include Patrick O'Brian's Aubrey-Maturin series, C.S. Forester's Horatio Hornblower chronicles, Dudley Pope's Lord Ramage novels and Douglas Reeman's Richard Bolitho novels. Patrick O'Brian, CBE ( 12 December 1914 &ndash 2 January 2000; born as Richard Patrick Russ) was an English The Aubrey–Maturin series is a sequence of Historical novels — 20 completed and one unfinished — by Patrick O'Brian, set during the Napoleonic Cecil Scott Forester was the Pen name of Cecil Louis Troughton Smith ( August 27 1899 – April 2, 1966) an English Admiral of the Fleet Horatio Hornblower 1st Baron Hornblower, GCB, is a fictional protagonist of a series of Novels by C Dudley Bernard Egerton Pope ( 29 December 1925 - 25 April 1997) was a British Writer of both Nautical fiction Nicholas Lord Ramage was the Fictional character at the centre of a series of Sea novels written by Dudley Pope. Douglas Edward Reeman (born 15 October 1924 Thames Ditton) is a British Author who has written many Historical fiction books on the Royal Richard Bolitho is a fictional Royal Navy officer who is the main character in a series of novels written by Douglas Reeman (using the pseudonym Alexander Kent Alexander Kent is a pen name of Douglas Reeman who, under his birth name, has written many novels featuring the Royal Navy in the two World Wars. A pen name, nom de plume, or literary double, is a Pseudonym adopted by an Author or their publishers to conceal their identity Douglas Edward Reeman (born 15 October 1924 Thames Ditton) is a British Author who has written many Historical fiction books on the Royal Other well known novels include Alistair MacLean's HMS Ulysses, Nicholas Monsarrat's The Cruel Sea, and C.S. Forester's The Ship, all set during World War II. Alistair Stuart MacLean (28 April 1922 - 2 February 1987 Scottish Gaelic: Alasdair MacGill-Eain) was a Scottish Novelist who wrote successful HMS Ulysses was the first Novel by Scottish author Alistair MacLean, and ultimately one of his most popular Lieutenant Commander Nicholas John Turney Monsarrat RNVR ( 22 March 1910 &ndash 8 August 1979) was a UK novelist The Cruel Sea ( 1951, ISBN 978-0141007328 is a novel by Nicholas Monsarrat. Cecil Scott Forester was the Pen name of Cecil Louis Troughton Smith ( August 27 1899 – April 2, 1966) an English The Ship is a novel written by C S Forester set in the Mediterranean during World War II, and first published in May 1943
The Navy can also be seen in several films. The fictional spy James Bond is 'officially' a commander in the Royal Navy. James Bond 007 is a Fictional character created in 1953 by writer Ian Fleming, who featured him in twelve Novels and two Short story The Royal Navy is featured in The Spy Who Loved Me, where a missile submarine is stolen, and in Tomorrow Never Dies when a media baron sinks a Royal Navy warship in an attempt to trigger a war between the UK and People's Republic of China. The Spy Who Loved Me, released in 1977 is the 10th film in the James Bond series and the third to star Roger Moore as MI6 agent Tomorrow Never Dies, released in 1997, is the eighteenth Spy film in the James Bond series, and the second to star Pierce Brosnan Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES Master and Commander: The Far Side of the World was based on Patrick O'Brian's Aubrey-Maturin series. Master and Commander The Far Side of the World is a 2003 Film directed by Peter Weir and starring Russell Crowe as Jack Aubrey, with The Aubrey–Maturin series is a sequence of Historical novels — 20 completed and one unfinished — by Patrick O'Brian, set during the Napoleonic The Pirates of the Caribbean series of films also includes the Navy as the force pursuing the eponymous pirates. Pirates of the Caribbean is a multi-billion dollar Walt Disney franchise encompassing a theme park ride a series of films Noel Coward directed and starred in his own film In Which We Serve, which tells the story of the crew of the fictional HMS Torrin during World War II. Sir Noël Peirce Coward ( 16 December 1899 26 March 1973) was an English Actor, Playwright In Which We Serve is a 1942 War film that tells the story of the British destroyer HMS Torrin, as told in flashbacks by the survivors as It was intended as a propaganda film and was released in 1942. Coward starred as the ship's captain, with supporting roles from John Mills and Richard Attenborough. For information specifically on the Royal Navy rank of captain see Captain (Royal Navy. Sir John Mills CBE (born Lewis Ernest Watts Mills; 22 February 1908 &ndash 23 April 2005) was an English Richard Samuel Attenborough Baron Attenborough 
CS Forester's Hornblower novels have been adapted for television, as have Bernard Cornwell's Sharpe series, which, although primarily involving the Peninsular War of the time, includes several novels involving Richard Sharpe at sea with the Navy. Hornblower is the umbrella title of a series of Television Drama programmes based on C Bernard Cornwell OBE (born February 23, 1944) is a prolific and popular English Historical novelist He is best known for his Sharpe is a British series of Television dramas about Richard Sharpe, a fictional British soldier in the Napoleonic Wars. The Peninsular War or Spanish War of Independence pitted an alliance of Spain, the United Kingdom, and Portugal against France Richard Sharpe is the central character in Bernard Cornwell 's Sharpe series of Historical fiction stories The Royal Navy was the subject of an acclaimed 1970s BBC television drama series, Warship, and of a five part documentary, Shipmates, that followed the workings of the Royal Navy day to day. Warship was a popular British Television drama series produced by the BBC between 1973 and 1977 
The popular BBC radio comedy series The Navy Lark featured a fictitious warship ("HMS Troutbridge") and ran from 1959 to 1977. The Navy Lark was a Radio Sit-com about life aboard a British Royal Navy Frigate named HMS Troutbridge,
|List of ship names of the Royal Navy|