Rondo, and its French equivalent rondeau, is a word that has been used in music in a number of ways, most often in reference to a musical form, but also in reference to a character-type that is distinct from the form. French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people Music is an Art form in which the medium is Sound organized in Time. The term musical form refers to two related concepts the type of composition (for example a musical work can have the form of a Symphony, a Although now called rondo form, the form started off in the Baroque period as the ritornello form, coming from the Latin word ritornare meaning "to return", indicating the return to the original theme or motif ("A"). In Baroque music, ritornello was the word for a recurring passage for Orchestra in the first or final movement of a Solo concerto or Aria The typical Baroque rondo pattern is ABACADA. Although consisting of a few differences, some people use the two terms interchangeably.
In rondo form, a principal theme (sometimes called the "refrain") alternates with one or more contrasting themes, generally called "episodes," but also occasionally referred to as "digressions," or "couplets". Possible patterns in the Classical Period include: ABA, ABACA, or ABACAB'A. The number of themes can vary from piece to piece, and the recurring element is sometimes embellished or shortened in order to provide for variation. Variation form Variation form include Ground bass, Passacaglia, Chaconne, and theme and variations
The form began to be commonly used from the classical music era, though it can be found in earlier works. The dates of the Classical period in Western music are generally accepted as 1750 to 1810 In the classical and romantic periods it was often used for the last movement of a sonata, symphony, concerto or piece of chamber music. Romantic Music is a Musicological term referring to a particular period theory compositional practice and canon in European music history from about 1815 to 1910 Usage of sonata The Baroque applied the term sonata to a variety of works though most works in the Baroque Period were fugues and toccatas A symphony is a Musical composition, often extended and usually for Orchestra. The term Concerto (plural concertos or concerti) usually refers to a three part musical work in which one solo instrument is accompanied by an Orchestra Chamber music is a form of Classical music, written for a small group of instruments which traditionally could be accommodated in a palace chamber
Rondo was often used by baroque composers to write Ritornello rondos. They were used in the fast movements of baroque concertos and contrast the whole orchestra (who play the main theme) against soloists (who play the episodes. ) But Ritornello does differ slightly from other Rondos in that the theme is often different when it recurs but is always distinguishable as the same theme.
A common expansion of rondo form is to combine it with sonata form, to create the sonata rondo form. Sonata form is a Musical form that has been used widely since the early Classical period. Sonata rondo form was a form of musical organization often used during the Classical music era. Here, the second theme acts in a similar way to the second theme group in sonata form by appearing first in a key other than the tonic and later being repeated in the tonic key. In Music theory, the term key is used in many different and sometimes contradictory ways Unlike sonata form, thematic development does not need to occur except possibly in the coda. Coda ( Italian for "tail" from the Latin cauda, see below is a term used in Music in a number of different senses primarily to designate
Rondo as a character-type (as distinct from the form) refers to music that is fast and vivacious—normally allegro. Many classical rondos feature music of a popular or folk character. Music that has been designated as "rondo" normally subscribes to both the form and character. On the other hand, there are many examples of slow and reflective works that are rondo in form but not in character. Composers such as George Gershwin normally do not identify such works as "rondo".