Coinage came late to the Roman Republic compared with the rest of the Mediterranean, especially Greece and Asia Minor where coins were invented in the 7th century BC. Numismatics (numisma nomisma "coin" from the νομίζειν nomízein, "to use according to law" is the study or collection of Currency This article is a collection of concise Numismatic and Coin collecting terms for the beginner or professional A currency is a unit of exchange, facilitating the transfer of Goods and/or services It is one form of Money, where money is main - title Coin keywords numismatics coin review A banknote (often known as a bill, paper money or simply a note) is a kind of Negotiable instrument, a Promissory note made by a Wikipedia talkFeatured lists for an explanation of this and other inclusion tags below -->This list of circulating currencies contains the 182 current In Economics, a local currency, in its common usage is a Currency not backed by a national government (and not necessarily Legal tender) and intended Company scrip is Currency issued in certain industries to pay Workers Such Scrip can only be exchanged by Wage -earners in company stores Local Exchange Trading Systems (LETS also known as LETSystems are local non-profit exchange networks in which goods and services can be traded without the need for printed In Economics, a time-based currency is an Alternative currency where the unit of exchange is the Person-hour. Fictional currency is Currency in works of Fiction. It is often invented bearing little or no resemblance to any modern or historic currency A mint is an industrial facility which manufactures Coins for Currency. Coining is a form of precision stamping in which a workpiece is subjected to a sufficiently high stress to induce plastic flow on the surface of the material In Numismatics, the term milled coinage (also known as machine-struck coinage) is used to describe coins which are produced by some form of machine rather than by Hammered coinage describes the most common form of coins produced since the invention of Coins in the first millennium BC until the early modern period of ca Cast coinage refers to Coins made by pouring melted metal into a mold i Exonumia is the study of Coin -like objects such as Token coins and Medals and other items used in place of legal currency or for commemoration A credit card is part of a system of Payments named after the small Plastic card issued to users of the system A medal is usually a Coin -like sculpted object of metal or other material that has been engraved with an Insignia, Portrait or other artistic rendering In the study of Numismatics, token coins or tokens are coin-like objects used instead of Coins The field of tokens is part of Exonumia. Notaphily is the study of paper Money or Banknotes A notaphilist is a collector of banknotes paper money paper currency or plastic notes A banknote (often known as a bill, paper money or simply a note) is a kind of Negotiable instrument, a Promissory note made by a Scripophily is the study and collection of Stocks and bonds A specialized field of Numismatics, scripophily is an interesting area of collecting due to both Software for Fixed assets management and Stock control developed in 2004. In Finance, a bond is a Debt security, in which the authorized issuer owes the holders a debt and is obliged to repay the principal and Interest main - title Coin keywords numismatics coin review The Roman Republic was the phase of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by a Republican form of government a period which began with the overthrow of the The history of Ancient Greek coinage can be divided (along with most other Greek art forms into three periods the Archaic the Classical and the Hellenistic The currency of central Italy was influenced by its natural resources, with bronze ore being abundant (the Etruscans were famous metal workers in bronze and iron) and silver ore being scarce. A currency is a unit of exchange, facilitating the transfer of Goods and/or services It is one form of Money, where money is Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Bronze is any of a broad range of Copper alloys, usually with Tin as the main additive but sometimes with other elements such as Phosphorus Etruscan civilization is the modern English name given to the culture and way of life of a people of ancient Italy Silver (ˈsɪlvɚ is a Chemical element with the symbol " Ag " (argentum from the Ancient Greek: ἀργήντος - argēntos gen The coinage of the Roman Republic started with a few silver coins apparently devised for trade with the Greek colonies in Southern Italy, and heavy cast bronze pieces for use in Central Italy.
During the Second Punic war a flexible system of coins in bronze, silver and (occasionally) gold was created. The Punic Wars were a series of three wars fought between Rome and Carthage between 264 and 146 BC and were probably the largest wars yet of the ancient This system was dominated by the silver denarius, a denomination which remained in circulation for 450 years. The Roman Currency system included the denarius (plural denarii) after 211 BC a small Silver coin, The coins of the republic (especially the denarii) are of particular interest because they were produced by "mint magistrates", junior officials who choose the designs and legends. This resulted in the production of coins advertising the official's families for political purposes; many of the messages on these coins can still be understood today.
Before the introduction of coinage in Italy the two important forms of value in the economy were cattle (pecus), from which the Latin word for money (pecunia) is derived, and irregularly-shaped pieces of bronze known as aes rude (rough bronze) which needed to be weighed for each transaction. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Aes rude ( Latin, "rough bronze" was an Ingot of Bronze used as a sort of proto- Currency in ancient Italy during the gradual transition It is unclear when money became commonly used, but Roman tradition recorded that pay of the army began during the siege of Veii in 406 B. C. and it appears that Aes rude was the currency well before this. Toward the end of the 4th century BC bronze began to be cast in flat bars which are known today, without any historical authority, as aes signatum (signed bronze). The 4th century BC started the first day of 400 BC and ended the last day of 301 BC. Casting is a manufacturing process by which a liquid material is (usually poured into a mold which Aes Signatum were cast lumps of Bronze of measured quality and weight embossed with a government stamp used as Currency in Rome and central Italy before These bars were heavily leaded, of varying weights although generally on the order of five Roman pounds, and usually had a design on one and later both sides. The ancient Roman units of measurement were built on the Hellenic system with Egyptian, Hebrew, and Mesopotamian influences The actual function of aes signatum has been variously interpreted; although a form of currency they were not coins since they did not adhere to a weight standard. Rome produced its own aes signatum around 300 BC which are distinguished by the inscription "ROMANOM" (of the Romans) and production continued to about the end of the first Punic war in 240 BC, overlapping some of the developments described below.
|O: Bearded head of Janus, I horizontally below; on a raised disk.||R: Prow of galley right; I above; all on a raised disk.|
|Anonymous Æ Aes Grave As (259. 53 g). c240-225 BC. Crawford 35/1|
According to the Pomponius, a lawyer who lived during the second century AD, the position of tresviri monetalis was established in 289 BC, signing coins with "III. A moneyer is someone who physically creates Money. Moneyers have a long tradition dating back at least to Ancient Greece. Events By place Sicily The Tyrant of Syracuse, Agathocles, dies after restoring the Syracusan democracy on his death VIR. AAAFF" = "triumviri aere argento auro flando feriundo" = "the three are responsible for melting and striking bronze, silver and gold". According to Suidas, the mint was located in the temple of Juno Moneta on the Capitoline Hill. The Suda or Souda ( also, Suidas) is a massive 10th century Byzantine Greek historical encyclopedia of the ancient Mediterranean A mint is an industrial facility which manufactures Coins for Currency. The Capitoline Hill, between the Forum and the Campus Martius, is one of the seven hills of Rome. By this time Rome was familiar with coinage, as it had been introduced to Italy in the Greek colonies of Metapontum, Croton, and Sybaris before 500 B. C. and Neapolis ca 450 B. C.  Rome had conquered a large portion of central Italy, giving it large quantities of bronze, but little silver.
A system of heavy cast leaded bronze coinage was introduced; these issues are known as aes grave (heavy bronze) by numismatists. Aes grave (heavy bronze is a numismatical term indicating bronze cast coins used in central Italy during the 4th and 5th centuries BC Stylistically the coins were distinctly Roman and, due to both their size and their being cast rather than struck, crude compared to the coinage elsewhere around the Mediterranean at the time. The standard coin was the as; the word as referred to a coin and also to a unit of weight - in fact, as could also mean any unit - of length, area, and sometimes just the number one. 
The bronze coinage was initially a fiduciary currency rather than a token currency, based on the "libral" standard where the as weighed one Roman pound (libra) with fractions in units of Roman ounces (unciae), with 12 unciae in a libra. The terms fiat currency and fiat money relate to types of currency or Money whose usefulness results not from any intrinsic value or guarantee that it can be Libral is the adjective for Libra, the Roman unit of weight. The word libral often appears in discussions of ancient coinage in Italy especially The ancient Roman units of measurement were built on the Hellenic system with Egyptian, Hebrew, and Mesopotamian influences The ancient Roman units of measurement were built on the Hellenic system with Egyptian, Hebrew, and Mesopotamian influences The "uncia" was thus also both a weight and a coin of the weight. This changed when the weight of the aes grave was decreased to approximately 10 unciae ca 270 BC (the "light libral standard", remaining at that level until 225 BC, then suddenly to 5 unciae (the "semi-libral standard") ca. Libral is the adjective for Libra, the Roman unit of weight. The word libral often appears in discussions of ancient coinage in Italy especially the start of the second Punic war in 218 BC, finally falling to 1. 5 - 1 unciae around 211 BC. 
In addition to the as and its fractions, multiples of the as were also produced. Fractions were much more common than asses and their multiples during the period of aes grave.  By the time of the semi-libral standard, the smaller denominations such as the uncia and semuncia were struck rather than cast. Libral is the adjective for Libra, the Roman unit of weight. The word libral often appears in discussions of ancient coinage in Italy especially A variety of less common denominations were minted over time; those found in Crawford (1974) are listed here.
|Bronze Denominations in Crawford (1974)|
|Coin||Mark||Earliest Example||Date||Value (Asses)||Value (Unciae)|
|Decussis||X||Cr41/1||215-212 B. C.||10||120|
|Quincussis||V||Cr41/2||215-212 B. C.||5||60|
|Tressis||III||Cr41/3||215-212 B. C.||3||36|
|Dupondius||II||Cr41/4||215-212 B. The dupondius ( Latin two-pounder) was a Brass Coin used during the Roman Empire and Roman Republic valued at 2 asses C.||2||24|
|As||I||C14/1||280-276 B. C.||1||12|
|Dextans||S****||Cr97/23||211-208 B. C.||5/6||10|
|Dodrans||S***||Cr266/2||126 B. The dodrans was an Ancient Roman Bronze Coin produced during the Roman Republic. C.||3/4||9|
|Bes||S**||Cr266/3||126 B. The bes was an Ancient Roman Bronze Coin produced during the Roman Republic. C.||2/3||8|
|Semis||S||Cr14/2||280-276 B. The semis (literally meaning half was small Roman Bronze Coin that was valued at half an as. C.||1/2||6|
|Quincunx||*****||Cr97/11||211-208 B. For Sir Francis Galton 's machine for demonstrating the Normal distribution named "quincunx" see Bean machine. C.||5/12||5|
|Triens||****||Cr14/3||280-276 B. The triens (plural trientes) was an Ancient Roman Bronze Coin produced during the Roman Republic valued at one-third of an as C.||1/3||4|
|Quadrans||***||Cr14/4||280-276 B. The quadrans (literally meaning "a quarter" was a low-value Roman Bronze Coin worth one fourth of an as. C.||1/4||3|
|Sextans||**||Cr14/5||280-276 B. The sextans was an Ancient Roman Bronze Coin produced during the Roman Republic valued at one-sixth of an as (2 unciae) C.||1/6||2|
|Uncia||*||Cr14/6||280-276 B. The uncia, a Latin word used for a twelfth of anything was a unit of length (equivalent to an inch one-twelfth of a pes or foot and of weight (equivalent to an ounce one-twelfth C.||1/12||1|
|Semuncia||Σ||Cr14/7||280-276 B. The semuncia ( Latin half-ounce) was an ancient Roman Bronze coin valued at one-twenty-fourth of an as produced during the Roman C.||1/24||1/2|
|Quartuncia||Cr38/8||217-215 B. C.||1/48||1/4|
Greek-style struck bronze coins were produced in small quantity with the inscription ΡΩΜΑΙΩΝ around 300 BC. Only a handful of examples exist today. They are believed to have been produced on behalf of Rome by Neapolis, based on the similar style and weight with Neapolis' own coinage, and used to facilitate trade in the wake of the construction of the Appian Way, started in 312 B. This article is about the history of the Italian city of Naples. The Appian Way ( Latin and Italian: Via Appia) was the most important ancient Roman road. C.
|O: Bearded head of Mars with Corinthian helmet left.||R: Horse head right, grain ear behind.|
|The first Roman silver coin, 281 BC. Crawford 13/1|
Rome entered into a war against Tarentum in 281 B. The history of Taranto dates back to the 8th century BC when it was founded as a Greek colony C. ; the Tarentines enlisted the support of Pyrrhus of Epirus. Pyrrhus (318-272 BC ( Greek: Πύρρος Aιακιδης Pyrros Aiakides was one of the most successful ancient Greek generals of the Hellenistic It was in this context that Rome produced its first Greek-style silver didrachm (Crawford 13/1) with the head of Mars wearing a Corinthian helmet on one side and the head of a horse with the inscription ROMANO (worn off on the example shown) and a grain ear behind. Drachma, pl drachmas or drachmae (δραχμή pl δραχμές or δραχμαί (until 1982 is the name of An ancient currency unit found in many Originated in Ancient Greece and taking its name from the area of Corinth, the Corinthian helmet (Ancient Greek κόρυς κορινθίη This coinage may have predated the aes grave discussed above, but was minted and used largely in Magna Graecia and Campania. Campania is a region of Southern Italy in Europe. The region has a population of around 5 It was clearly part of a broader trend; payment of Roman and allied troops fighting in the Pyrrhic war appears to have been crucial in spreading the use of Greek-style coinage throughout the southern Apennine areas of Italy.  This issue is today thought to have been minted in Neapolis because it was minted on that weight standard (7. 3 g), not that of Metapontum, Tarentum, and other South Italian cities (which was 7. Metapontum or Metapontium ( Greek:: Thuc Strab and all Greek writers have this form the Latins almost universally Metapontum was an important city 9 g at the start of the war but fell to 6. 6 g during its course).  This issue was thought earlier to have been minted in Metapontum because the grain-ear is the most common type on Metapontine coins and the Mars head is very similar to the head of Leucippus (a local hero, the Messenian king who re-founded Metapontum, not the philosopher) on an earlier coin produced there. Leucippus or Leukippos ( Greek, first half of 5th century BC was among the earliest philosophers of Atomism, the idea that everything is composed entirely 
|O: Diademed head Hercules right, club on shoulder.||R: Wolf suckling twins, ROMANO in. ex.|
|The first Roman silver coin minted at Rome, 269 BC. Crawford 20/1|
A number of different coins were minted in increasing volumes over the next few years, but the first silver coin now thought to have been minted in Rome itself is the Hercules/She-wolf didrachm (Crawford 20/1). The date of this issue is likely 269 BC, as the devices on this coin refer to that year's consuls Q. Consul (abbrev cos; Latin plural consules) was the highest elected office of the Roman Republic and an appointive office under the Empire Ogulnius L. f A. n. Gallus and C. Fabius C. f. M. n. Pictor. Hercules, shown on the obverse with the lion skin tied around is neck and his club (shown undersized above his shoulder), was the divine patron of the Fabii. For other people places and things named Fabius see Fabius (disambiguation.  Quintus and his brother Cnaeus Ogulnius had, as curule aediles, prosecuted moneylenders; part of the proceeds were used to set up near the Ficus Ruminalis a statue of Romulus and Remus being suckled by the she-wolf as shown on the reverse. Aedile ( Aedilis, from aedes aedis "temple" "building" was an office of the Roman Republic. The Ficus Ruminalis was a wild Fig tree on the Palatine Hill in ancient Rome near the Lupercal on the Palatine. Romulus (c 771 BC– c 717 BC and Remus (c 771 BC–c 753 BC are the traditional founders of Rome, appearing in Roman mythology  Some historians believe that these coins were valued at 10 asses making them denarii, this assertion is based on the account of Pliny in the 1st century AD, where he states that the denarius was introduced in 269 BC. Most historians today, however, do not see this as a denarius, but another didrachm.
This last and most other Roman coins were produced in small numbers until the introduction of the didrachm we refer to as the quadrigatus. The quadrigatus was a medium-sized silver coin produced by the Roman Republic during the 3rd century BC The quadrigatus, produced in large quantity starting around 235 BC, was named after the reverse image of Victory driving a quadriga and was produced for about 2 decades, becoming more and more debased (to as little as 30% silver) during the second Punic war. SpecialContributions/ --> A quadriga ( Latin quadri-, four and jungere, to yoke is a car
|O: Head Roma Right. IIS||R: Caped Dioscuri riding right with couched lances, stars above.|
|Sestertius, Anonymous, Rome, 211 BC. Crawford 44/7|
The denarius, which became the main silver coin of Rome for over four centuries, was introduced in 211 BC and produced in enormous quantity from the silver captured in the sack of Syracuse the year before. The Roman Currency system included the denarius (plural denarii) after 211 BC a small Silver coin, Events By place Seleucid Empire Antiochus III's sister arranges for the removal of Armenia 's king Xerxes, whom she The denarius (Crawford 44/5), valued at 10 asses as indicated by the mark X and weighing about 4. 5 grams (72 to a Roman pound), was introduced as part of a complex multi-metallic coinage. Also in silver was the half denarius, the quinarius (Crawford 44/6, marked V), and the quarter denarius, the sestertius (Crawford 44/7, marked IIS and shown on the left), all bearing a head of Roma on the obverse and a reverse of the dioscuri riding with their capes behind (a reference to their supposed assistance to Rome at the battle of Lake Regillus). The quinarius was a small Roman coin silver Coin valued at half a Denarius. The sestertius, or sesterce, was an ancient Roman Coin. During the Roman Republic it was a small Silver, and rare coin issued For the stars see Castor (star and Pollux (star, for the sculptural group in the Prado Museum, see Castor and Pollux (Prado, and for The Battle of Lake Regillus was a legendary early Roman victory won over either the Etruscans or the Latin League.
Bronze asses and their fractions (all now struck rather than cast) continued to be produced to a standard of about 55 grams; this was very quickly reduced to a sextantal standard and finally an uncial standard of roughly 32 gms. By this time, asses outnumbered their fractions, perhaps because legionary pay was increased to the point where the as could become the principle component. 
In gold, there were three pieces worth 60 asses (Crawford 44/2, marked ↓X), 40 asses (Crawford 44/3, marked XXXX) and 20 asses (Crawford 44/4, marked XX). All featured Mars' head on the obverse and an eagle with outspread wings standing on a thunderbolt on the reverse.  The eagle is somewhat reminiscent of the eagle that had consistently been a symbol on Ptolemaic coinage since the very beginning of the century, and it has been suggested that Ptolemy IV Philopator may have provided gold for this issue to act as a counterweight to the involvement of Philip V of Macedon on the side of Carthage. Ptolemy IV Philopator ( Greek:, Ptolemaĩos Philopátōr, reigned 221-205 BC son of Ptolemy III and Berenice II of Egypt was Philip V ( Greek Φίλιππος Ε΄) (238 BC - 179 BC was King of Macedon from 221 BC to 179 BC Carthage (Καρχηδών Karkhēdōn, Carthago from the Phoenician קרת חדשת phn-Latn Qart-ḥadašt meaning new town) refers 
The victoriatus, another silver coin (Crawford 44/1), was also introduced in large quantity at the same time. The victoriatus was a Silver coin issued during the Roman Republic from about 221 BC to 170 BC It seems to have been quite separate from the denarius system proper as X-ray fluorescence spectrometry has shown that these were produced to entirely different standards. While an analysis of 52 early denarii, quinarii, and sestertii showed a silver concentration of 96. 2 ± 1. 09%, 19 victoriati from the same period have highly variable fineness ranging from 72 to 93%.  Early finds of victoriati are primarily in Southern Italy and Sicily and it is thought that the victoriati with a weight of 3/4 of a denarius were used to pay non-citizens with experience of the Greek coinage system in the drachm format to which they were accustomed but with debased/overvalued coins. The quadrigatus didrachm, which had been retariffed to 15 asses (1. 5 denarii), was removed from circulation almost immediately.
Over the next 40 years, the denarius slowly lost weight. The reason for this is unclear, but in the early days it may have been the ongoing pressure of the Second Punic War. Afterwards the Roman state had a debt equivalent to 25 years direct taxation on Roman citizens (~1 million denarii); these were not fully repaid until Cn Manlius Vulso returned with the spoils of Asia after the Treaty of Apamea, (188 B. The Treaty of Apamea of 188 BC, was Peace treaty between the Roman Republic and Antiochus III (the Great ruler of the Seleucid Empire C. ).  The weight was officially changed from 72 to the pound (6 scruples) to 84 to the pound at that time; it remained relatively stable thereafter. 
|O: ANT AVG III VIR R P C, galley right.||R: LEG III, aquila and two legionary standards.|
|Legionary denarius of Mark Anthony, 32 BC. Crawford 544/15|
|211||4. 5 g|
|206||4. 2 g|
|190-199||3. 9 g|
|170-179||3. 7 g|
The silver content during republican times remained well above 90%, usually above 95% with the exception of Marcus Antonius's later coinage, especially the massive "legionary" issue of coinage of 32-31 B. Marcus Antonius (in Latin: M·ANTONIVS·M·F·M·N ( c January 14 83 BC&ndash August 1, 30 BC known in English as Mark C. just prior to the Battle of Actium (an example is shown on the right), rumored to be silver from Egypt provided by Cleopatra. The Battle of Actium was the decisive engagement in the Final War of the Roman Republic between the forces of Octavian and the combined forces of Mark Antony Cleopatra VII Philopator (in Greek, Κλεοπάτρα Φιλοπάτωρ; January 69 BC &ndash 30 BC was a Hellenistic ruler of Egypt 
|Obverse, Crawford 224/1, 141 B. C.||Obverse, Crawford 243/1, 134 B. C.|
|Two denarius obverses showing alternate indications they were worth 16 asses.|
By about 140 BC (the exact date is unclear) the denarius was retariffed to 16 asses, indicated by XVI on the obverse of the denarius. This appears first on the coinage marked L. IVLI (Crawford 224/1), commonly dated to 141 BC. The clear marking with the number XVI was soon again replaced with an X, but often now with a horizontal bar through the centre as shown in the second example on the left (Crawford 243/1); this is often read as a monogram of XVI with all the letters superimposed. The re-tariffing is thought to have been a recognition of a relationship that had developed because of decreased as weights, both due to wear of old asses and to decreasing mint weights of newer ones. This meant that the quinarius was worth eight asses, and the sestertius four asses. The new denarius-to-as ratio lasted for hundreds of years. At about the same time the unit of account changed from asses to sestertii (HS). A unit of account is a standard monetary unit of measurement of the market value/cost of goods services or assets This may well be an indicator of inflation. 
The victoriatus continued to circulate well into the 2nd century BC. Victoriati were later popular in places such as Cisalpine Gaul where they circulated alongside drachmae of Massalia (Marseille). Marseille, ( English alt Marseilles mɑrˈseɪ — French: maʁsɛj locally — Provençal Occitan: Marselha maʀˈsijɔ
The gold 60, 40, and 20 as coins were only minted for only a few years; gold in general appears to have been used only as an emergency coinage. Gold coins reappeared in 82 B. C. when Sulla was gathering funds for the war against Mithridates VI of Pontus immediately after the financial strains of the Social war. Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix ( Latin: L•CORNELIVS•L•F•P•N•SVLLA•FELIX (c See Mithridates for people and concepts with the same name Mithridates VI (Μιθριδάτης 132&ndash63 BC also known as Mithridates This article is about the conflict between Rome and her Italian allies between 91 and 88 BC For the Athenian conflict with its allies between 357 and 355 BC see Those coins are commonly considered the first aureus. The aureus (pl aurei) was a Gold coin of Ancient Rome valued at 25 silver denarii. Aureii were minted in large numbers by Julius Caesar in preparation for a proposed war against the Parthia and usage of the aureus continued to increase after the fall of the republic. Parthia ( Middle Persian: اشکانیان Ashkâniân) was an Iranian civilization situated in the northeastern part of modern Iran
Eventually a new reverse appeared, first Luna driving a biga (two horse chariot) in 194-190 B. In Greek mythology, Selene (Σελήνη " Moon " English sɛˈliːniː was an archaic Lunar deity and the daughter of the Titans C. , and then Victory driving a biga in 157 B. In Roman mythology, Victoria was the personification/Goddess of victory C. - thought to refer to the final defeat of Perseus of Macedon at the battle of Pydna by Lucius Aemilius Paulus in 168 B. Perseus ( Greek Περσεύς) (ca 212 BC - 166 BC) was the last king ( Basileus) of the Antigonid dynasty Macedon or Macedonia ( Greek grc Μακεδονία grc-Latn Makedonía) was the name of a kingdom centered in the northern-most The Battle of Pydna in 168 BC between Rome and the Macedonian Antigonid dynasty represents the ascendancy of Rome in the Hellenic / Lucius Aemilius Paulus Macedonicus (229 BC-160 BC was a Roman general and politician C.  These Victory "bigati" became the most common type of denarius. Denarii were marked with special symbols (such as a star or an anchor) from very shortly after their introduction and soon monograms indicating the tresviri monetales (mint masters, often called moneyers, that were responsible for the issue) were on the coins. In some cases the symbols are "punning". The example reverse shown to the left (Crawford 187/1 showing Luna driving a biga) is one such; a shell symbol appears above the horses along with the letters "PVR" below. The shell is thought to be a murex shell; this was the source of Tyrian purple (in Latin: purpureo) and this, along with the letters, is thought to refer to a Furius Purpureo. Murex is a Genus of medium to large sized Predatory tropical sea Snails These are carnivorous marine Gastropod  This type of reference to the moneyers became more and more explicit, and eventually developed into self-advertising to further the political career of the moneyers.
Families who had already had members in the Senate were more likely to have further family members elected to political office (and thus become senators). This was so much more likely that only a few consular novi homines (new men) are known to history. Novus homo (or homo novus, Latin for "new man" plural novi homines) was the term in Ancient Rome for a Advertising on coins was thus often about the moneyer's family. In the coin reverse shown on the right (Crawford 268/1b), the legend around the outside indicates that moneyer was N. Fabius Pictor. The seated individual is wearing a cuirass, holding a spear in his left hand and an apex, the characteristic hat worn by the flamines, in his right. Cuirass ( French cuirasse, Latin coriaceus, made of leather from corium, the original breastplate being of Leather) the A flamen was a name given to a Priest assigned to a state-supported god or goddess in Roman religion. At his side there is a shield enscribed QUIRIN. This is taken to refer to Q. Fabius Pictor (probably the son of Quintus Fabius Pictor the annalist) who was elected praetor in 189 B. Quintus Fabius Pictor (c 254 BC -? was one of the earliest Roman Historians and considered the first of the Annalists. Annalists (from Latin annus, year hence annales, sc libri, annual records is the name given to a class of writers on Roman history Praetor was a title granted by the government of Ancient Rome to men acting in one of two official capacities the commander of an Army, either before C. and assigned the province of Sardinia by lot (Livy 37. 50. 8). He was also the flamen Quirinalis and because of this, P. A flamen was a name given to a Priest assigned to a state-supported god or goddess in Roman religion. Licinius Crassus, the pontifex maximus of the day did not allow him to take the Sardinian office because of various taboos surrounding the flamen's person, and the need for the flamen to perform certain rites in Rome (Livy 37. The Pontifex Maximus was the high priest of the Ancient Roman College of Pontiffs. 51. 3-7).  The Sardinian praetorship was exchanged for both the urban and peregrine praetorships, and N. Fabius Pictor remained in Rome.  The entire incident was part of the political manoeuvering of Scipio Africanus against his attackers, which included the Fabii. Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus Major ( Latin: P·CORNELIVS·P·F·L·N·SCIPIO·AFRICANVS ¹) (236&ndash183 
|O: Head Lucius Junius Brutus right, BRVTVS. Lucius Junius Brutus (or Lucius Iunius Brutus) was the founder of the Roman Republic and traditionally one of the first Consuls in 509 BC||R: Head Gaius Servilius Ahala right, AHALA. For others with this name see Ahala. Gaius Servilius Structus Ahala was a 5th century politician of Ancient Rome, considered by many|
|Denarius of Marcus Junius Brutus celebrating his ancestors, 54 BC. Marcus Junius Brutus (85&ndash42 BC or Quintus Servilius Caepio Brutus was a Roman senator of the late Roman Republic. Crawford 433/2|
Over time, the politics of the day became more and more visible in the coinage. In 54 B. C. , the first triumvirate had control of Rome, and Pompey was its preeminent member. See also the First Triumvirate (Argentina which came to power in 1811 Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, commonly known as Pompey /'pɑmpi/ Pompey the Great or Pompey the Triumvir ( Classical Latin abbreviation There were rumours that Pompey was to be made dictator. A dictator is an Authoritarian ruler (eg Absolutist or autocratic) who assumes sole and absolute power without hereditary ascension such as an Absolute In this context, the coin on the left (Crawford 433/2) was a powerful political message. The moneyer, Marcus Junius Brutus, placed on the coin two figures from Roman history that he claimed as ancestors:
In the face of famine in 57 B. C. Pompey had been made a special commissioner to control the supply of grain; this included the control of all ports and trading centres for five years. There was earlier bad blood between them; Pompey had put down an earlier insurrection by Marcus Aurelius Lepidus in which Brutus's father had been involved; Pompey had had him executed. Marcus Aemilius Lepidus (120 BC &ndash 77 BC was a Roman statesman It was the opposition of Cato the Younger, Brutus's half brother on his adopted family's side, to Pompey's requests for land for his veterans of the war against Mithradates that gave Pompey the incentive to be part of the triumvirate. Marcus Porcius Catō Uticensis (95 BC&ndash46 BC known as Cato the Younger ( Cato Minor) to distinguish him from his great-grandfather ( Cato the Elder M. Brutus was clearly making a pointed, uncompromising statement of opposition to Pompey and the triumvirate while praising his ancestors. 
|O: Head Caesar right, CAESAR. IM P M||R: Venus standing holding Victory in right hand and sceptre in left. L. AEMILIVS BVC.|
|Denarius minted in the name of Caesar by L. Aemilius Buca 44 BC. Crawford 480/4|
In 44 B. C. , Julius Caesar was preparing for war with Parthia to avenge the defeat inflicted by the Parthians on Crassus at the Battle of Carrhae. Parthia ( Middle Persian: اشکانیان Ashkâniân) was an Iranian civilization situated in the northeastern part of modern Iran Marcus Licinius Crassus ( Latin: M·LICINIVS·P·F·P·N·CRASSVS (ca The Battle of Carrhae in 53 BC was a decisive victory for the Parthian Spahbod Surena over the Roman general Crassus near To this end, an enormous variety of denarii and aureii were being minted in large numbers. The coin on the right is from January-February 44 B. C. The Venus holding Victory and a sceptre on the reverse was a reference to the claim of the gens Julia to descend from Aeneas and thus Anchises and the goddess Venus. Julius (fem Julia) is the Nomen of the gens Julia, an important Patrician family of Ancient Rome supposed to have descended from This article is about the Roman hero For other uses see Aeneas (disambiguation. In Greek mythology, Anchises was a son of Capys and Themiste (daughter of Ilus son of Tros or Hieromneme, a Naiad. Venus was a major Roman Goddess principally associated with Love, Beauty and fertility, the equivalent of the Greek goddess This was innocuous to Romans, but the obverse showing Caesar himself wearing the gold laurel wreath that the Senate had voted for him was an enormous departure from tradition and deeply offensive. While the coinage had been used to show ancestors, this is the first time that the head of a living Roman had been displayed on Roman coinage. It was widely perceived as part of a larger series of moves by Caesar to make himself king - and kings were anathema in Rome ever since the foundation of the republic. Other coins minted at the same time bore the text "DICT QVART", indicating that Caesar had been dictator for four years running. A later version (Crawford 480/10, February-March 1944) showed "DICT PERPET"; Caesar had been made dictator for life.  He was assassinated, by Brutus among others, on the Ides of March, 44 B. The Ides of March ( Latin: Idus Martiae is the name of the date 15 March in the Roman calendar. C.
|Head Brutus Right. BRVT IMP, L. PLAET. CEST||Two daggers flanking pileus. EID. MAR|
|Modern forgery of denarius of L. Plaetorius Cestianus celebrating Brutus and his action on the Ides of March. 43-42 BC. Crawford 508/3|
The assassination could not revive the republic. Two years later, just prior to the Battle of Philippi, Brutus produced a coin (Crawford 508/3, modern forgery shown to the left) celebrating the freeing of the republic from Caesar's tyranny. The Battle of Philippi was the final battle in the Wars of the Second Triumvirate between the forces of Mark Antony and Octavian (the Second Triumvirate The reverse showed two daggers flanking a pileus (a cap used in the ceremony freeing slaves) and the legend "EID MAR". On the obverse, Brutus, the "noblest Roman", had placed his own head. The republic survived, by convention more than reality, until Octavian, Caesar's nephew and heir was declared Augustus in 27 B. Augustus ( Latin: IMPERATOR·CAESAR·DIVI·FILIVS·AVGVSTVS September 23 63 BC – August 19 AD 14) born Gaius Octavius Thurinus, was C.
The dates on all the coins mentioned above can not be known with absolute certainty. Sometimes particular coins can be linked to a well defined event in history, eg. the "dict perpet" denarii of Caesar can be dated very closely to his assassination, but this is rarely the case. Much dating of the coinage is based on evidence from coin hoards. The hoarding of coins, especially by burial, was a "banking system" often used in ancient times, particularly in times of crisis; hoarding during the civil war between Caesar and Pompey was so extensive that it resulted in a liquidity crisis.  Hoards can present evidence in several ways
Despite all of this, the evidence remains unclear. In this case, numismatic scholars attempt to make their best estimate of the absolute and relative chronology. In English, the current standard work is Crawford 1974 which built on and superseded the work of Sydenham 1952, Grueber 1910, Babelon 1886, and Mommsen 1850.  The chronology used by this article and the identification of coins by the label Crawford xx/yy (or Crxx/yy) identifies a particular item in that catalogue. There is however newer evidence, particularly in the period 170-149 B. C. , where analysis of the recently discovered Mesagne hoard has led to the alternate chronologies of Hersh & Walker 1984, and Harlan 1995. An alternate naming of the coinage of the form "gens ##" (eg. "Fabia 11" for the 11th coin minted by a moneyer of the gens Fabia; ie. Cr268/1) is also sometimes still used. This was devised by Babelon and used by Grueber, Sydenham, and many newer books.