Romano-British culture is that of the Romanized Britons under the Roman Empire and later the Western Roman Empire, and of those exposed to Roman culture in the years after the Roman departure. The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial The Western Roman Empire refers to the western half of the Roman Empire, from its division by Diocletian in 285 the other half of the Roman Empire was the Eastern The Roman departure from Britain was completed by 410. The Archaeological records of the final decades of Roman rule show undeniable signs of decay
The Romano-British were originally a diverse group of Celtic (mostly or wholly Brythonic) peoples living, and frequently fighting, with each other. Celts (ˈkɛlts or /ˈsɛlts/, see Names of the Celts The Brythonic languages (or Brittonic languages or British languages) form one of the two branches of the Insular Celtic language family the other being They first united when Roman troops, mainly from nearby Germanic provinces, under Emperor Claudius invaded Britannia in 43 AD. Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus or Claudius I ( August 1, 10 BC &ndash October 13, AD 54 ( Tiberius Claudius Drusus from birth to Britannia was the term originally used by the Romans to refer first to the British Isles, and later to the island of Great Britain.  Defeated and conquered, the various tribes were assimilated into the Roman Empire as the province of Britannia. Roman businessmen and officials came to Britannia to settle by the thousands along with their families. Roman troops from all across the Empire as far as Spain, North Africa, and Egypt, but mainly from the Germanic provinces, Batavia and Frisia (modern Netherlands, Germany, and Denmark) were garrisoned in Roman towns, taking local Britons for wives and intermarrying. Batavia is the Latin name for the land of the Batavians during Roman time Frisia ( West Frisian: Fryslân; North Frisian: Fraschlönj, Freesklöön, Freeskluin, Fresklun, and This diversified Britannia's cultures and religions, while the populace remained mainly Celtic with a Roman way of life.
Britain was also independent of the rest of the Roman Empire for a number of years, first as a part of the Gallic Empire, then a couple of decades later under the usurpers Carausius and Allectus. The Gallic Empire (in Latin Imperium Galliarum) is the modern name for the independent realm that existed from 260 to 273, during the Marcus Aurelius Mausaeus Carausius (died 293 was a military commander of the Roman Empire in the 3rd century Allectus (died 296 was a Roman usurper - emperor in Britain and northern Gaul from 293 to 296
Christianity came to Britain in the third century. Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings One early figure was Saint Alban, who was martyred near the Roman town of Verulamium, on the site of the modern St Albans, by tradition during the reign of the emperor Decius. Saint Alban was the first British Christian Martyr. Along with his fellow Saints Julius and Aaron, Alban is one of three martyrs remembered Verulamium was the third-largest city in Roman Britain. It was sited in the southwest of the modern city of St Albans in Hertfordshire.
One vector of Roman influence into British life was the grant of Roman citizenship . Citizenship in the time of Ancient Rome was a privileged status afforded to certain individuals with respect to laws property and governance At first this grant went out very selectively: to the council members of certain classes of towns, which Roman practice made citizens; to veterans, either legionaries or soldiers in auxiliary units; and to a number of natives whose patrons were able to obtain it for them. For other uses see Legion The Roman Legion (from Latin legio "military levy Conscription," Patronage is the support encouragement privilege and often financial aid given by a person or an organization Some of the local Celtic kings, such as Togidubnus, received citizenship in this manner. Celts (ˈkɛlts or /ˈsɛlts/, see Names of the Celts Tiberius Claudius Cogidubnus (or Togidubnus) was a 1st century king of the Regnenses in early Roman Britain. However, the number of citizens steadily increased over the years, as people inherited citizenship and more grants were made. Eventually all people who were not slaves or freed slaves were granted citizenship by the Constitutio Antoniniana in 212. A freedman is a former slave who has been manumitted or emancipated. The Constitutio Antoniniana ( Latin: "Constitution Edict of Antoninus" (aka Edict of Caracalla was an edict issued in 212, by the Roman Emperor Events By Place Roman Empire Emperor Caracalla decrees that freemen throughout the Roman Empire are to become Roman citizens
The other inhabitants of Britain, who did not enjoy citizenship, the Peregrini, continued to live under the laws of their ancestors. The principal handicaps were that they could not:
But for the majority of British inhabitants, who were peasants tied to the soil, citizenship would not dramatically alter daily operation of their lives. In Common law, a will or testament is a document by which a person (the Testator) regulates the rights of others over his or her Property
Britannia became one of the most loyal provinces of the Empire until its decline, when Britannia's manpower started to be diverted by civil wars, eventually leading Honorius to bring Roman troops back home to help fight the invading hordes. Flavius Honorius ( September 9, 384 &ndash August 15, 423) was Roman Emperor (393- 395 and then Western Roman Emperor
After the withdrawal of Roman troops, the Romano-British were forced to fight for themselves. The Roman departure from Britain was completed by 410. The Archaeological records of the final decades of Roman rule show undeniable signs of decay They were divided politically as former soldiers, mercenaries, nobles, officials and farmers declared themselves kings, fighting amongst each other and leaving Britain open to invasion. The depredations of the Picts from the north and Scotti (Scots) from Ireland forced them to seek help from pagan Germanic tribes of Angles, Saxons and Jutes, who decided to settle. The Picts were a Confederation of tribes in what was later to become eastern and northern Scotland from Roman times until the 10th century Scoti or Scotti ( Old Irish Scot, modern Scottish Gaelic Sgaothaich) was the generic name given by the Romans to the For their language see Anglo-Saxon language. Anglo-Saxon is the term usually used to describe the invading Tribes in the south However, the Germanic tribes began to overthrow their hosts, pushing Romano-British culture, over the next six centuries, to the western fringes of the island in Wales, Devon, Somerset, Dorset and Cornwall and to the north in Strathclyde, Rheged and Elmet. Devon is a large county in the South West of England. The county is also referred to as Devonshire, but that is an entirely unofficial name Somerset ( or) is a county in south west England The County town is Taunton, which is in the south of the county Dorset ( (or archaically, Dorsetshire) is a county in South West England on the English Channel coast Cornwall ( Kernow ˈkɛɹnɔʊ is the most southwesterly county of England, on the Peninsula that lies to the west of the River Tamar Strathclyde ( Gaelic: Srath Chluaidh) (lit "Valley of the Clyde" originally Brythonic Ystrad Clud, was one of the kingdoms Rheged IPA r̥ɛgɛd was a Brythonic kingdom of Sub-Roman Britain, whose inhabitants spoke Cumbric, a dialect of Brythonic closely related During the Early Middle Ages, between approximately the 5th century and early 7th century AD Elmet was an independent Celtic kingdom covering a broad area of Some of the Romano-British may have migrated to Brittany and possibly Ireland. Brittany (Breizh bʁejs Bretagne; Gallo: Bertaèyn) is a former independent Celtic kingdom and Duchy, now incorporated into Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world
Some histories (in context) refer to the Romano-British people with the blanket term "Welsh". The term Welsh is an Old English word meaning 'foreigner', referring to the old inhabitants of southern Britain. . Historically Wales and the Cornish peninsula were known respectively as North Wales and West Wales.  The Celtic north of England was referred to as Hen Ogledd. Yr Hen Ogledd is a Welsh term meaning 'The Old North' and referring to the sub-Roman Brythonic kingdoms of what is now Northern England
The struggles of this period have given rise to the legends of Uther Pendragon and King Arthur. King Arthur is a legendary British leader who according to medieval histories and romances, led the defence of Britain against the Saxon invaders It is sometimes said that Ambrosius Aurelianus, the leader of the Romano-British forces, was the model for the former, and that Arthur's court of Camelot (Camelod or Camelodonum is the old name for modern Colchester) is an idealised Welsh memory of pre-Saxon Romano-British civilisation. Ambrosius Aurelianus, called Aurelius Ambrosius in the Historia Regum Britanniae and elsewhere was a war leader of the Romano-British Camelot is the most famous Castle and court associated with the legendary King Arthur. Colchester ( /ˈkəʊltʃɛstə/ is a town and the largest settlement within the borough of Colchester, in Essex, England.