|Flag of the Roma people|
15 million or more
|Regions with significant populations|
|Romany, languages of native region|
|Romanipen, combined with assimilations from local religions|
|Related ethnic groups|
|South Asians (Desi)|
The Roma (as a noun, singular Rom, plural Roma; sometimes Rrom, Rroma, Rromany people, Romany people, Romani people or Romanies) belong to many ethnic groups that appear in literature and folklore, and are often referred to as Gypsies or Gipsies. Gypsy (sometimes spelled Gipsy, Gipsey) is a word used to name as a Blanket term, various unrelated ethnic groups or persons fitting the Gypsy Stereotypes The Roma have their origins in India. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country 
The Roma are still thought of as wandering nomads in the popular imagination, despite the fact that today the vast majority live in permanent housing. Nomadic people, (from the νομάδες nomádes, "those who let pasture herds" also known as nomads, are communities of people that  This widely dispersed ethnic group lives across the world not only near Southern and Eastern Europe, but also in the Americas and the Middle East. The term Southern Europe can have four definitions geographical political climatic phytogeographic Eastern Europe is a general term that refers to the Geopolitical region encompassing the easternmost part of the European continent. The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the Continents of North America and South America The Middle East is a Subcontinent with no clear boundaries often used as a synonym to Near East, in opposition to Far East.
Worldwide there is an estimated population of at least 15 million Roma. The official number of Roma people is disputed in many countries.  Because many Roma often refuse to register their ethnic identity in official censuses for fear of discrimination, unofficial estimates are undertaken in efforts to reveal their true numbers. The largest population of Roma is found in the Balkan peninsula; significant numbers also live in the Americas, the former Soviet Union, Western Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa. The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the Continents of North America and South America The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 Western Europe at its most general meaning means 'all the countries in the West of Europe '
The Roma recognize divisions among themselves based in part on territorial, cultural and dialectal differences. A dialect (from the Greek word διάλεκτος dialektos) is a variety of a Language that is characteristic of a particular group of Some authorities recognize five main groups:
Some groups, like the Finnish Roma population (Kaalee) and the Norwegian and Swedish Travellers, are hard to categorize. Finland, officially the Republic of Finland ( is a Nordic country situated in the Fennoscandian region of northern Europe. The Norwegian and Swedish Travellers (romanifolket resande are a group or branch of the Roma people (also known as "Gypsies" in Norway and Sweden Each of these main divisions may be further divided into two or more subgroups distinguished by occupational specialization, territorial origin, or both. Some of these group names are Bashaldé; Churari; Luri; Ungaritza; Lovari (Lovara) from Hungary; Lyuli (Jughi, Multani, Luli, Mug(h)at) from Central Asia; Machvaya (Machavaya, Machwaya, or Macwaia) from Serbia; Romungro (Modyar or Modgar) from Hungary and neighbouring carpathian countries; Xoraxai (Horahane) from Greece/Turkey; Boyash (Lingurari, Ludar, Ludari, Rudari, or Zlătari) from Romanian/Moldovan miners; Ursari from Romanian/Moldovan bear-trainers; Argintari from silversmiths; Aurari from goldsmiths; Florari from florists;, and Lăutari from singers. Lovari can mean Lovari (Roma, a subgroup of the Roma people Lovari (person, a dance recording artist & actor Lovari is a subgroup of the Romani people, who speak their own dialect influenced by Hungarian. Hungary (Magyarország 'mɔɟɔrorsaːg) officially in English the Republic of Hungary ( Magyar Köztársaság, literally Magyar (Hungarian Republic Lyuli or Luli are a South Asian Desi people living in Central Asia, primarily Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan Central Asia is a region of Asia from the Caspian Sea in the west to central China in the east and from southern Russia in the north to northern Pakistan in the south The Machvaya (also Machavaya) are a group of Roma originating specifically from Serbia (from Mačva) The Machvaya (also Machavaya) are a group of Roma originating specifically from Serbia (from Mačva) Serbia (Србија Srbija) officially the Republic of Serbia (Република Србија Republika Srbija) is a Landlocked Country North Central Romany or North Central Romany, dated Carpathian Romany or Romungro (or "Hungarian Roma" "Rom"+"Ungro" is Hungary (Magyarország 'mɔɟɔrorsaːg) officially in English the Republic of Hungary ( Magyar Köztársaság, literally Magyar (Hungarian Republic The Carpathian Mountains or Carpathians (Carpaţi Czech, Polish and Slovak: Karpaty; Ukrainian: Карпати Greece (Ελλάδα transliterated: Elláda, historically, Ellás,) officially the Hellenic Republic (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches Boyash (or Bayash; Romanian: Băeşi, Hungarian: Beás, Slovak: Bojáš, South Slavic: Bojaši Romania ( dated: Rumania, Roumania Moldova, officially the Republic of Moldova ( Republica Moldova) is a Landlocked country in Eastern Europe, located between Romania Mining is the extraction of valuable Minerals or other geological materials from the earth usually (but not always from an Ore body The Ursari (generally read as "bear leaders" or "bear handlers" from the Romanian urs, meaning "bear" singular ursar; Animal training refers to Teaching Animals specific responses to specific conditions or stimuli. A silversmith is a person who works primarily making objects in solid Silver; historically the training and guild organization of Goldsmiths included silversmiths A goldsmith is a Metalworker who specializes in working with Gold and other Precious metals usually in modern times to make Jewelry. Floristry is the general term used to describe the professional floral trade The Romanian word Lăutar denotes a class of traditional music singers
The absence of a written history has meant that the origin and early history of the Roma people was long an enigma. As early as 200 years ago, cultural scholars hypothesised an Indian origin of the Roma based on linguistic evidence. Genetic information confirms this.
Although the Nazis claimed that the Gypsies were not Aryan, some members of the Gypsy Lore Society (established in 1888 in England) claimed that the Gypsies were the most ancient Aryans and "sought to protect them from mixing with non-Gypsy elements and from modernization. Nazism, which was a short name for National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus refers primarily to the Ideology and practices of the National Socialist German Aryan is an English word derived from the Sanskrit " Ārya " meaning "noble" or "honorable" . . ". 
Until the mid to late eighteenth century, theories of the origin of the Roma were mostly speculative. Then in 1782, Johann Christian Christoph Rüdiger published his research that pointed out the relationship between the Romani language and Hindustani. Hindustani ( Hindi: हिन्दुस्तानी is an adjectival form of Hindustan which originally meant people from the whole geographical region of Subsequent work supported the hypothesis that Romani shared a common origin with the Indo-Aryan languages of Northern India, with Romani grouping most closely with Sinhalese in a recent study. Sinhalese or Sinhala (සිංහල ISO 15919: siṁhala ˈsiŋhələ earlier referred to as Singhalese) is the language of the Sinhalese
The majority of historians accepted this as evidence of an Indian origin for the Roma, but some maintained that the Roma acquired the language through contact with Indian merchants.
Further evidence for the Indian origin of the Roma came in the late 1990s when it was discovered that Roma populations carried large frequencies of particular Y chromosomes (inherited paternally) and mitochondrial DNA (inherited maternally) that otherwise exist only in populations from South Asia. The Y chromosome is the sex-determining Chromosome in most Mammals including Humans In mammals it contains the gene SRY, which triggers Mitochondrial DNA ( mtDNA) is the DNA located in Organelles called mitochondria.
47. 3% of Roma men carry Y chromosomes of haplogroup H-M82 which is otherwise rare outside of the Indian subcontinent. In Human genetics, Haplogroup H (M69 is a Y-chromosome haplogroup. This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia For geopolitical treatments see South Asia. Mitochondrial haplogroup M, most common in Indian subjects and rare outside Southern Asia, accounts for nearly 30% of Roma people. In Human genetics, Haplogroup M is a Human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA haplogroup. A more detailed study of Polish Roma shows this to be of the M5 lineage, which is specific to India. Moreover, a form of the inherited disorder congenital myasthenia is carried by around 4% of the Roma population. Myasthenia gravis (literally "serious muscle-weakness" from Greek μύς "muscle" "weakness" and Latin gravis This form of the disorder, caused by the 1267delG mutation, is otherwise only known in subjects of Indian ancestry.
This is considered unambiguous proof that all Roma are descended from a single founding population, originating from the Indian subcontinent around 40 generations ago, which subsequently split into the subgroups we see today. 
Linguistic and genetic evidence indicates the Roma originated from the Indian subcontinent. This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia For geopolitical treatments see South Asia.  The cause of the Roma diaspora is unknown. The term Diaspora (in Greek, διασπορά &ndash " a scattering or sowing of seeds " refers any population sharing common ethnic However, the most probable conclusion is that the Roma were part of the military in Northern India. Geography Northern India lies mainly on continental India and a very small part of it lies on the Indian peninsula When there were repeated raids by Mahmud of Ghazni and these soldiers were defeated, they were moved west with their families into the Byzantine Empire. Mahmud of Ghazni (محمود غزنوی Maḥmūd-e Ghaznawī ( November 2, 971 - April 30, 1030) also known as Yāmīn This occurred between 1000 and 1050 CE. This departure date is assumed because, linguistically speaking, the Romany language is a New Indo-Aryan language (NIA)--it has only two genders (masculine and feminine). In Linguistics, grammatical genders, sometimes also called Noun classes are classes of nouns reflected in the behavior of associated words every noun must belong Until around the year 1000, the Indo-Aryan languages, named Middle Indo-Aryan (MIA), had three genders (masculine, feminine and neuter). The Middle Indo-Aryan ( Middle Indic) languages are the early medieval dialects of the Indo-Aryan languages, the descendants of the Old Indo-Aryan dialects such as By the turn of the 2nd millennium they changed into the NIA phase, losing the neuter gender. Most of the neuter nouns became masculine while a few feminine, like the neuter अग्नि (agni) in the Prakrit became the feminine आग (āg) in Hindi and Jag in Romany. The parallels in grammatical gender evolution between Romany and other NIA languages is proposed to prove that the change occurred in the Indian subcontinent. It is therefore not considered possible that the Romas' ancestors left India prior to 1000 CE. They then stayed in the Byzantine Empire for several hundred years. However, the Muslim expansion, mainly made by the Seljuk Turks, into the Byzantine Empire recommenced the movement of the Roma people. The Seljuq (also Seljuq Turks, Seldjuks, Seldjuqs, Seljuks; in Turkish Selçuklular; in Ṣaljūqīyān; in 
The Banjara people, numbering around 2,274,000 in India, are Gypsies, who claim that they, too, are descended from the Rajputs, and that many of their ancestors, left India through the Himalayas and never returned. Banjara is a community in India spread in Gujarat, Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamil India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Rajput constitute one of the major Hindu Kshatriya groups from India For this reason, the Banjara are considered related to the Romani people.  Many historians believe that the Muslim conquerors of northern India took the Roma as slaves and marched them home over the unforgiving terrain of Central Asia, taking great tolls on the population and thereby giving rise to such designations as the Hindu Kush mountains of present-day Pakistan and Afghanistan. The history of slavery uncovers many different forms of human exploitation across many cultures throughout history The Hindu Kush is a Mountain range located between Afghanistan and Pakistan. Pakistan () officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country located in South Asia, Southwest Asia, Middle East and Afghanistan /æfˈgænɪstæn/ officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan ( Pashto: د افغانستان اسلامي جمهوریت, Mahmud of Ghazni reportedly took 500,000 prisoners during a Turkish/Persian invasion of Sindh and Punjab. The Turkic peoples are Eurasian peoples residing in northern central and western Eurasia who speak languages belonging to the Turkic language family The Persian Empire was a series of Iranian empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the original Persian homeland and beyond in Western Asia Sindh ( Sindhī: سنڌ Urdu: سندھ is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and historically is home to the Sindhis. Punjab ( ਪੰਜਾਬ پنجاب, पंजाब پنجاب also Panjab (پنجاب meaning "Land of the Five Rivers") (c
Others suggest the Roma were originally low-caste Hindus recruited into an army of mercenaries, granted warrior caste status, and sent westward to resist Islamic military expansion. Castes are Hereditary systems of occupation, Endogamy, social culture, Social class, and Political power. A Hindu ( Devanagari: हिन्दू is an adherent of the philosophies and scriptures of Hinduism, a set of religious, Philosophical A mercenary is a person who takes part in an armed conflict who is not a national or a party to the conflict and is "motivated to take part in the hostilities essentially by Kshatriya (क्षत्रिय kṣatriya from क्षत्र kṣatra) is one of the four varnas (social orders in Hinduism For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. In either case, upon arrival, they became a distinct community. Why the Roma did not return to India, choosing instead to travel west into Europe, is an enigma, but may relate to military service under the Muslims.
Contemporary scholars have suggested that one of the first written references to the Roma, under the term "Atsinganoi", (Greek), dates from the Byzantine era during a time of famine in the 9th century. Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly A famine is a widespread shortage of food that may apply to any Faunal species which phenomenon is usually accompanied by regional Malnutrition, Starvation In 800 CE, Saint Athanasia gave food to "foreigners called the Atsinganoi" near Thrace. Thrace (Тракия Trakiya or "Trakija" or Trakia, Θράκη Thráki, Trakya is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe Later, in 803 CE, Theophanes the Confessor wrote that Emperor Nikephoros I had the help of the "Atsinganoi" to put down a riot with their "knowledge of magic". Saint Theophanes Confessor (c 758/760 &ndash March 12, 817/818 was a Byzantine aristocratic Ascetic monk and Chronicler He is venerated
"Atsingani" was used to refer to itinerant fortune tellers, ventriloquists and wizards who visited the Emperor Constantine IX in the year 1054. Constantine IX Monomachos ( Greek: Κωνσταντίνος Θ΄ Μονομάχος Kōnstantinos IX Monomakhos) c  The hagiographical text, The Life of St. Hagiography ( is the study of Saints. A hagiography, from Greek (hağios (ἅγιος "holy" or "saint" and graphē (γραφή George the Anchorite, mentions that the "Atsingani" were called on by Constantine to help rid his forests of the wild animals which were killing his livestock. They are later described as sorcerers and evildoers and accused of trying to poison the Emperor's favorite hound.
In 1322 CE a Franciscan monk named Simon Simeonis described people resembling these "atsinganoi" living in Crete and in 1350 CE Ludolphus of Sudheim mentioned a similar people with a unique language whom he called Mandapolos, a word which some theorize was possibly derived from the Greek word mantes (meaning prophet or fortune teller). The term Franciscan is commonly used to refer to members of Catholic MONK is a Monte Carlo software package for simulating nuclear processes particularly for the purpose of determining the neutron multiplication factor or k-effective Crete ( Greek: Κρήτη transliteration: Krētē, modern transliteration Kriti) is the largest of the Greek islands and the In Religion, a prophet (or prophetess) is a person who has encountered the Supernatural or the divine and serves as an intermediary Fortune-telling is the practice of predicting the future usually of an individual through mystical or supernatural means and often for commercial gain 
Around 1360, an independent Romani fiefdom (called the Feudum Acinganorum) was established in Corfu and became "a settled community and an important and established part of the economy. Under the system of Feudalism, a fiefdom, fief, feud, feoff, or fee, often consisted of inheritable lands or revenue-producing Corfu (Κέρκυρα Kérkyra, ˈkʲe̞ɾkʲiɾa Κέρκυρα or Κόρκυρα Corcyra Corfù is a Greek island in the Ionian Sea "
By the 14th century, the Roma had reached the Balkans; by 1424 CE, Germany; and by the 16th century, Scotland and Sweden. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain. "Sverige" redirects here For other uses see Sweden (disambiguation and Sverige (disambiguation. Some Roma migrated from Persia through North Africa, reaching Europe via Spain in the 15th century. The two currents met in France. Roma began immigrating to the United States in colonial times, with small groups in Virginia and French Louisiana. The Commonwealth of Virginia ( is an American state Louisiana (La celina+mario) was the name of an administrative district of New France. Larger-scale immigration began in the 1860s, with groups of Romnichal from Britain. The largest number immigrated in the early 1900s, mainly from the Vlax group of Kalderash. Many Roma also settled in Latin America.
When the Roma people arrived in Europe, curiosity was soon followed by hostility and xenophobia. Sliven (Сливен is a town in southeast Bulgaria and the administrative centre of Sliven Province. The state of Bulgaria (България transliterated bg-Latn ''Balgaria'' The country preserves the traditions (in ethnic name language and alphabet of the First Bulgarian Xenophobia is an intense and/or irrational dislike and sometimes fear of people from other countries Roma were enslaved for five centuries in Wallachia and Moldavia until abolition in 1864. This article is about the region in what is now Southern Romania Moldavia (Moldova is a geographic and historical region and former Principality in Eastern Europe, corresponding to the territory between Eastern Carpathians Abolitionism was a political movement of the 18th and 19th century which sought to make Slavery illegal particularly in the United States and British West Indies Elsewhere in Europe, they were subject to ethnic cleansing, abduction of their children, and forced labor. Ethnic cleansing is a Euphemism referring to the persecution through imprisonment expulsion or killing of members of an ethnic minority by a majority to achieve ethnic homogeneity Unfree labour is a generic or collective term for those work relations especially in modern or early modern history in which people are employed against their will During World War II, the Nazis murdered 200,000 to 800,000 Roma in an attempted genocide known as the Porajmos. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including Nazism, which was a short name for National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus refers primarily to the Ideology and practices of the National Socialist German Genocide is the deliberate and systematic destruction in whole or in part of an ethnic racial religious or national group The Porajmos (also Porrajmos) literally Devouring, is a term considered to be coined by the Romani people to describe attempts by the regime in They were marked for extermination and sentenced to forced labor and imprisonment in concentration camps. Internment is the imprisonment or confinement of people commonly in large groups without trial They were often killed on sight, especially by the Einsatzgruppen (essentially mobile killing units) on the Eastern Front. Einsatzgruppen ( German: "task forces" "intervention groups" were Paramilitary groups formed by Heinrich Himmler and
In Communist Eastern Europe, Roma experienced assimilation schemes and restrictions of cultural freedom. Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based The Romany language and Romani music were banned from public performance in Bulgaria. Typically nomadic the Roma people have long acted as wandering entertainers and tradesmen The state of Bulgaria (България transliterated bg-Latn ''Balgaria'' The country preserves the traditions (in ethnic name language and alphabet of the First Bulgarian In Czechoslovakia, they were labeled a "socially degraded stratum," and Roma women were sterilized as part of a state policy to reduce their population. Czechoslovakia may also refer to what is now the Czech Republic and Slovakia. This policy was implemented with large financial incentives, threats of denying future social welfare payments, misinformation or after administering drugs (Silverman 1995; Helsinki Watch 1991). Helsinki Watch was a private American NGO devoted to monitoring Helsinki implementation An official inquiry from the Czech Republic, resulting in a report (December 2005), concluded that the Communist authorities had practised an assimilation policy towards Roma, which "included efforts by social services to control the birth rate in the Romani community" and that "the problem of sexual sterilisation carried out in the Czech Republic, either with improper motivation or illegally, exists" , with new revealed cases up until 2004, in both the Czech Republic and Slovakia. The Czech Republic ( ˈt͡ʃɛskaː ˈrɛpuˌblɪka short form in Česko ˈt͡ʃɛskɔ also called Czechia, Slovakia (long form Slovak Republic; Slovak:, long form, is a Landlocked country in Central Europe with a population of over five million 
In the early 1990s, Germany deported tens of thousands of illegal immigrants to Eastern Europe. Illegal immigration refers to Immigration across National Borders in a way that violates the Immigration laws of the destination Country Sixty percent of some 100,000 Romanian nationals deported under a 1992 treaty were Roma. In Norway, many Roma were forcibly sterilized by the state until 1977. Norway ( Norwegian: Norge ( Bokmål) or Noreg ( Nynorsk) officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Constitutional 
In May 2008 Roma camps in Naples, Italy were attacked and set on fire by local residents. 
The traditional Roma place a high value on the extended family. Extended family (or Joint family) is a term with several distinct meanings Virginity is essential in unmarried women. Both men and women often marry young; there has been controversy in several countries over the Roma practice of child marriage. Child marriage usually refers to two separate social phenomena which are practiced in some societies Roma law establishes that the man’s family must pay a dowry to the bride's parents, but only traditional families still follow this rule. A dowry (also known as trousseau or tocher) is the money goods or estate that a woman brings to her soon to be husband in marriage
Once married, the woman joins the husband's family where her main job is to tend to her husband's and her children's needs, and to take care of the in-laws as well. The power structure in the traditional Roma household has at its top the oldest man or grandfather, and men in general have more authority than women. As women get older, however, they gain respect and authority in the eyes of the community. Young wives begin gaining authority once they mother children.
Roma social behaviour is strictly regulated by Hindu purity laws ("marime" or "marhime"), still respected by most Roma and among Sinti groups by the older generations. In Biology, Psychology and Sociology social behavior is behavior directed towards society or taking place between members of the same species This regulation affects many aspects of life, and is applied to actions, people and things: parts of the human body are considered impure: the genital organs (because they produce emissions) as well as the rest of the lower body. Human anatomy, which with physiology and biochemistry is a complementary basic medical science is primarily the scientific study of the morphology of the adult Human body A sex organ, or primary sexual characteristic, as narrowly defined is any of the anatomical parts of the body which are involved in sexual reproduction and constitute Fingernails and toenails must be filed with an emery board, as cutting them with a clipper is a taboo. A taboo is a strong Social prohibition (or ban) against words objects actions or discussions that are considered undesirable or offensive by a group culture Clothes for the lower body, as well as the clothes of menstruating women, are washed separately. See also "Mensuration" a term sometimes used to describe Measurement, particularly in the context of Forestry. Items used for eating are also washed in a different place. Childbirth is considered impure, and must occur outside the dwelling place. The mother is considered impure for forty days after giving birth. Death is considered impure, and affects the whole family of the dead, who remain impure for a period of time. However, in contrast to the practice of cremating the dead, Roma dead must be buried. Cremation is the act of reducing a Corpse by burning, generally in a crematorium furnace or crematory fire  Cremation and burial are both known from the time of the Rigveda, and both are widely practiced in Hinduism today (although the tendency for higher caste groups is to burn, for lower caste groups in South India to bury their dead). Some animals are also considered impure, for instance cats because they lick themselves and mix the impure outside with their pure inside.
Roma have usually adopted the dominant religion of the host country while often preserving aspects of their particular belief systems and indigenous religion and worship. Most Eastern European Roma are Catholic, Orthodox Christian or Muslim. The Eastern Orthodox Church is the second largest single Christian Communion in the world A Muslim (مسلم pronounced Muslim, not Muzlim) is an adherent of the Religion Those in western Europe and the United States are mostly Roman Catholic or Protestant. Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation. In Turkey, Egypt, and the southern Balkans, the Roma are split into Christian and Muslim populations.
Evangelical Romany churches exist today in every country where Roma are settled. The movement is particularly strong in France and Spain; there are more than one thousand Roma churches (known as "Filadelfia") in Spain, with almost one hundred in Madrid alone. Madrid (pronounced in English in Spanish and colloquially in Spain) is the Capital and largest city of Spain. In Germany, the most numerous group is that of Polish Roma, having their main church in Mannheim. Mannheim is a City in Germany. With 327318 inhabitants it is the second-largest city in the state of Baden-Württemberg after the capital Stuttgart Other important and numerous Romany assemblies exist in Los Angeles, California; Houston, Texas; Buenos Aires, Argentina; and Mexico City. Los Angeles (lɑˈsændʒələs los ˈaŋxeles in Spanish) is the largest City in the state of California and the American West California ( is a US state on the West Coast of the United States, along the Pacific Ocean. Texas ( is a state geographically located in the South Central United States and is also known as the Lone Star State. Buenos Aires is the Capital and largest city of Argentina. It is geographically located on the southern shore of the Río de la Plata, on the southeastern For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Argentina topics. Mexico City (in Spanish: Ciudad de México, México DF, México or simply Méjico) is the Capital city of Mexico Some groups in Romania and Chile have joined the Seventh-day Adventist Church. Chile, officially the Republic of Chile ( Spanish:) is a country in South America occupying a long and narrow Coastal strip wedged between the The Seventh-day Adventist (abbreviated " Adventist " Church is a Christian denomination which is distinguished mainly by its observance
In the Balkans, the Roma of the Republic of Macedonia, Kosovo and Albania have been particularly active in Islamic mystical brotherhoods (Sufism). The Republic of Macedonia (Република This article is about the country in southern Europe For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Albania topics. Sufism ( تصوّف - taṣawwuf, Persian: صوفیگری sufigari, Turkish: tasavvuf, Urdu: تصوف Muslim Roma immigrants to western Europe and America have brought these traditions with them.
Roma music plays an important role in Eastern European countries such as Croatia, Serbia, Montenegro, the Republic of Macedonia, Albania, Hungary, Russia, and Romania, and the style and performance practices of Roma musicians have influenced European classical composers such as Franz Liszt and Johannes Brahms. Typically nomadic the Roma people have long acted as wandering entertainers and tradesmen Montenegro ( British English) Montenegrin / Serbian: PLEASE DO NOT CHANGE THE LANGUAGES WITHOUT CONSENSUS ON THE TALK PAGE! Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending See also Classical music This is an alphabetical list of classical music composers sorted by eras Johannes Brahms ( pronounced ˈbʁaːms (May 7 1833 &ndash April 3 1897 was a German Composer The lăutari who perform at traditional Romanian weddings are virtually all Roma. The Romanian word Lăutar denotes a class of traditional music singers Probably the most internationally prominent contemporary performers in the lăutar tradition are Taraful Haiducilor. Taraf de Haïdouks are a troupe of Romanian Roma musicians from the town of Clejani, the most prominent such group in Romania in the post-Communist Bulgaria's popular "wedding music," too, is almost exclusively performed by Roma musicians such as Ivo Papasov, a virtuoso clarinetist closely associated with this genre. Ivo Papazov (Иво Папазов (born 16 February 1952 in Kardzhali) nicknamed Ibryama (bg Ибряма is a Bulgarian Many famous classical musicians, such as the Hungarian pianist Georges Cziffra, are Roma, as are many prominent performers of manele. Classical music is a broad term that usually refers to mainstream music produced in or rooted in the traditions of Western liturgical and Secular music A pianist (/'piənɪst/ is a Musician who plays the Piano. A professional pianist can perform solo pieces play with an ensemble or Orchestra Georges (originally György) Cziffra ( November 5, 1921 &ndash January 15, Manele (singular manea) is a Music style from the Balkans, mainly derived from Turkish Greek Arab or Serbian love songs Zdob şi Zdub, one of the most prominent rock bands in Moldova, although not Roma themselves, draw heavily on Roma music, as do Spitalul de Urgenţă in Romania, Goran Bregović in Serbia, Darko Rundek in Croatia, Beirut and Gogol Bordello in the United States. Zdob şi Zdub are a Moldovan musical group based in Chişinău, whose work for the last several years combines elements of Rock music is a genre of Popular music often though not necessarily employing Electric guitar, Bass guitar, and Drums. Moldova, officially the Republic of Moldova ( Republica Moldova) is a Landlocked country in Eastern Europe, located between Romania Spitalul de Urgenţă, literally "Emergency Hospital" is a Romanian pop band integrating elements of traditional Romanian music into a sometimes Goran Bregović ( Serbian Cyrillic: Горан Бреговић (born March 22, 1950) is a Yugoslav Musician from Bosnia and Darko Rundek (born January 30, 1956) is a Croatian rock Singer, Songwriter, Poet, and Actor. Beirut is the band of -year-old Santa Fe native Zach Condon. The band's first official release was assisted by Jeremy Barnes ( Neutral Milk Hotel Gogol Bordello is a Multi-ethnic Gypsy punk band from the Lower East Side of New York City that formed in 1999 and is known for its
Another tradition of Roma music is the genre of the Gypsy brass band, with such notable practitioners as Boban Marković of Serbia, and the brass lăutari groups Fanfare Ciocărlia and Fanfare din Cozmesti of Romania. A brass band is a Musical group generally consisting entirely of Brass instruments, most often with a percussion section Boban Marković ( Serbian Cyrillic: Бобан Марковић is a Serbian trumpet player and brass ensemble leader from Vladičin Han, frequently Fanfare Ciocărlia (alternate spelling Ciocârlia) is a popular twelve-piece Roma Brass band from the northeastern Romanian village of Zece
The distinctive sound of Roma music has also strongly influenced bolero, jazz, and flamenco (especially cante jondo) in Europe. Bolero is a name given to more than one type of Latin-American music and its associated dance and song Jazz is an American Musical art form which originated in the beginning of the 20th century in African American communities in the Southern United States Flamenco is a Spanish term that refers both to a musical genre known for its intricate rapid passages and a dance genre characterized by its audible footwork Cante jondo is a vocal style in Flamenco. An unspoiled form of Andalusian folk music the name means deep song ( Spanish hondo European-style Gypsy jazz is still widely practised among the original creators (the Roma People); one who acknowledged this artistic debt was guitarist Django Reinhardt. Gypsy jazz (also known as "Gypsy Swing" is an idiom often said to have been started by Guitarist Jean "Django" Reinhardt in the 1930s Jean "Django" Reinhardt ( January 23, 1910 – May 16, 1953) was a Belgian Gypsy jazz Guitarist Contemporary artists in this tradition known internationally include Stochelo Rosenberg, Biréli Lagrène, Jimmy Rosenberg, and Tchavolo Schmitt. Stochelo Rosenberg (born 19 February, 1968 in Helmond, Netherlands) is a Sinti - Gypsy Jazz Guitarist Biréli Lagrène is a French Guitarist and Bassist. A "guitar phenomenon" according to John McLaughlin, he came to prominence in the Joseph (Jimmy Rosenberg (born 10th April 1980 in Helmond) is a Dutch musician (guitar known for his virtuoso playing of Jazz, string Tchavolo Schmitt (born 1954 in Paris) is a noted guitarist in Gypsy jazz.
The Roma of Turkey have achieved musical acclaim from national and local audiences. Local performers usually perform for special holidays. Their music is usually performed on instruments such as the darbuka and gırnata. The goblet drum (also chalice drum) is a goblet shaped Hand drum used mostly in Arabic, Assyrian, Persian, Balkan, The clarinet is a Musical instrument in the Woodwind family The name derives from adding the suffix -et meaning little to the Italian word A number of nationwide best seller performers are said to be of Roma origin.
Most Roma speak one of several dialects of Romany, an Indo-Aryan language. The Indo-Aryan languages (within the context of Indo-European studies also Indic) are a branch of the Indo-European language family They also will often speak the languages of the countries they live in. Typically, they also incorporate loanwords and calques into Romani from the languages of those countries, especially words for terms that the Romani language does not have. A loanword (or loan word) is a word directly taken into one Language from another with little or no translation In Linguistics, a calque (kælk or loan translation is a Word or Phrase borrowed from another Language by Literal, word-for-word The Gitanos of Spain and the Romnichal of the UK, have lost their knowledge of pure Romani, and respectively speak the patois languages Caló and Angloromany. The Romani people in Spain are generally known as Gitanos. Spanish Roma tend to speak Caló which is basically Andalusian Spanish with a large Romnichal (or Romanichal) is a neologism by which groups of Roma people (often known as Gypsies found in some parts of the United Kingdom, notably Patois is any language that is considered nonstandard, although the term is not formally defined in Linguistics. Angloromany (literally "English Romany" or Angloromani is a language combining aspects of English and Romany.
There are independent groups currently working toward standardizing the language, including groups in Romania, Serbia, Montenegro, the USA, and Sweden. There are independent groups currently working toward standardizing the Romany language, including groups in Romania, Serbia, the USA, and Romany is not currently spoken in India.
Most Roma refer to themselves as rom or rrom, depending on the dialect. The word means "husband", romni/rromni meaning "wife", while the unmarried are named čhavo ("boy") (pronounced [cʰaʋo]) or čhej ("girl"). There are no historical proofs to clarify the etymology of these words.
The word Rom (plural Roma) is a noun, Romany is an adjective, while Romanes is an adverb (meaning, roughly, "in the Romany way"). In Grammar, an adjective is a word whose main syntactic role is to modify a Noun or Pronoun, giving more information about the The language is called the Romany language or Romanes. In the Romany language, the adjective is created by attaching suffixes to the root that express gender and number: "Romani" (f. In Grammar, a suffix (also postfix, ending) is an Affix which is placed at the end of a word sing. ), "Romano (m. sing. ) and "Romane" (m. & f. pl. ). Usually in English only the feminine singular form is used, but they may also appear in the other forms. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States "Romanes" is created by attaching the suffix -es, usually employed for adverbs.  The use of the word Romanes in English as a noun is incorrect.
The English term Gypsy (or Gipsy) originates from the Greek word Αιγύπτοι (Aigyptoi), modern Greek γύφτοι (gyphtoi), in the erroneous belief that the Roma originated in Egypt, and were exiled as punishment for allegedly harboring the infant Jesus. Gypsy (sometimes spelled Gipsy, Gipsey) is a word used to name as a Blanket term, various unrelated ethnic groups or persons fitting the Gypsy Stereotypes Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. The Child Jesus, or Divine Infant, represents the infant Jesus until to the age of twelve  If used, this exonym should also be written with capital letter, to show that it is about an ethnic group. An exonym (from Greek el ἔξω exo = out el ὄνομα onoma = name is a name for a place that is not used within that place by the local  As described in Victor Hugo's novel The Hunchback of Notre Dame, the medieval French referred to the Roma as "egyptiens". Victor-Marie Hugo ( ( February 26, 1802 – May 22, 1885) was a French Poet, Playwright, Novelist The Hunchback of Notre Dame (Notre-Dame de Paris is an 1831 French novel written by Victor Hugo. This ethnonym is not used by the Roma to describe themselves, and is often considered pejorative (as is the term "gyp", meaning "to cheat", a reference to the suspicion the Roma engendered). An ethnonym ( Gk έθνος ethnos, 'tribe' + όνομα onoma, 'name' is the name applied to a given Ethnic group. However, the use of "Gypsy" in English is now so pervasive that many Roma organizations use the word Gypsy in their own names. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States In North America, the word "Gypsy" is commonly used as a reference to lifestyle or fashion, and not to the Roma ethnicity. The Spanish term gitano and the French term gitan may have the same origin. The Romani people in Spain are generally known as Gitanos. Spanish Roma tend to speak Caló which is basically Andalusian Spanish with a large 
In much of continental Europe, Roma are known by names similar to the Hungarian cigány (pronounced [ˈtsiɡaːɲ]), German and Dutch zigeuner, Italian zingari and Russian цыганы (tsygany). Continental Europe, also referred to as mainland Europe or simply the Continent, is the Continent of Europe, explicitly excluding European Hungarian ( magyar nyelv) is a Uralic language (more specifically a Ugric language) unrelated to most other languages in Europe. Early Byzantium literature suggests that names now referring to Gypsies such as tzigane, zincali, cigány, etc. This article is about the city See also Byzantine Empire. Byzantium ( Greek: Βυζάντιον Latin: la BYZANTIVM , are derived from the Greek ατσίγγανοι (atsinganoi, Latin adsincani), applied to Roma during Byzantine times, or from the Greek term αθίγγανοι (athinganoi) meaning literally 'untouchables', in reference to a 9th-century heretical sect that had been accused of practising magic and fortune-telling. Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly  In modern Greek, aside from the singular term Rom (Ρομ), the terms gyphtoi (Greek:γύφτοι) and tsinganoi (Greek:τσιγγάνοι) are interchangeable and both are used when referring to the Roma. Modern Greek (el Νέα Ελληνικά or el Νεοελληνική lit Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly
Because many Roma living in France had come via Bohemia, they were also referred to as Bohémiens. Bohemia (Čechy; Bohemia Czechy is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western two-thirds of the traditional Czech Lands, currently the This would later be adapted to describe the impoverished artistic lifestyle of Bohemianism. The term bohemian, of French origin was first used in the English language in the nineteenth century to describe the untraditional lifestyles of marginalized and impoverished Artists
Outside Europe, Roma are referred to by more varied names, such as Kowli (کولی) in Iran; Lambani, Labana Lambadi, Rabari or Banjara in India; Ghajar (غجر) or Nawar (نور') in Arabic. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Arabic (ar الْعَرَبيّة (informally ar عَرَبيْ) in terms of the number of speakers is the largest living member of the Semitic language In Arabic, these two words distinguish entertainment Roma: Ghajar, from trade Roma Nawar, Nawar is also used as a pejorative term to mean vulgar, or low in North Levantine Arabic, and are used as insults. The other term, Ghajar does not hold any pejorative connotations; They are called tzo'anim צוענים in Hebrew (after an ancient city in Egypt and the biblical verb צען ṣā‛an, roaming).
There is no etymological connection between the name Roma (ethnicity) and the city of Rome, ancient Rome, Romania, the Romanian people or the Romanian language. Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 Ancient Rome was a Civilization that grew out of a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 10th century BC Romania ( dated: Rumania, Roumania The Romanians (dated Rumanians or Roumanians; Romanian: români or historically and today rather seldom and only regional rumâni Romanian or Daco-Romanian ( dated: Rumanian or Roumanian; self designation limba română, ˈlimba roˈmɨnə is a Romance
The first and one of the most enduring persecutions against the Roma people was the enslaving of the Roma who arrived on the territory of the historical Romanian states of Wallachia and Moldavia, which lasted from the 14th century until the second half of the 19th century. Antiziganism (æntaɪˈzigənɪzm or Anti-Romanyism is hostility Prejudice or Racism directed at the Roma people, commonly called Gypsies This article is about the region in what is now Southern Romania Moldavia (Moldova is a geographic and historical region and former Principality in Eastern Europe, corresponding to the territory between Eastern Carpathians Legislation decreed that all the Roma living in these states, as well as any others who would immigrate there, were slaves. 
The arrival of some branches of the Roma people in Western Europe in the 15th century was precipitated by the Ottoman conquest of the Balkans. Western Europe at its most general meaning means 'all the countries in the West of Europe ' The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish Although the Roma themselves were refugees from the conflicts in southeastern Europe, they were mistaken by the local population in the West, because of their foreign appearance, as part of the Ottoman invasion (the German Reichstags at Landau and Freiburg in 1496-1498 declared the Roma as spies of the Turks). According to the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, a refugee is a person who owing to a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race The wars of the Ottoman Empire in Europe are also sometimes referred to as the Ottoman Wars or as Turkish Wars, particularly in older European In Western Europe, this resulted in a violent history of persecution and attempts of ethnic cleansing until the modern era. As time passed, other accusations were added against local Roma (accusations specific to this area, against non-assimilated minorities), like that of bringing the plague, usually sharing their burden together with the local Jews. 
Later in the 19th century, Roma immigration was forbidden on a racial basis in areas outside Europe, mostly in the English speaking world (in 1885 the United States outlawed the entry of the Roma) and also in some Latin American states (in 1880 Argentina adopted a similar policy). The 19th century of the Common Era began on January 1, 1801 and ended on December 31, 1900, according to the Gregorian calendar For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Argentina topics. 
The persecution of the Roma reached a peak during World War II in the Porajmos, the genocide perpetrated by the Nazis during the Holocaust. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including The Porajmos (also Porrajmos) literally Devouring, is a term considered to be coined by the Romani people to describe attempts by the regime in Nazism, which was a short name for National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus refers primarily to the Ideology and practices of the National Socialist German The Holocaust (from the Greek el ''ὁλόκαυστον'' (el-Latn holókauston holos, "completely" and kaustos, "burnt" also known as In 1935, the Nuremberg laws stripped the Roma people living in Nazi Germany of their citizenship, after which they were subjected to violence, imprisonment in concentration camps and later genocide in extermination camps. The Nuremberg Laws ( German: Nürnberger Gesetze) of 1935 were denaturalization laws passed in Nazi Germany. Nazi Germany and the Third Reich are the common English names for Germany under the regime of Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist German Workers Internment is the imprisonment or confinement of people commonly in large groups without trial Extermination camps were two types of facilities that Nazi Germany built during World War II for the systematic killing of millions of people in what has become The policy was extended in areas occupied by the Nazis during the war, and it was also applied by their allies, notably the Independent State of Croatia, Romania and Hungary. The Independent State of Croatia ( Croatian: Nezavisna Država Hrvatska, NDH was a Puppet state of the Axis powers. Romania ( dated: Rumania, Roumania Hungary (Magyarország 'mɔɟɔrorsaːg) officially in English the Republic of Hungary ( Magyar Köztársaság, literally Magyar (Hungarian Republic
Because no accurate pre-war census figures exist for the Roma, it is impossible to accurately assess the actual number of victims. Ian Hancock, director of the Program of Romani Studies at The University of Texas at Austin, proposes a figure of up to a million and a half, while an estimate of between 220,000 and 500,000 was made by the late Sybil Milton, formerly senior historian of the U. Ian Hancock ( Romani: Yanko le Redžosko) is a renowned linguist Romani scholar and human rights advocate S. Holocaust Memorial Museum. . In Central Europe, the extermination in the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia was so thorough that the Bohemian Romany language became totally extinct. The Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia (Reichsprotektorat Böhmen und Mähren Protektorát Čechy a Morava was the majority ethnic-Czech Protectorate which Bohemian Romany or Bohemian Romani is a dialect of Romany (a European Indo-Aryan language) formerly spoken by the Roma of Bohemia,
In the Habsburg Monarchy under Maria Theresia (1740-1780), a series of decrees tried to force the Roma to sedentarize, removed rights to horse and wagon ownership (1754), renamed them as "New Citizens" and forced Roma boys into military service if they had no trade (1761), forced them to register with the local authorities (1767), and prohibited marriage between Roma (1773). Habsburg Monarchy (alternatively Habsburg Empire) refers to the territories ruled by the Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg, and then by the successor Maria Theresia may refer to Archduchess Maria Theresia of Austria (1684-1696, daughter of Leopold I Holy Roman Emperor and Eleonore-Magdalena of Pfalz-Neuburg In evolutionary anthropology and archaeology, sedentism (sometimes denominated sedentariness is a term applied to the transition from Nomadic to permanent year-round Her successor Josef II prohibited the wearing of traditional Roma clothing and the use of the Romany language, punishable by flogging. Heir and co-regent Joseph was born in the midst of the early upheavals of the War of the Austrian Succession.  In Spain, attempts to assimilate the Gitanos were under way as early as 1619, when Gitanos were forcibly sedentarized, the use of the Romany language was prohibited, Gitano men and women were sent to separate workhouses and their children sent to orphanages. Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Similar prohibitions took place in later in 1783 under King Charles III, who prohibited the nomadic lifestyle, the use of the Calo language, Romani clothing, their trade in horses and other itinerant trades. Charles III ( January 20, 1716 – December 14, 1788) was King of Spain 1700–88 (as Carlos III King of Naples and Ultimately these measures failed, as the rest of the population rejected the integration of the Gitanos. 
Other examples of forced assimilation include Norway, where a law was passed in 1896 permitting the state to remove children from their parents and place them in state institutions. Norway ( Norwegian: Norge ( Bokmål) or Noreg ( Nynorsk) officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Constitutional This resulted in some 1,500 Roma children being taken from their parents in the 20th century.
The practice of placing Roma students in segregated schools or classes remains widespread in countries across Central and Eastern Europe. In Hungary, Bulgaria and Romania, many Roma children have been channeled into all-Roma schools that offer inferior quality education and are sometimes in poor physical condition, or into segregated all-Roma or predominantly Roma classes within mixed schools. Hungary (Magyarország 'mɔɟɔrorsaːg) officially in English the Republic of Hungary ( Magyar Köztársaság, literally Magyar (Hungarian Republic The state of Bulgaria (България transliterated bg-Latn ''Balgaria'' The country preserves the traditions (in ethnic name language and alphabet of the First Bulgarian Romania ( dated: Rumania, Roumania  In Hungary and Bulgaria, many Roma children are sent to classes for pupils with learning disabilities, regardless of whether such classes are appropriate for the children in question or not. In Bulgaria, they are also sent to so-called "delinquent schools", where a variety of human rights abuses take place. 
Despite the low birth rate in the country, Bulgaria's Health Ministry was considering a law aimed at lowering the birth rate of certain minority groups, particularly the Roma, due to the high mortality rate among Roma families, which are typically large. Crude birth rate is the natality or Childbirths per 1000 people per year Mortality rate is a measure of the number of Deaths (in general or due to a specific cause in some population scaled to the size of that population per unit time This was later abandoned due to conflict with EU law and the Bulgarian constitution. The Law of the European Union is the unique legal system which operates alongside the laws of Member States of the European Union (EU 
Roma in European population centers are often accused of crimes such as pickpocketing. This article is about the crime For the Robert Bresson film see Pickpocket (film. This is a regular justification for anti-Roma persecution. In 1899, the Nachrichtendienst in Bezug auf die Zigeuner ("Intelligence Service Regarding the Gypsies") was set up in Munich under the direction of Alfred Dillmann, cataloguing data on all Roma individuals throughout the German lands. Munich (München; Minga is the capital city of Bavaria, Germany. It did not officially close down until 1970. The results were published in 1905 in Dillmann’s Zigeuner-Buch , that was used in the next years as justification for the Porajmos. The Porajmos (also Porrajmos) literally Devouring, is a term considered to be coined by the Romani people to describe attempts by the regime in It described the Roma people as a "plague" and a "menace", but presented as Gypsy crime almost exclusively trespassing and the theft of food. A UN study found that Roma in Eastern European countries such as Bulgaria are arrested for robbery at a much higher rate than other groups. The state of Bulgaria (България transliterated bg-Latn ''Balgaria'' The country preserves the traditions (in ethnic name language and alphabet of the First Bulgarian Amnesty International and Roma groups such as the Union Romani blame widespread police and government racism and persecution. Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a Western based international Non-governmental organization which defines its mission as "to 
In the UK, "travellers" (referring to Irish Travellers and New Age Travellers as well as Roma) became a 2005 general election issue, with the leader of the Conservative Party promising to review the Human Rights Act 1998. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located A general election is an Election in which all or most members of a given political body are up for election The Conservative Party (officially the Conservative and Unionist Party) is a Political party in the United Kingdom. The Human Rights Act 1998 is an Act of Parliament of the United Kingdom which received Royal Assent on 9 November 1998 and mostly came into force This law, which absorbs the European Convention on Human Rights into UK primary legislation, is seen by some to permit the granting of retrospective planning permission. The Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (also called the "European Convention on Human Rights" and "ECHR" was adopted under the Primary legislation is Legislation made by the Legislative branch of Government. See Development Control for an overall explanation of how control under the Town and Country Planning legislation is operated in the United Kingdom Severe population pressures and the paucity of greenfield sites have led to travellers purchasing land, and setting up residential settlements very quickly, thus subverting the planning restrictions.
Travellers argued in response that thousands of retrospective planning permissions are granted in Britain in cases involving non-Roma applicants each year and that statistics showed that 90% of planning applications by Roma and travellers were initially refused by local councils, compared with a national average of 20% for other applicants, disproving claims of preferential treatment favouring Roma. A Local Council ( LC) is a form of local elected government within the districts of Uganda. 
They also argued that the root of the problem was that many traditional stopping-places had been barricaded off and that legislation passed by the previous Conservative government had effectively criminalised their community, for example by removing local authorities’ responsibility to provide sites, thus leaving the travellers with no option but to purchase unregistered new sites themselves. 
In Denmark there was much controversy when the city of Helsingør decided to put all Roma students in special classes in its public schools. The Kingdom of Denmark ( ˈd̥ænmɑɡ̊ (archaic ˈd̥anmɑːɡ̊ commonly known as Denmark, is a country in the Scandinavian region of northern Europe Elsinore redirects here For other places and things named Elsinore see Elsinore (disambiguation. The term public school has two distinct (and virtually opposite meanings depending on the location of usage in the United States, Australia and The classes were later abandoned after it was determined that they were discriminatory, and the Roma were put back in regular classes. 
Law enforcement agencies in the United States hold regular conferences  on the Roma and similar nomadic groups. It is common to refer to the operators of certain types of travelling con artists  and fortune-telling  businesses as "Gypsies," although many are Irish Travellers or not members of any particular nomadic ethnic group. A confidence trick or confidence game (also known as a bunko, con, flim flam, gaffle, grift, scam, scheme Fortune-telling is the practice of predicting the future usually of an individual through mystical or supernatural means and often for commercial gain
A significant proportion of the world's Roma live in Central and Eastern Europe, often in squatter communities with very high unemployment, while only some are fully integrated in the society. The Roma people in Central and Eastern Europe often live in depressed Squatter communities with very high Unemployment, while only Central Europe is the Region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Eastern Europe is a general term that refers to the Geopolitical region encompassing the easternmost part of the European continent. Squatting is the act of occupying an abandoned or unoccupied space or Building that the squatter does not own rent or otherwise have permission to use Unemployment occurs when a person is available to work and currently seeking work but the person is without work. However, in some cases—notably the Kalderash clan in Romania, who work as traditional coppersmiths—they have prospered. A coppersmith, also known as a redsmith, is a person who uses Copper to form art Some Roma families choose to immigrate to Western Europe now that many of the former Communist countries like the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Romania, Hungary and Bulgaria have entered the European Union and free travel is permitted. During the 1970s and 1980s many Roma from former Jugoslavia migrated to Western European countries, especially to Austria, Germany and Sweden.
The current and historical situation of Roma in the region differs from country to country.
The number of Roma people in Hungary is disputed. The Roma people (cigányok or romák in Hungary represents 2% (official census or 4-10% (unofficial estimation of the total population In the 2001 census only 190,000 people called themselves Roma, but sociological estimates give much higher numbers (about 5%-10% of the total population). Since World War II, the number of Roma has increased rapidly, multiplying sevenfold in the last century. Today every fifth or sixth newborn is Roma. Estimates based on current demographic trends project that in 2050, 15-20% of the population (1. 2 million people) will be Roma.
Roma in Turkey are known as Chingene, Chingen or Chingan (Mostly), Chingit (West Black Sea region), Dom (East Anatolia), Posha (East Anatolia), Abdal (Kahramanmaraş), Roman (Izmir) . Estimates of the population vary from 300. 000 to 5 million, dispersed all across the country.  They have integrated fully to the ethnic make up of the country, and in later years have started to recognize, and cherish their Roma background as well.  Blacksmithing and other handicrafts are the Roma's specialities. blacksmith is a person who creates objects from Iron or Steel by Forging the Metal; i
Roma in Spain are generally known as Gitanos and tend to speak Caló which is basically Andalusian Spanish with a large number of Romany loan words. The Romani people in Spain are generally known as Gitanos. Spanish Roma tend to speak Caló which is basically Andalusian Spanish with a large The Andalusian Dialect of Spanish (also called andaluz) is spoken in Andalusia, Ceuta, Melilla, and parts of southern A loanword (or loan word) is a word directly taken into one Language from another with little or no translation  Estimates of the Spanish Gitano population range between 600,000 and 800,000 with the Spanish government estimating between 650,000 and 700,000.  Semi-nomadic Quinqui consider themselves apart from the Gitanos. Quinqui is the Jargon of a reduced and possibly vanishing semi-nomadic group present mainly in the northern half of Spain known as Quinquilleros
The Roma in Portugal are known as Ciganos, and their presence goes back to the second half of the 15th century. Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. Early on, due to their socio-cultural difference and nomadic style of live, the Ciganos were the object of fierce discrimination and persecution. 
The number of Ciganos in Portugal is difficult to estimate, since there are no official statistics about race or ethnic categories. According to data from Council of Europe's European Commission against Racism and Intolerance there are about 50,000 to 60,000 spread all over the country. The Council of Europe (Conseil de l'Europe is the oldest International organisation working towards European integration, being founded in 1949
The majority of the Ciganos do not have today a nomad style of life, rather concentrating themselves in the most important urban centers. This population is characterised by very low levels of educational qualification, social exclusion and residential and housing difficulties (mainly living in degraded ghettos). The Ciganos are the ethnic group that the Portuguese most reject and discriminate against, and are also targets for discriminatory practices from the State administration, namely at a local level, finding persistent difficulties in the access to job placement, housing and social services, as well as in the relation to police forces. The Portuguese people (os Portugueses literally the Portuguese) are the Ethnic group or Nation native to the country of Portugal, in the west 
Roma in France are generally known as Gitans, Tsiganes, Romanichels (slightly pejorative), Bohémiens, or Gens du voyage ("travellers").
Roma in Finland are known as mustalaiset and romanit. Currently, there are approximately 10,000 Roma living in Finland, mostly in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area. Greater Helsinki (Suur-Helsinki Swedish: Storhelsingfors) Capital Region ( Pääkaupunkiseutu, Huvudstadsregionen) Helsinki In Finland, the Roma people usually wear their traditional dress in everyday life.
Roma in England are generally known as Romnichals or Romany Gypsies, while their Welsh equivalent are known as Kale. Romnichal (or Romanichal) is a neologism by which groups of Roma people (often known as Gypsies found in some parts of the United Kingdom, notably England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland They have been known in the UK since at least the early 16th century and may number up to 120,000. There is also a sizable population of East European Roma who immigrated into the UK in the late 1990s/early 2000s, and also after EU expansion in 2004.
There are records of Roma people in Scotland in the early 16th century, the first recorded reference to "the Egyptians" would appear to be in 1492, in the reign of James IV, when an entry in the Book of the Lord High Treasurer records a payment "to Peter Ker of four shillings, to go to the king at Hunthall, to get letters subscribed to the 'King of Rowmais'". Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain. James IV ( 17 March 1473 &ndash 9 September 1513) was King of Scots from 11 June 1488 to his death Two days after, a payment of twenty pounds was made at the king's command to the messenger of the 'King of Rowmais'. 
It is difficult to be clear about the numbers of Roma today in Scotland, according to the Scottish Traveller Education Programme, there are probably about 20,000 Scottish Gypsies/Travellers. Highland Travellers have been part of Scottish society for at least 500 years . Although it is unknown how many of this number are Roma and it is recognised that Gypsies and Travellers in Scotland are not one homogenous group, but consist of several groups each with different histories and cultures, and could consist of many unrelated ethnic groups.
From this, the term "gypsy" in the United Kingdom has come to mean, in common culture, anyone who travels with no fixed abode (regardless of ethnic group). This use of the term is synonymous with "pikey", which is seen by many as a derogatory term. In some parts of the UK they are commonly called "tinkers" from their work as tinsmiths.
The first Roma group arriving in the North America was the Romnichels, at the beginning of the 19th century. Romnichal (or Romanichal) is a neologism by which groups of Roma people (often known as Gypsies found in some parts of the United Kingdom, notably In the second half of the century, the immigration of Roma groups from Eastern Europe began, especially from Romania, the ancestors of the majority of the contemporary local Roma population. Eastern Europe is a general term that refers to the Geopolitical region encompassing the easternmost part of the European continent. Romania ( dated: Rumania, Roumania Among them were Romany-speaking groups like the Kalderash, Machvaya, Lovari, Churari, and even linguistically Romanianized groups, like the Boyash (Ludari). Caldarari, Kotlyary is the name for one of subgroups of Roma; this subgroup is widespread in the world The Machvaya (also Machavaya) are a group of Roma originating specifically from Serbia (from Mačva) Lovari can mean Lovari (Roma, a subgroup of the Roma people Lovari (person, a dance recording artist & actor Romanian or Daco-Romanian ( dated: Rumanian or Roumanian; self designation limba română, ˈlimba roˈmɨnə is a Romance Boyash (or Bayash; Romanian: Băeşi, Hungarian: Beás, Slovak: Bojáš, South Slavic: Bojaši They arrived after their liberation from slavery in 1840-1850, directly from Romania, or after living some years in neighbouring states (the Russian Empire, Austria-Hungary, and Serbia). The Russian Empire ( Pre-reform Russian: Pоссійская Имперія Modern Russian: Российская Империя translit: Rossiyskaya Serbia (Србија Srbija) officially the Republic of Serbia (Република Србија Republika Srbija) is a Landlocked Country The Bashalde arrived from what is now Slovakia around this same time.  This immigration decreased drastically during the Communist regime in Eastern Europe, in the second half of the 20th century, but resumed in the 1990s, after the fall of Communism. During the Cold War, the term Communist Bloc (or Soviet Bloc) was used to refer to the Soviet Union and countries it either controlled or that were Roma organizations currently estimate that there are about one million Roma in the USA and 80,000 in Canada. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page 
A community related closely to the Roma and living in Israel and the Palestinian territories and in neighboring countries are known as Dom people. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. Name There are differences of opinion as to what the Palestinian territories should be called The Dom (or Domi (دومي or دومري of the Middle East are an Indo-Aryan ethnic group Before 1948, there was an Arabic-speaking Dom community in Jaffa, whose members were noted for their involvement in street theatre and circus performances. Arabic (ar الْعَرَبيّة (informally ar عَرَبيْ) in terms of the number of speakers is the largest living member of the Semitic language Jaffa يَافَا;(יָפוֹ Yafo; also Japho, Joppa) is an ancient Port city believed to be one of the oldest in the world Street theatre is a form of theatrical Performance and presentation in outdoor Public spaces without a specific paying Audience. They are the subject of the play "The Gypsies of Jaffa" (Hebrew: הצוענים של יפו), by the late Nissim Aloni, considered among Israel's foremost playwrights, and the play came to be considered a classic of the Israeli theatre (see ). Nisim Aloni (נסים אלוני 1926 - 1998 was an Israeli playwright and translator Like most other Jaffa Arabs, much of this community was uprooted in the face of the Israeli advance in April 1948, and its descendants are assumed to be presently living in the Gaza Strip; it is unknown to what degree they still preserve a separate Domari identity. The Gaza Strip (قطاع غزة, רצועת עזה Retzu'at 'Azza) is a coastal strip of land along the Mediterranean Sea, bordering Egypt on the south-west Another Dom community is known to exist in East Jerusalem. East Jerusalem refers to the part of Jerusalem captured by Jordan in the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, and subsequently by Israel in the 1967 Six-Day War. In October 1999, the nonprofit organisation "Domari: The Society of Gypsies in Jerusalem" was established by Amoun Sleem to advocate on this community's behalf. A non-profit organization ( abbreviated "NPO" also "not-for-profit" is a legally constituted Organization whose objective is to support or engage ,  In neighboring Egypt, the Roma population is estimated at 1,080,000 individuals, 234,000 of whom are counted as Dom. This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. 
Some Eastern European Roma are known to have arrived in Israel in the late 1940s and early 1950s, being from Bulgaria or having intermarried with Jews in the post-WWII Displaced Persons camps or, in some cases, having pretended to be Jews when Zionist representatives arrived in those camps. A displaced person (sometimes abbreviated DP) is a person who has been forced to leave his or her native place a phenomenon known as Forced migration. History of Zionism|Timeline of Zionism|World Zionist Organization|Zionist political violence Zionism is an international political movement that originally supported the The exact numbers of these Roma living in Israel are unknown, since such individuals tended to assimilate into the Israeli Jewish environment. According to several recent accounts in the Israeli press, some families preserve traditional Romany lullabies and a small number of Romany expressions and curse words, and pass them on to generations born in Israel who, for the most part, are Jews and speak Hebrew. The Roma community in Israel has grown since the 1990s, as some Roma immigrated there from the former Soviet Union. The post-Soviet states, also commonly known as former Soviet republics, are the 15 independent nations that split off from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
In Iraq, the Qawliya people are a small Roma minority group who trace their history back to Spain. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iraq topics. The Kawliya or Qawliya ( Arabic, كاولية or كاولي are a small Roma minority in Iraq.
Many fictional depictions of the Roma emphasize their supposed mystical powers. Many fictional depictions of the Romani emphasize their supposed mystical powers They often appear as nomads.