Rolling Stone's 40th Anniversary Issue
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|Circulation||1. Music is an Art form in which the medium is Sound organized in Time. Magazines, periodicals or serials are Publications generally published on a regular schedule containing a variety of articles, generally Jann Simon Wenner (born January 7, 1946, in New York City) is the co-founder and publisher of the music and politics biweekly Rolling Stone English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States The City of New York New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous This is a list of the daily Newspapers in the World by average circulation 4 million |
Rolling Stone is a United States-based magazine devoted to music, politics, and popular culture that is published bimonthly. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Magazines, periodicals or serials are Publications generally published on a regular schedule containing a variety of articles, generally Music is an Art form in which the medium is Sound organized in Time. Politics Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions Popular culture (or pop culture) is the Culture — patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activities significance and importance —
Rolling Stone was founded in San Francisco in 1967 by Jann Wenner (who is still editor and publisher) and music critic Ralph J. Gleason. John Winston Ono Lennon, MBE (born How I Won the War is a Black comedy film directed by Richard Lester, released in 1967. The City and County of San Francisco is the fourth most populous city Jann Simon Wenner (born January 7, 1946, in New York City) is the co-founder and publisher of the music and politics biweekly Rolling Stone Ralph J Gleason (1917-1975 was an influential American Jazz and pop music critic To get the magazine off the ground, Wenner borrowed $7500 from his family members and from the family of his soon-to-be wife, Jane Wenner. 
Rolling Stone was initially identified with and reported on the hippie counterculture of the era. The Hippie Subculture was originally a Youth movement that began in the United States during the early 1960s and spread around the world Counterculture (also " counter-culture " is a sociological term used to describe the values and norms of behavior of a Cultural group, or However, the magazine distanced itself from the underground newspapers of the time, such as Berkeley Barb, embracing more traditional journalistic standards and avoiding the radical politics of the underground press. The phrase underground press is most often used to refer to the independently published and distributed underground papers associated with the Counterculture of the The Berkeley Barb was an Underground newspaper that was published in Berkeley California, from 1965 to the early 1980s In the very first edition of the magazine, Wenner wrote that Rolling Stone "is not just about the music, but about the things and attitudes that music embraces. " This has become the de facto motto of the magazine.
In the 1970s, Rolling Stone began to make a mark for its political coverage, with the likes of gonzo journalist Hunter S. Thompson writing for the magazine's political section. "Gonzo" redirects here For other uses see Gonzo (disambiguation Gonzo journalism is a style of Journalism which is written Hunter Stockton Thompson ( July 18, 1937 &ndash February 20, 2005) was an American Journalist and Author, most Thompson would first publish his most famous work Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas within the pages of Rolling Stone, where he remained a contributing editor until his death in 2005. In the 1970s, the magazine also helped launch the careers of many prominent writers, such as Cameron Crowe, Joe Klein, Joe Eszterhas, P. J. O'Rourke, and Kurt Loder. Cameron Bruce Crowe (born July 13, 1957) is an Academy Award -winning American Writer and Film director. Joe Klein (born September 7, 1946) is a longtime Washington D Josef Eszterhas (born November 23, 1944) is a Hungarian - American Writer, known for his screenplays for the films Basic Patrick Jake O'Rourke (born November 14, 1947 in Toledo Ohio) is a conservative American political satirist, journalist Kurt Loder (born May 5 1945 is an American Film critic, Author, and Television personality. It was at this point that the magazine ran some of its most famous stories, including that of the Patty Hearst abduction odyssey. Patricia Campbell Hearst (born February 20, 1954) now known as Patricia Hearst Shaw, is an American newspaper Heiress,
The magazine was so influential in shaping pop culture in the 1970s that a song dedicated to it, "The Cover of the Rolling Stone" by Dr. Hook & The Medicine Show (written by Shel Silverstein), became a hit single. " The Cover of the Rolling Stone " is a song by Shel Silverstein about making a success in the music business Dr Hook and the Medicine Show was a pop - country Rock band formed around Union City New Jersey in 1969 Sheldon Alan "Shel" Silverstein (September 25 1930 &ndash May 10 1999 was an American poet songwriter musician composer cartoonist screenwriter and author Dr. Hook & The Medicine Show eventually did end up fulfilling their wish and ended up on the cover of Rolling Stone.
In the 1990s, facing competition from lad mags such as FHM, Rolling Stone reinvented itself, hiring former FHM editor Ed Needham. This is a list of Magazines primarily marketed to Men. The list has been split into subcategories according to the target audience of the magazines FHM or For Him Magazine is an international monthly Men's Lifestyle magazine. FHM or For Him Magazine is an international monthly Men's Lifestyle magazine. The magazine started targeting younger readers and offering more sex-oriented content, which often focused on sexy young television or film actors as well as pop music. At the time, some long-time readers denounced the magazine, claiming it had declined from astute musical and countercultural observer to a sleek, superficial tabloid, emphasizing style over substance.  Since then, however, the magazine has resumed its traditional mix of content, including in-depth political stories, and has seen circulation (currently at 1. 4 million) and revenue rise. In 2007, the magazine's revenue was up 23. 3 percent.  Also in 2007, the magazine won a National Magazine Award for general excellence and was a finalist in reporting for Janet Reitman's article "Inside Scientology. The National Magazine Awards are a prestigious series of American awards that honor excellence in the Magazine industry Scientology is a body of beliefs and related practices initially created by American Science fiction author L "
Leading up to what it called the 50th Anniversary of Rock in 2004, Rolling Stone published a series of all-time greatest lists to recognize historic achievements in the field. The 100 Greatest Guitarists of All Time and the 500 Greatest Albums of All Time appeared in 2003, followed by 50 Moments That Changed the History of Rock & Roll and The 500 Greatest Songs of All Time in 2004. It also published The Rolling Stone Immortals, a list of the 100 greatest artists of our time.
On May 7, 2006, Rolling Stone published its 1000th issue. Events 558 - In Constantinople, the dome of the Hagia Sophia collapses Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar.  The cover, which was influenced by the cover art of The Beatles' Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band, featured some of the most influential celebrities whom RS had covered. The Beatles were a pop and rock band from Liverpool, England formed in 1960 Sgt Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band is the eighth studio album by the British rock band The Beatles.
Rolling Stone has evolved over the years, but certain features regarded as the hallmark of the magazine, such as "National Affairs" which has been around since the likes of Hunter S. Thompson and Joe Klein, and "Rock and Roll" are still published in the magazine today. Hunter Stockton Thompson ( July 18, 1937 &ndash February 20, 2005) was an American Journalist and Author, most Joe Klein (born September 7, 1946) is a longtime Washington D In a bid to react to the advent of the internet, these two features have been made available in the forms of blogs.  Rolling Stone also publishes "Random Notes," a section which mixes photos with tabloid like headlines. A tabloid is a Newspaper industry term which refers to a smaller newspaper format per spread to a weekly or semi-weekly alternative newspaper that focuses on local-interest Another regular feature printed next to "Random Notes" is the "Smoking Section" which is written by Austin Scaggs.
Today, four decades since its founding by Jann Wenner, the Rolling Stone record reviews section is regarded by many sources as still one of the most influential around. Jann Simon Wenner (born January 7, 1946, in New York City) is the co-founder and publisher of the music and politics biweekly Rolling Stone 
One major criticism of Rolling Stone involves its apparent generational bias toward the 1960s and 1970s. One critic referred to the Rolling Stone list of the 99 Greatest Songs as an example of "unrepentant rockist fogeyism. Rockism is an ideology of Popular music criticism coined by Pete Wylie and used extensively in the British music press from the early 1980s "  In further response to this issue, rock critic Jim DeRogatis, a former Rolling Stone editor, published a thorough critique of the magazine's lists in a book called Kill Your Idols: A New Generation of Rock Writers Reconsiders the Classics (ISBN 1-56980-276-9), which featured differing opinions from many younger critics. James "Jim" DeRogatis (born 1964 in Jersey City New Jersey) is an American Music critic. 
In more recent years, Rolling Stone has been criticized for reconsidering many classic albums that it had previously dismissed. Examples of artists for whom this is the case include, among others, Led Zeppelin, AC/DC, and Nirvana. Led Zeppelin were AC/DC are an Australian Hard rock band formed in Sydney, Australia in 1973 by brothers Angus and Malcolm Young. Nirvana was an American rock band that was formed by singer/guitarist Kurt Cobain and bassist Krist Novoselic in Aberdeen Washington. For example, Led Zeppelin was largely written off by Rolling Stone critics during the band's most active years in the 1970s.   However by 2006, a cover story on Led Zeppelin honored them as "the Heaviest Band of All Time. " Nirvana's album Nevermind was awarded three stars out of five by Rolling Stone upon its release, with the reviewer writing that "If Nirvana isn't on to anything altogether new, Nevermind does possess the songs, character and spirit to be much more than a reformulation of college radio's high-octane hits. Nevermind is the second studio album by the American rock band Nirvana, released on September 24 1991 Nevermind is the second studio album by the American rock band Nirvana, released on September 24 1991 "  Years later, the magazine ranked the album number 17 out of its top 500 greatest albums of all time, surpassing hundreds of 4-star and even 5-star albums. On the other hand, the 3-star review for the album was the opinion of one reviewer, while the Top 500 list was the result of a survey of over 250 musicians and critics.
Another criticism of Rolling Stone is that it failed to acknowledge both the newly emerging hard rock movement in the 1970s, as well as early hip hop. Hard rock (also referred to as heavy rock) is a variation of Rock music which has its earliest roots in mid-1960s garage and Psychedelic rock Hip hop is a cultural movement which developed in New York City in the 1970s primarily among African Americans and Latinos. One critic writes, "Some argue that Rolling Stone had began to lose touch with rock's vital pulse as early as 1971, when the magazine put its weight behind folk rock singer-songwriters such as Carly Simon, Jackson Browne, and Joni Mitchell and largely ignored the heavy rock acts then filling arenas across America. Carly Elisabeth Simon (born June 25 1945 is an Oscar, Golden Globe and two time Grammy Award -winning American Singer-songwriter, Clyde Jackson Browne (born October 9, 1948) is a German -born American rock Singer-songwriter and Musician. Joni Mitchell, CC (born Roberta Joan Anderson on November 7 1943) is a Canadian Musician, Songwriter, and "  Rolling Stone has reconsidered many of its reviews of early hip hop and rap albums, most of which had previously been dismissed. Hip hop is a cultural movement which developed in New York City in the 1970s primarily among African Americans and Latinos. Rapping (also known as emceeing, MCing, spitting, or just rhyming) is the Rhythmic spoken delivery of Rhymes wordplay and The magazine has since upgraded its original reviews of albums by artists such as Jay-Z, the Wu-Tang Clan and De La Soul. Shawn Corey Carter (born December 4 1969 better known as Jay-Z, is an American Rapper and former CEO of Def Jam Recordings and Roc-A-Fella De La Soul is a Grammy Award-winning hip hop group They are best known for their eclectic sampling and quirky surreal lyrics and their contributions to the evolution  A critic for Slate magazine described a conference at which the 1984 Rolling Stone Record Guide was scrutinized. Slate is a fine-grained foliated homogeneous, Metamorphic rock derived from an original Shale -type Sedimentary rock composed of Clay The Rolling Stone Album Guide, previously known as The Rolling Stone Record Guide, is a book that along with its sister publication Rolling As he described it, "The guide virtually ignored hip-hop and ruthlessly panned heavy metal, the two genres that within a few years would dominate the pop charts. In an auditorium packed with music journalists, you could detect more than a few anxious titters: How many of us will want our record reviews read back to us 20 years hence?" 
Like MTV, Rolling Stone has been criticized for "selling out" in order to succeed financially. MTV ( Music Television) is an American Cable television network based in New York City. Longtime readers have complained that the magazine has strayed from its traditional focus on music toward a new focus on film stars.  The hire of former FHM editor Ed Needham further angered critics who alleged that Rolling Stone had lost its credibility. FHM or For Him Magazine is an international monthly Men's Lifestyle magazine. 
Rolling Stone has maintained a website for many years, with selected current articles, reviews, blogs, MP3s, and other features such as searchable and free encyclopedic articles about artists, with images and sometimes sound clips of their work. There are also selected archival political and cultural articles and entries. The site also at one time had an extensive message board forum.
By the late 1990s, the message board forum at the site had developed into a thriving community with a large number of regular members and contributors worldwide. Unfortunately, the site was also plagued with numerous Internet trolls and malicious code-hackers who vandalized the forum substantially. An Internet troll, or simply troll in Internet slang, is someone who posts controversial and irrelevant or off-topic messages in an online community such as an Rolling Stone abruptly and without notice deleted the forum in May 2004.
Rolling Stone began a new, much more limited message board community at their site in late 2005, only to remove it again in 2006. Rolling Stone now permits users to make follow-up comments to posted articles in a blog format. It also maintains a page at MySpace. In March 2008, Rolling Stone started a new message board section once again.
Rolling Stone is largely regarded as the predominant music promotional force in American culture, alongside the likes of MTV. Michael Azerrad is an American Author, Journalist and Musician. Leslie Conway Bangs ( December 13, 1948 &ndash April 30, 1982) was an American music journalist, author and musician Robert Christgau (born April 18 1942) is an American Essayist, Music journalist, and the self-declared "Dean of American Brian Christopher Cookman ( 22 November 1946 - 18 February 2005) was an English musician and composer magazine designer and artist and tai chi Cameron Bruce Crowe (born July 13, 1957) is an Academy Award -winning American Writer and Film director. Anthony DeCurtis is an American Author and Music critic, who has written for Rolling Stone, The New York Times Jancee Dunn (born May 1966 is a Journalist and former VJ. She is most famous for her work at Rolling Stone Magazine where she is a contributing Josef Eszterhas (born November 23, 1944) is a Hungarian - American Writer, known for his screenplays for the films Basic This article is about Timothy Ferris the science writer for the entrepreneur kick boxer tango dancer and writer see Timothy Ferriss. Benjamin Fong-Torres ( 方[[wikt 振|振]] 豪; Pinyin David Fricke is a senior editor at Rolling Stone magazine where he writes predominantly on Rock music. Joe Klein (born September 7, 1946) is a longtime Washington D Jon Landau (born 1947 is an American Music critic, Manager, and Record producer, most known for his association in all three capacities with Jerry Hopkins is an American author and journalist He is best known as the co-author (with Danny Sugerman) of No One Here Gets Out Alive (1980 the David LaChapelle (born March 11, 1963 in Fairfield Connecticut) is a photographer and director who works in the fields of Fashion, Advertising Anna-Lou "Annie" Leibovitz (ˈliːbəvɪts (born October 2, 1949) is an American Portrait photographer whose style is marked Steven Levy (born 1951 is an American Journalist who has written several books on computers technology Cryptography, the Internet cybersecurity Kurt Loder (born May 5 1945 is an American Film critic, Author, and Television personality. Greil Marcus (born 1945 is an American Author, music Journalist and cultural Critic. Patrick Jake O'Rourke (born November 14, 1947 in Toledo Ohio) is a conservative American political satirist, journalist Rob Sheffield (born February 2, 1966) is an American Music Journalist and Author. Ralph Steadman (born Wallasey, May 15, 1936) is a British Cartoonist and Caricaturist. Neil Strauss (also known by his Pen names Style or Chris Powles) is an American Author, Journalist and Ghostwriter Matthew C Taibbi (born February 3 1970 is an American Journalist and political writer Hunter Stockton Thompson ( July 18, 1937 &ndash February 20, 2005) was an American Journalist and Author, most Touré (born March 20, 1971) is an American Novelist, Music journalist, Cultural critic, and television personality based This is about the film critic For the singing colleague of Mary Travers see Peter Yarrow. Jann Simon Wenner (born January 7, 1946, in New York City) is the co-founder and publisher of the music and politics biweekly Rolling Stone Baron Wolman (b June 25 1937 is an American photographer best known for his seminal work in the 1960s for the music magazine Rolling Stone. Gisele Caroline Bündchen (born July 20 1980 is a Brazilian model. Britney Jean Spears (born December 2 1981 is an American recording artist and entertainer The United States of America —commonly referred to as the MTV ( Music Television) is an American Cable television network based in New York City. It has been frequently referenced in other forms of media, such as in Cameron Crowe's semi-autobiographical film Almost Famous where Crowe's character worked as a teenage reporter for the magazine and the cult classic music-oriented movie High Fidelity where becoming a Rolling Stone journalist is cited as the lead character's ambition. Cameron Bruce Crowe (born July 13, 1957) is an Academy Award -winning American Writer and Film director. Almost Famous is a 2000 Comedy-drama film written and directed by Cameron Crowe, writer and director of Jerry Maguire. A cult film is a Film that has acquired a highly devoted but relatively small group of fans. High Fidelity is a 2000 film directed by Stephen Frears and starring John Cusack. In the 1985 movie Perfect, John Travolta made an appearance as a Rolling Stone journalist. Wenner had cameo roles in both Almost Famous and Perfect.
In Stephen King's 1980 novel Firestarter, the young heroine takes her story (of her very demonstrable psychic powers) to Rolling Stone. Stephen Edwin King (born September 21, 1947) is an American Author, Screenwriter, Musician, Columnist, Firestarter is a novel by Stephen King originally published in 1980 Because she is fleeing the government, or rogue elements of it, the choice of Rolling Stone is a clever way of choosing a national venue respected by the growing younger demographic that is also unlikely to cooperate with government censorship or suppression of her story.
The magazine also had made some of the most controversial covers in pop culture; eyebrows were raised when a then-17 year-old Britney Spears was featured on the cover of Rolling Stone magazine in a sexually suggestive Lolita-themed photo shoot which triggered widespread speculation (denied by her representatives) that the singer had opted to have breast implants. Janet Damita Jo Jackson (born May 16 1966 is an American recording artist and entertainer Britney Jean Spears (born December 2 1981 is an American recording artist and entertainer Another controversial cover and, perhaps one of the Magazine's most famous, is of Janet Jackson who was photographed topless with her then-husband's hands covering her breasts. Janet Damita Jo Jackson (born May 16 1966 is an American recording artist and entertainer
The Rick Griffin logo for Rolling Stone and magazine cover were used as the basis for promotional images for the film School of Rock. Richard Alden Griffin ( June 18, 1944 - August 18, 1991) was an American Artist and one of the leading designers of A logo ( Greek el λογότυπος = el-Latn logotypos is a graphical element ( Ideogram, Symbol, Emblem, Icon, Sign) School of Rock is a 2003 American Comedy film from Paramount Pictures, starring Jack Black.
At the end of The Wedding Singer, Drew Barrymore is reading a copy of Rolling Stone (Issue 440, January 31, 1985) with Billy Idol on the cover, while going to Las Vegas with Glen on the plane. The Wedding Singer is a 1998 Film written by Tim Herlihy and directed by Frank Coraci that stars Adam Sandler as Robbie Drew Blyth Barrymore (born February 22 1975 is an American actress and Film producer. Billy Idol (born William Michael Albert Broad, 30 November 1955, Stanmore, Middlesex) is an English rock The movie is set in 1985.
In the movie, Tenacious D and the Pick of Destiny, copies of Rolling Stone are seen in a scene where Jack Black and Kyle Gass are contemplating what they need to be great musicians, and Gass notices that several great guitarists wield the same pick.
In the movie Music and Lyrics, fictional Rolling Stone magazine reviews from various eras play a major role. Music and Lyrics is a romantic comedy Film released by Warner Bros
In the pilot episode of the CW series Gossip Girl, a fictional Rolling Stone cover story on "forgotten bands of the '90s" is a repeatedly referenced plot point. Gossip Girl is a series of novels written for teenagers by Cecily von Ziegesar.
The magazine helped supermodel Gisele Bündchen's rising to fame, who was named in September 2000 cover issue the most beautiful girl in the world. Gisele Caroline Bündchen (born July 20 1980 is a Brazilian model.
Appearing on the cover of Rolling Stone has become something of a milestone in the career of many famous artists, and remains the aspiration of many up-and-coming musicians. The list of celebrities who have appeared on the cover of Rolling Stone magazine is long and storied Some artists have graced the cover many times, some of these pictures going on to become iconic. The Beatles, for example, have appeared on the cover over thirty times, either individually or as a band.  The first ten who appeared on the cover were:
Rolling Stone often publishes lists which include:
Rolling Stone is published by Publirevistas S. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Argentina topics. A. since April 1998.
A Rolling Stone supplement commenced in 1969 in Go-Set magazine. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. Go-Set was the first Australian Rock music magazine published from early February 1966 until August 1974 It became a full title in 1972 and is now published by Next Media Pty Ltd, Sydney. Next Media is an Australian media company founded in 1987 by current CEO and publisher Phil Keir Sydney (ˈsɪdniː is the most populous city in Australia, with a Metropolitan area population of approximately 4
Published in Brazil since October 2006 by Spring Comunicações. |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld
Rolling Stone was published by Edu Comunicaciones since May 2003. Chile, officially the Republic of Chile ( Spanish:) is a country in South America occupying a long and narrow Coastal strip wedged between the Is actually published by El Mercurio, since January 2006. El Mercurio is a conservative Chilean newspaper with editions in Valparaíso and Santiago.
Rolling Stone in mainland China is licensed to One Media Group of Hong Kong and published in partnership with China Record Corporation. Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES Hong Kong ( officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, is a territory located on China 's south coast on the Pearl River Delta, and borders The magazine is in Chinese with translated articles and local content. Its cooperation launched in March 2006 as "Rolling Stone" in English and under the Chinese name "音像世界" ("Audio Visual World"). While the launch of this cooperation generated a great deal of speculation in the foreign press about the regulator's attitudes to the magazine, many of the reports published were misleading in reporting that the magazine had ceased publishing, etc. Ultimately, in August 2007 publication ceased for financial reasons.
Edited in Bogotá for Colombia,Perú, Panama and Venezuela. Colombia (kəˈlʌmbɪə officially the Republic of Colombia () is a country in northwestern South America. Colombia (kəˈlʌmbɪə officially the Republic of Colombia () is a country in northwestern South America. Peru (Perú Piruw Piruw officially the Republic of Peru ( reˈpuβlika del peˈɾu is a country in western South America. Panama, officially the Republic of Panama (República de Panamá) is the southernmost country of Central America. Venezuela (ˌvɛnəˈzweɪlə) officially the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (Spanish República Bolivariana de Venezuela) is a country on the
Launched 2002. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. This edition temporarily ceased in 2007 and was relaunched in May 2008 under license with 1633SA publishing group.
Published in Germany since 1994 by AS Young Mediahouse. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe.
Launched in February 2008 by MW Com, publisher's of Man's World Magazine. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country
Published in Indonesia since June 2005 by JHP Media. The Republic of Indonesia ( (Republik Indonesia is a Country in Southeast Asia.
Published in Italy since November 2003, first by IXO Publishing and now by Editrice Quadratum. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest As in China, the Italian version of Rolling Stone has local content and translated articles.
Launched in March of 2007. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. Like other international editions, its content consists of translated material from the American publication as well as native music coverage.
Rolling Stone Mexico is published by Prisa Internacional since 2002. The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America.
Rolling Stone is published by Izdatelskiy Dom SPN since 2004. Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending
Rolling Stone is published by PROGRESA in Madrid, since 1999. Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula.
Published in Turkish since June 2006 by GD Gazete Dergi. Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches