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As a literary genre, romance or chivalric romance refers to a style of heroic prose and verse narrative current in Europe from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance. Chrétien de Troyes was a French poet and Trouvère who flourished in the late 12th century. Yvain the Knight of the Lion (Yvain le Chevalier au Lion is a romance by Chrétien de Troyes. Literature is the Art of written works Literally translated the word means "acquaintance with letters" (from Latin littera letter An epic is a lengthy Narrative poem, ordinarily concerning a serious subject containing details of heroic deeds and events significant to a culture or nation A novel (from Italian novella, Spanish novela, French nouvelle for "new" "news" or "short story Comedy (from the Greek κωμωδίαkomodia has a popular meaning (any discourse generally intended to amuse especially in Television, Film, and Drama is the specific mode of Fiction represented in Performance. Satire is often strictly defined as a literary genre or form; although in practice it is also found in the graphic and Performing arts In satire human A performance, in Performing arts, generally comprises an event in which one group of people (the performer or performers behave in a particular way for another group of people A Book is a set or collection of written printed illustrated or blank sheets made of Paper, Parchment, or other material usually fastened together For the Wikipedia guideline regarding editing articles see WikipediaManual of Style. The following is a list of literary terms; that is those words used in discussion classification criticism and analysis of Literature. The history of literature is the historical development of Writings in Prose or Poetry which attempt to provide Entertainment, enlightenment The History of literature in the Modern period in Europe begins with the Age of Enlightenment and the conclusion of the Baroque period in the 18th century This is a list of lists of Books in Wikipedia General lists List of anonymously published works List of books The following are lists of Writers: By name A &ndash B &ndash Y &ndash Z By type of writing This is a list of literary awards from around the world Worldwide in scope Nobel Prize in Literature Neustadt International Prize This is a list of awards that are or have been given out to writers of Poetry, either for a specific poem collection of poems or body of work Literary criticism is the study discussion evaluation and interpretation of Literature. Literary theory in a strict sense is the systematic study of the nature of Literature and of the methods for analyzing literature A literary magazine is a Periodical devoted to Literature in a broad sense A literary genre is a category of literary composition Genres may be determined by Literary technique, tone, Content, or even (as in the case of fiction For the Wikipedia guideline regarding editing articles see WikipediaManual of Style. A verse is generally considered to be a single line in a metrical composition e A narrative or story is a construct created in a suitable format (written spoken poetry prose images song Theater, or Dance) that describes a sequence of The Renaissance (from French Renaissance, meaning "rebirth" Italian: Rinascimento, from re- "again" and nascere
The term was coined to distinguish popular material in the vernacular (at first the Romance languages French, Portuguese and Spanish, later German, English and others) from scholarly and ecclesiastical literature in Latin. Vernacular literature is Literature written in the Vernacular - the speech of the "common people" The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages, or Neolatin languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family comprising all French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people Portuguese ( or língua portuguesa) is a Romance language that originated in what is now Galicia (Spain and northern Portugal. The German language (de ''Deutsch'') is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome.
The boundaries between the romance and the chansons de geste of the troubadours were somewhat fluid. The chansons de geste, Old French for "songs of Heroic deeds lineages" are the epic poems that appear at the dawn of French literature A troubadour ( IPA:, originally) was a composer and performer of Occitan Lyric poetry during the High Middle Ages (1100&ndash1350 In general, the strophic heroic chansons ("ballads") were the property of professional performers, while the romance was associated more with aristocratic amateurs and private readers. Strophe ( Greek στροφή, turn bend twist, see also Phrase) is a concept in versification which properly Nevertheless, a professional poet-performer like Chrétien de Troyes could turn his hand to composing romances. Chrétien de Troyes was a French poet and Trouvère who flourished in the late 12th century. The distinction between an early verse romance and a chanson de geste is often difficult, and perhaps unnecessary, to make.
Unlike the later form of the novel— nouvelle romaine or "new romance"— and like the chansons de geste, the genre of romance dealt with traditional themes, above all linked in some way, perhaps only in an opening frame story, with three thematic cycles of tales: these were assembled in imagination at a late date as the "Matter of Rome" (actually centered on the life and deeds of Alexander the Great), the "Matter of France" (Charlemagne and Roland, his principal paladin) and the "Matter of Britain" (the lives and deeds of King Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table, within which was incorporated the quest for the Holy Grail). A novel (from Italian novella, Spanish novela, French nouvelle for "new" "news" or "short story The chansons de geste, Old French for "songs of Heroic deeds lineages" are the epic poems that appear at the dawn of French literature A frame story (also frame tale, frame narrative, etc is a narrative technique whereby an introductory main story is composed at least in part for the purpose of According to the mediæval poet Jean Bodel, the Matter of Rome was the literary cycle made up of Greek and Roman mythology Alexander the Great ( or, Mégas Aléxandros; July 20 356 BC June 10 or June 11 323 BC also known as Alexander III of Macedon (el Ἀλέξανδρος Γ' The Matter of France, also known as the Carolingian cycle, is a body of Legendary history that springs from the Old French Medieval literature Charlemagne (ˈʃɑrlɨmeɪn Carolus Magnus or Karolus Magnus meaning Charles the Great) (747 – 28 January 814 was King of the Franks from 768 to his Roland ( Italian: Orlando or Rolando, Frankish: Hruodland, Dutch: Roeland, Spanish: Roldán A paladin (from Latin palatinus, plural palatini; cf derivative spellings below was a high-level official in numerous countries of medieval The Matter of Britain is a name given collectively to the Legends that concern the Celtic and legendary History of Great Britain, especially those King Arthur is a legendary British leader who according to medieval histories and romances, led the defence of Britain against the Saxon invaders According to Christian mythology, the Holy Grail was the dish plate or cup used by Jesus at the Last Supper, said to possess miraculous powers The Acritic songs (dealing with Digenis Acritas and his fellow frontiersmen) resemble much the chanson de geste, though they developed simultaneously but separately. The acritic songs ( Greek: ακριτικά τραγούδια &mdash frontiersmen songs) are the Heroic or Epic poetry that emerged Digenis Acritis (Διγενῆς Ἀκρίτης) known in Folksongs as Διγενῆς Ἀκρίτας ( is the most famous of the Acritic Songs.
A related tradition existed in Northern Europe, and comes down to us in the form of epics, such as Beowulf and the Nibelungenlied. An epic is a lengthy Narrative poem, ordinarily concerning a serious subject containing details of heroic deeds and events significant to a culture or nation Beowulf is an Old English Heroic epic poem of anonymous authorship dating as recorded in the Nowell Codex manuscript from between The Nibelungenlied, translated as The Song of the Nibelungs, is an epic poem in Middle High German. However, the richest set of Germanic literature of Romance comes from Scandinavia in the form of the legendary sagas. Terminology and usage As a cultural term "Scandinavia" has no official definition and is subject to usage by those who identify with the culture in question as well A Legendary saga or Fornaldarsaga (literally a tale of times past) is a Norse saga that unlike the Icelanders' sagas, takes place The setting is Scandinavia, but occasionally it moves temporarily to more distant and exotic locations. There are also very often mythological elements, such as gods, dwarves, elves, dragons, giants and magic swords. Divided between the Æsir and the Vanir, and sometimes including the jötnar (giants the dividing line between these groups is less Dvergar or Norse dwarves ( Old Norse dvergar, sing dvergr) are highly significant entities in Norse mythology, who associate An elf is a creature of Norse mythology. The elves were originally imagined as a race of minor nature and fertility gods, who are often pictured as youthful-seeming European dragons are Legendary creatures in Folklore and Mythology among the overlapping cultures of Europe. A jötunn, sometimes anglicized as jotun (pronounced yotun is a giant in Norse mythology, a member of a race of nature spirits with superhuman strength The term magic sword refers to any kind of mythological or Fictional Sword imbued with magical power to increase its strength or grant it other The heroes often embark on dangerous quests where they fight the forces of evil, dragons, witchkings, barrow-wights, and rescue fair maidens.
Many or most of the sagas are based on distant historic events and this is evident in cases where there are corroborating sources, such as Göngu-Hrólfs saga, Ragnars saga loðbrókar, Yngvars saga víðförla and Völsunga saga. Peter Nicolai Arbo ( June 18 1831 &ndash October 14 1892) was a Norwegian painter who specialized in painting historical motifs and Göngu-Hrólfs saga is a Legendary saga, written mainly for entertainment as the author clearly states in his preface and at the end of the story Ragnar Lodbrok (Ragnar "Hairy-Breeks" Old Norse: Ragnarr Loðbrók) was a Norse legendary hero from the Viking Age who was thoroughly Yngvars saga víðförla is a Legendary saga said to have been written in the 12th century by Oddr Snorrason. The Völsunga saga is a Legendary saga, a late 13th century Icelandic prose rendition of the origin and decline of the Volsung clan In the case of Hervarar saga the names in the Gothic setting indicate a historic basis, and the latter parts of the saga are still used as a historic source for Swedish history. Hervarar saga ok Heiðreks is a Legendary saga from the 13th century combining matter from several older sagas The Goths ( Gothic: Gothic usvg|14px|u]]Gothic asvg|14px|a]]Gothic s They often contain very old Germanic matter, such as the Hervarar saga and the Völsunga saga which contains poetry about Sigurd that did not find its way into the Poetic Edda and which would otherwise have been lost. Hervarar saga ok Heiðreks is a Legendary saga from the 13th century combining matter from several older sagas The Völsunga saga is a Legendary saga, a late 13th century Icelandic prose rendition of the origin and decline of the Volsung clan Sigurd ( Old Norse: Sigurðr) is a legendary hero of Norse mythology, as well as the central character in the Völsunga saga. The Poetic Edda is a collection of Old Norse poems primarily preserved in the Icelandic mediaeval Manuscript Codex Regius. Other sagas deal with heroes such as Ragnar Lodbrok, Starkad, Orvar-Odd, Hagbard and Signy. Ragnar Lodbrok (Ragnar "Hairy-Breeks" Old Norse: Ragnarr Loðbrók) was a Norse legendary hero from the Viking Age who was thoroughly Starkad, Old Norse: Starkaðr or Störkuðr, Latin: Starcaterus, and during the late Middle Ages, also known as Starkodder Orvar-Odd (ie arrow-odd) was a legendary hero of whom an anonymous Icelander wrote in the latter part of the 13th century. Hagbard and Signy (Signe (the Viking Age) or Habor and Sign ( h) ild (the Middle Ages and later were a pair of
In late medieval and Renaissance high culture, the important European literary trend was to fantastic fictions in the mode of Romance. The Renaissance (from French Renaissance, meaning "rebirth" Italian: Rinascimento, from re- "again" and nascere Exemplary work, such as the English Le Morte d'Arthur by Sir Thomas Malory (c. Le Morte d'Arthur (spelled Le Morte Darthur in the first printing and also in some modern editions Middle French for la mort d'Arthur 1408–1471), and the Spanish or Portuguese Amadis de Gaula (1508), spawned many imitators, and the genre was popularly well-received, producing such masterpiece of Renaissance poetry as Ludovico Ariosto's Orlando furioso and Torquato Tasso's Gerusalemme Liberata and other sixteenth-century literary works in the romance genre. Amadis de Gaula (original Castilian Spanish version ( English: Amadis of Gaul, Spanish: Amadís de Gaula Orlando Furioso ("The Frenzy of Orlando" more literally "Mad Orlando" in Italian furioso is seldom capitalized is an Italian Torquato Tasso ( 11 March 1544 &ndash 25 April 1595) was an Italian Poet of the 16th century best known for his poem Jerusalem Delivered ( La Gerusalemme liberata) (first published 1581 is an Epic poem by the Italian poet Torquato Tasso which tells From the high Middle Ages, in works of piety, clerical critics often deemed romances to be harmful worldly distractions from more substantive or moral works, and by 1600 many secular readers would agree; in the judgement of many learned readers in the shifting intellectual atmosphere of the seventeenth century, the romance was trite and childish literature, inspiring only broken-down ageing and provincial persons such as Don Quixote, knight of the culturally isolated province of La Mancha. es '''''Don Quixote''''' (, see spelling and pronunciation below fully titled es '''''El ingenioso hidalgo Don Quijote de la Mancha''''' ("The Ingenious Hidalgo Don La Mancha is an arid fertile elevated plateau (610 m or 2000 ft Hudibras also lampoons the faded conventions of chivalrous romance, from an ironic, consciously realistic viewpoint. Hudibras is a Mock heroic Narrative poem from the 17th century written by Samuel Butler. Some of the magical and exotic atmosphere of Romance informed tragedies for the stage, such as John Dryden's collaborative The Indian Queen (1664) as well as Restoration spectaculars and opera seria, such as Handel's Rinaldo (1711), based on a magical interlude in Tasso's Gerusalemme liberata. John Dryden (– was an influential English poet Literary critic, Translator and playwright who dominated the literary life of Restoration England The Indian Queen is a play by Sir Robert Howard, written in collaboration with John Dryden, his sister's husband The Restoration spectacular, or elaborately staged "machine play" hit the London public stage in the late 17th-century Restoration period enthralling audiences Opera seria (usually called dramma per musica or Melodramma serio) is an Italian musical term which refers to the noble and "serious" Rinaldo ( HWV 7 is an Italian Opera by George Frideric Handel, now a part of the standard operatic repertoire Torquato Tasso ( 11 March 1544 &ndash 25 April 1595) was an Italian Poet of the 16th century best known for his poem Jerusalem Delivered ( La Gerusalemme liberata) (first published 1581 is an Epic poem by the Italian poet Torquato Tasso which tells .
Many medieval romances recount the marvellous adventures of a chivalrous, heroic knight, often of super-human ability, who, abiding chivalry's strict codes of honour and demeanour, goes on a quest, and fights and defeats monsters and giants, thereby winning favour with a lady. An adventure is an activity that comprises Risky dangerous and uncertain experiences A hero (from Greek grc ἥρως hērōs) in Greek mythology and Folklore, was originally a Demigod, the offspring of a mortal and Knight is the English term for a social position originating in the Middle Ages. This article is about the word for other meanings see Quest (disambiguation A quest is a journey towards a goal used in Mythology A princess lointaine or princesse lointaine, (in French, "distant princess" is a Stock character from medieval romances The  The story of the medieval romance focuses not upon love and sentiment, but upon adventure. The adventure novel is a Literary genre of novels that has Adventure, an exciting undertaking involving risk and physical danger as its main theme
The first romances heavily drew on the legends and fairy tales to supply their characters with marvelous powers. The tale of Sir Launfal features a fairy bride from folklore, and Sir Orfeo's wife is kidnapped by the fairy king, and Sir Orfeo frees her from there. Sir Launfal is a 1045-line Middle English romance or Breton lay written by Thomas Chestre dating from the late 14th century. Sir Orfeo is an anonymous Middle English narrative poem. It retells the story of Orpheus as a king rescuing his wife from the These marvelous abilities subside with the development of the genre; fairy women such as Morgan le Fay become enchantresses, and knights lose magical abilities. A fairy (also fay, fey, fae, faerie; collectively wee folk, good folk, people of peace, fair Morgan le Fay, alternatively known as Morgane, Morgain, Morgana and other variants is a powerful sorceress and Antagonist of 
Romancers wrote many of their stories in three, thematic cycles: (i) the Arthurian (the lives and deeds of King Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table); (ii) the Carolingian (the lives and deeds of Charlemagne, and Roland, his principal paladin); and, (iii) the Alexandrian (the life and deeds of Alexander the Great). King Arthur is a legendary British leader who according to medieval histories and romances, led the defence of Britain against the Saxon invaders Charlemagne (ˈʃɑrlɨmeɪn Carolus Magnus or Karolus Magnus meaning Charles the Great) (747 – 28 January 814 was King of the Franks from 768 to his Alexander the Great ( or, Mégas Aléxandros; July 20 356 BC June 10 or June 11 323 BC also known as Alexander III of Macedon (el Ἀλέξανδρος Γ'
Originally, this literature was written in Middle English and Provençal, later, in French and German—the notable works being King Horn, Havelok the Dane; and Amis and Amiloun; later romances were written as prose, e. Middle English is the name given by Historical linguistics to the diverse forms of the English language spoken between the Norman invasion of Provençal ( Provençau) is one of several dialects of Occitan spoken by a minority of people mostly in Provence (in southern France Havelok the Dane, also known as Havelok or Lay of Havelok the Dane, is a Middle English romance story g. Le Morte d'Arthur.
Don Quixote (1605, 1615), by Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra (1547–1616), is a satirical story of an elderly country gentleman, living in La Mancha province, who is so obsessed by chivalric romances that he seeks to emulate their various heroes. es '''''Don Quixote''''' (, see spelling and pronunciation below fully titled es '''''El ingenioso hidalgo Don Quijote de la Mancha''''' ("The Ingenious Hidalgo Don Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra ( in modern Spanish; September 29, 1547 &ndash April 22, 1616) was a Spanish Novelist
In later romances, particularly those of French origin, there is a marked tendency to emphasize themes of courtly love, such as faithfulness in adversity. Courtly love was a Medieval European conception of ennobling love which found its genesis in the ducal and princely courts of Aquitaine, Provence From ca. 1800 the connotations of "romance" moved from fantastic and eerie, somewhat Gothic adventure narratives of novelists like Ann Radcliffe's The Sicilian Romance (1790) or The Romance of the Forest (1791) with erotic content to novels centered on the episodic development of a courtship that ends in marriage. Gothic fiction (sometimes referred to as Gothic horror) is a genre of literature that combines elements of both horror and romance. Ann Radcliffe ( July 9, 1764 – February 7, 1823) was an English Author, a pioneer of the gothic novel. Courtship is the traditional dating period before engagement and marriage With a female protagonist, during the rise of Romanticism the depiction of the course of such a courtship within contemporary conventions of realism, the female equivalent of the "novel of education", informs much Romantic fiction. Romanticism is a complex artistic literary and intellectual movement that originated in the second half of the 18th century in Western Europe, and gained strength during the Realism in the Visual arts and Literature is the depiction of subjects as they appear in Everyday life, without embellishment or interpretation A bildungsroman (ˈbɪldʊŋsroˌmaːn "novel of formation" is a Novelistic genre that arose during the German Enlightenment (and is regarded by some as A romance novel is a literary Genre developed in Western culture, mainly in English-speaking countries
The starting point of the fornaldarsagas' influence on the creation of the Fantasy genre is the publication, in 1825, of the most famous Swedish literary work: Frithjof's saga, which was based on the Friðþjófs saga ins frœkna, and became an instant success in England and Germany. Fantasy is a Genre that uses magic and other Supernatural forms as a primary element of plot, theme, and/or setting Friðþjófs saga hins frœkna is a Legendary saga from Iceland which in its present form is from ca 1300. Friðþjófs saga hins frœkna is a Legendary saga from Iceland which in its present form is from ca 1300. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. It is said to have been translated twenty-two times into English, twenty times into German, and once at least into every European language, including modern Icelandic in 1866. Their influence on authors, such as J. R. R. Tolkien, William Morris and Poul Anderson and on the subsequent modern fantasy genre is considerable, and can perhaps not be overstated. William Morris (24 March 1834 – 3 October 1896 was an English Architect, Furniture and Textile designer artist writer and socialist associated Poul William Anderson ( November 25, 1926 – July 31, 2001) was an American Science fiction author who wrote during a Golden
Modern usage of Romance novel denotes a primary focus on the relationship and romantic love between two people; these novels must have an "emotionally satisfying and optimistic ending. A romance novel is a literary Genre developed in Western culture, mainly in English-speaking countries NOTICE TO WOULD-BE-ROMEOS*************** "
Despite the popularity of this meaning of Romance, other works are still, occasionally, referred to as romances because of their uses of other elements descended from the medieval romance, or from the Romantic movement: larger-than-life heroes and heroines, drama and adventure, marvels that may become fantastic, themes of honor and loyalty, or fairy-tale-like stories and story settings. Shakespeare's later comedies, such as The Tempest or The Winter's Tale are sometimes called his romances. The Tempest is a comedy written by William Shakespeare. It is generally dated to 1610-11 and accepted as the last play written solely by him although The Winter's Tale is a play by William Shakespeare, first published in the First Folio in 1623 The late romances, often simply called the romances, are a grouping of what many scholars believe to be William Shakespeare 's later plays including Pericles Modern works may differentiate from love-story as romance into different genres, such as planetary romance or Ruritanian romance. Planetary romance is a type of Science fantasy story in which the bulk of the action consists of adventures on one or more exotic alien planets characterized by distinctive A Ruritanian Romance is a story set in a Fictional country, usually in Middle Europe or East Europe, such as the Ruritania that gave the
The critic Northrop Frye in Anatomy of Criticism (1957) used romance in two separate meanings. Herman Northrop Frye, CC, MA (Oxon, DD, DLitt, FRSC ( July 14, 1912 &ndash January 23, 1991 Herman Northrop Frye 's Anatomy of Criticism Four Essays (Princeton University Press 1957 attempts to formulate an overall view of the scope theory principles
In one, he separated some essentials of romance from the Medieval historical vehicles, to distinguish Romance as a mode that may be detected as a theme or atmosphere in other fictions, one that falls between the mode of "myth" and that of "high mimetic". Expanding Aristotle's Poetics, Frye classified fictions by the power of the hero's actions, which may be greater than ours, or less, or roughly of the same degree. Aristotle (Greek Aristotélēs) (384 BC – 322 BC was a Greek philosopher a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. Aristotle 's Poetics ( Greek: Ποιητικός, c 335 BCE aims to give an account of what he calls 'poetry' (for him the term includes the Thus if the hero is superior in kind to men, the action is a myth. The word mythology (from the Greek grc μυθολογία mythología, meaning "a story-telling a legendary lore" If the hero is superior in degree to others and to his environment, the mode is that of Romance, where the actions are marvellous, but the hero is human.
The hero of romance moves in a world in which the ordinary laws of nature are slightly suspended: prodigies of courage and endurance, unnatural to us, are natural to him, and enchanted weapons, talking animals, terrifying ogres and witches, and talismans of miraculous power violate no rule of probability. . . Romance divides into two main forms: a secular form dealing with chivalry and knight-errantry, and a religious form devoted to legends of saints. Chivalric order Chivalry is a term related to the Medieval institution of Knighthood. Hagiography ( is the study of Saints. A hagiography, from Greek (hağios (ἅγιος "holy" or "saint" and graphē (γραφή Both lean heavily on miraculous violations of natural law for their interest as stories" (Frye pp 33-34).
If, on the other hand, the hero is superior to other men but not to his environment, the tale falls into the mode of high mimetic. 
He also divided fictions into the fields of comedy, romance, tragedy, and irony. In this division, the essential component of romance is adventure, and the central theme is the hero's rescue of a princess from a dragon. 
Romance as a fictive mode: Romance may or may not be realistic depending on the story and its events.