|Birth||November 16, 1938|
Brooklyn, New York
|Death||January 23, 2002 (aged 63)|
|School/tradition||Analytic · Political|
|Influenced by||John Locke · Immanuel Kant · Friedrich Hayek|
|Part of the series on|
Schools of thought
Robert Nozick (November 16, 1938 – January 23, 2002) was an American philosopher and Pellegrino University Professor at Harvard University. Western philosophy is a term that refers to philosophical thinking in the Western or Occidental world, as distinct from Eastern or Oriental philosophies See also [[Analytic philosophy]] and [[Continental philosophy]] The 20th century brought with it upheavals that produced a series of conflicting developments within Philosophy Events 534 - A second and final revision of the Codex Justinianus is published Year 1938 ( MCMXXXVIII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Brooklyn (named after the Dutch town Breukelen) is one of the five boroughs of New York City. New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous Events 393 - Roman Emperor Theodosius I proclaims his nine year old son Honorius co-emperor See also 2002 (disambiguation Year 2002 ( MMII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. Analytic philosophy (sometimes analytical philosophy) is a generic term for a style of Philosophy that came to dominate English-speaking countries in the 20th century Political philosophy is the study of questions about the City, Government, Politics, Liberty, Justice, Property, Rights John Locke (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704 was an English Philosopher. Immanuel Kant (ɪmanuəl kant 22 April 1724 12 February 1804 was an 18th-century German Philosopher from the Prussian city of Königsberg Friedrich August von Hayek CH ( May 8, 1899 March 23, 1992) was an Austrian British Economist Libertarianism is a term used by a broad spectrum of political philosophies which prioritize individual Liberty and seek to minimize or even abolish the Agorism is an anarchist Political philosophy founded by Samuel Edward Konkin III that holds the ultimate goal as bringing about a society in which Anarcho-capitalism (also known as Free-market anarchism) is an individualist anarchist Political philosophy that advocates the elimination Autarchism (from Greek, "belief in self rule" is a Political philosophy that upholds the principle of Individual liberty, rejects compulsory Christian libertarianism should not be confused with Libertarian Christianity. Geolibertarianism is a Political movement that strives to reconcile Libertarianism and Georgism (or geoism) Green libertarianism is a Political philosophy that has developed in the United States. Individualist anarchism refers to any of several traditions that hold that "individual conscience and the pursuit of self-interest should not be constrained by any collective Left-libertarianism (or left-wing libertarianism) is a term that has been adopted by several different libertarian political movements and theorists Libertarian socialism is a group of political philosophies that aim to create a society without political economic or social hierarchies – a society in which all violent Individualist feminism (sometimes also grouped with libertarian feminism or ifeminism) is a term for feminist ideas which seek to celebrate Free-market anarchism (sometimes called market anarchism) refers to an Individualist anarchist Philosophy that harmonizes the abolition of the state with Market socialism is a term used to denote two different Economic system (s based in Socialism which operate according to Market principles In Civics, minarchism, sometimes called minimal Statism, small government, or limited-government Libertarianism Mutualism, is an Anarchist school of thought, can be traced to the writings of Pierre-Joseph Proudhon that envisioned a society where each person might possess a Neolibertarianism is a political philosophy combining elements of Libertarian and Neoconservative thought that embraces Incrementalism domestically Paleolibertarianism is a school of thought within American Libertarianism founded by Lew Rockwell and Murray Rothbard, and closely associated Right-libertarianism or right libertarianism is a phrase used to either describe non- Collectivist forms of Libertarianism or a variety of different libertarian Voluntaryism is a Philosophy that opposes anything that it sees as unjustifiably invasive and Coercive. Objectivism is a Philosophy developed by Ayn Rand in the 20th century that encompasses positions on Metaphysics, Epistemology, The Austrian School, also known as the “ Vienna School ” or the “ Psychological School ” is a heterodox school of economics that advocates Classical liberalism (also known as traditional liberalism, Laissez-faire liberalism, Market liberalism or in much of the world Individualist anarchism refers to any of several traditions that hold that "individual conscience and the pursuit of self-interest should not be constrained by any collective thumb| |Broken Liberty Istanbul Archaeology Museum Civil liberties are freedoms that protect the Individual from the Government. Counter-economics is a term originally coined by Samuel Edward Konkin III, a radical Libertarian activist and theorist who defined it as " the study and/or Decriminalization is the reduction or abolition of criminal penalties in relation to certain acts but regulated permits or fines might still apply (for contrast Economic freedom is freedom to produce trade and consume any goods and services acquired without the use of force fraud or theft A free market is a Market in which property rights are voluntarily exchanged at a price arranged completely by the mutual consent of sellers and buyers Free trade is a system in which the trade of goods and services between or within countries flows unhindered by government-imposed restrictions The question of free will Freedom of contract or contractualism is the idea that individuals should be free to bargain among themselves the terms of their own contracts without government interference The homestead principle (or original appropriation) is part of libertarian and anarcho-capitalist Ethics. Humanism is a broad category of ethical philosophies that affirm the dignity and worth of all people based on the ability to determine right and wrong by appealing to universal Methodological individualism is a philosophical method aimed at explaining and understanding broad society-wide developments as the aggregation of decisions by individuals Laissez-faire ( pronunciation: French,; English,) is a French phrase literally meaning Let do (“allow to do” Liberty, the freedom to act or believe without being stopped by unnecessary force A night watchman state, or a minimal state, is a Form of government in Political philosophy where the government's responsibilities are so minimal they The non-aggression principle (also called the non-aggression axiom, anticoercion principle, or zero aggression principle) is a Deontological Nonintervention or non-interventionism is a foreign policy which holds that political rulers should avoid alliances with other nations and avoid all wars not related to direct Property is any physical or virtual entity that is owned by an individual Self-governance is an abstract concept that refers to several scales of Organization. Self-ownership (or sovereignty of the individual, individual sovereignty or individual autonomy) is the moral or natural right (aka Freedom of a person The subjective theory of value (or theory of subjective value) is an economic theory of value that holds that "to possess value an object must be both useful A tax resister resists or refuses payment of a Tax because of opposition to the institution collecting the tax or to some of that institution’s policies The libertarian movement consists of the various individuals and institutions who expound or promote the ideas and causes of Libertarianism. Libertarianism is a Political philosophy that emphasises the Liberty of the individual and seeks to minimize or even abolish the State. Many countries and subnational political entities have libertarian political parties. Libertarian theories of law build upon classical liberal and individualist anarchist doctrines Adherents of different ideologies have criticized Libertarianism for various reasons Civil libertarianism is a strain of political thought that supports Civil liberties, or who emphasizes the supremacy of Individual rights and Personal freedoms For the revolt in Brazil, see Constitutionalist Revolution. The term Constitutionalism is a word with a variety of meanings A libertarian Democrat is a person who subscribes to libertarian philosophy while typically voting for and being involved with the United States Democratic Party. A libertarian Republican (LR is a person who subscribes to libertarian philosophy while typically voting for and being involved with the United States Republican Party Libertarian transhumanism is a Political philosophy synthesizing Libertarianism and Transhumanism. Events 534 - A second and final revision of the Codex Justinianus is published Year 1938 ( MCMXXXVIII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Events 393 - Roman Emperor Theodosius I proclaims his nine year old son Honorius co-emperor See also 2002 (disambiguation Year 2002 ( MMII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Philosophy is the study of general problems concerning matters such as existence knowledge truth beauty justice validity mind and language The position of Joseph Pellegrino University Professor is one of 18 University Professorships at Harvard University. Schooled at Columbia, Princeton, and Oxford, he was a prominent American political philosopher in the 1970s and 1980s. Columbia University is a private University in the United States and a member of the Ivy League. Princeton University is a private Coeducational research university located in Princeton, New Jersey. The University of Oxford (informally "Oxford University" or simply "Oxford" located in the city of Oxford, Oxfordshire, England is the Political philosophy is the study of questions about the City, Government, Politics, Liberty, Justice, Property, Rights He did additional but less influential work in such subjects as decision theory and epistemology. Decision theory in Mathematics and Statistics is concerned with identifying the Values uncertainties and other issues relevant in a given Epistemology (from Greek επιστήμη - episteme, "knowledge" + λόγος, " Logos " or theory of knowledge His Anarchy, State, and Utopia (1974) was a libertarian answer to John Rawls's A Theory of Justice, published in 1971. Anarchy State and Utopia is a work of Political philosophy written by Robert Nozick in 1974. Year 1974 ( MCMLXXIV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. Libertarianism is a term used by a broad spectrum of political philosophies which prioritize individual Liberty and seek to minimize or even abolish the John Rawls ( February 21, 1921  &ndash November 24, 2002) was an American Philosopher, a Professor of A Theory of Justice is a widely-read book of political and Moral philosophy by John Rawls. Year 1971 ( MCMLXXI) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. He was born in Brooklyn, the son of a Jewish entrepreneur from Russia, and married the American poet Gjertrud Schnackenberg. Brooklyn (named after the Dutch town Breukelen) is one of the five boroughs of New York City. PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending Gjertrud Schnackenberg (born 1953) is an award-winning American Poet. Nozick died in 2002 after a prolonged struggle with cancer. See also 2002 (disambiguation Year 2002 ( MMII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. Cancer (medical term Malignant Neoplasm) is a class of Diseases in which a group of cells display uncontrolled His remains are interred at Mount Auburn Cemetery in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Founded in 1831 as "America's first garden cemetery" or the first " Rural cemetery " Mount Auburn Cemetery is an Elysium where traditionally Cambridge Massachusetts is a City in the Greater Boston area of Massachusetts, United States.
Nozick's Anarchy, State, and Utopia, which garnered a National Book Award the following year, argues among other things, that a distribution of goods is just, so long as the distribution was brought about by free exchanges by consenting adults and was made from a just starting position, even if large inequalities emerge from the process. Anarchy State and Utopia is a work of Political philosophy written by Robert Nozick in 1974. The National Book Awards are among the most eminent literary prizes in the United States. Nozick appealed to the Kantian idea that people should be treated as ends (what he termed 'separateness of persons'), not merely as a means. Immanuel Kant (ɪmanuəl kant 22 April 1724 12 February 1804 was an 18th-century German Philosopher from the Prussian city of Königsberg For example, forced redistribution of income treated people as if they were merely sources of money. Nozick here challenges John Rawls's arguments in A Theory of Justice that conclude that just inequalities in distribution must benefit the least well off. John Rawls ( February 21, 1921  &ndash November 24, 2002) was an American Philosopher, a Professor of A Theory of Justice is a widely-read book of political and Moral philosophy by John Rawls. Nozick backed away from some of the views he expressed in Anarchy, State, and Utopia in one of his later books, The Examined Life, calling those views "seriously inadequate. The Examined Life is a collection of philosophical meditations written by Robert Nozick and published in 1989 " In a 2001 interview, however, he clarified his position: "What I was really saying in The Examined Life was that I was no longer as hardcore a libertarian as I had been before. Year 2001 ( MMI) was a Common year starting on Monday according to the Gregorian calendar. But the rumors of my deviation (or apostasy!) from libertarianism were much exaggerated. " 
In Philosophical Explanations (1981), which received the Phi Beta Kappa Society's Waldo Emerson Award, Nozick provides novel accounts of knowledge, free will, personal identity, the nature of value, and the meaning of life. Philosophical Explanations is a wide-ranging Metaphysical, Epistemological, and Ethical treatise written by Robert Nozick and published in Year 1981 ( MCMLXXXI) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Knowledge is defined ( Oxford English Dictionary) variously as (i expertise and skills acquired by a person through experience or education the theoretical or practical understanding The question of free will In Philosophy, personal identity refers to the essence of a self-conscious person that which makes him or her unique A personal and cultural value is a Relative ethic value, an assumption upon which implementation can be extrapolated He also put forward an epistemological system which attempted to deal with both Edmund Gettier-style problems and those posed by skepticism. This highly influential argument eschewed justification as a necessary requirement for knowledge.
The Examined Life (1989), pitched to a broader public, explores love, death, faith, reality, and the meaning of life. The Examined Life is a collection of philosophical meditations written by Robert Nozick and published in 1989 Year 1989 ( MCMLXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar) The Nature of Rationality (1993) presents a theory of practical reason that attempts to embellish notoriously spartan classical decision theory. The Nature of Rationality is an exploration of practical rationality written by Robert Nozick and published in 1993 Year 1993 ( MCMXCIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar) In Philosophy, practical reason is the use of Reason to decide how to act. Decision theory in Mathematics and Statistics is concerned with identifying the Values uncertainties and other issues relevant in a given Socratic Puzzles (1997) is a collection of papers that range in topic from Ayn Rand and Austrian economics to animal rights, while his last production, Invariances (2001) applies insights from physics and biology to questions of objectivity in such areas as the nature of necessity and moral value. Socratic Puzzles is a collection of essays by Libertarian Philosopher Robert Nozick. Year 1997 ( MCMXCVII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1997 Gregorian calendar Ayn Rand (ˈaɪn ˈrænd &ndash March 6 1982 born Alisa Zinov'yevna Rosenbaum (Алиса Зиновьевна Розенбаум was a Russian born American The Austrian School, also known as the “ Vienna School ” or the “ Psychological School ” is a heterodox school of economics that advocates "Animal liberation" redirects here for other uses see Animal liberation (disambiguation. Invariances, published in 2001 by Harvard University Press was Robert Nozick 's last book before his death in 2002 Year 2001 ( MMI) was a Common year starting on Monday according to the Gregorian calendar. Physics (Greek Physis - φύσις in everyday terms is the Science of Matter and its motion. Foundations of modern biology There are five unifying principles Objectivity is both an important and very difficult concept to pin down in philosophy In Criminal law, necessity may be either a possible justification or an exculpation for breaking the Law. Value theory encompasses a range of approaches to understanding how why and to what degree humans should or do value things whether the thing is a person idea object or anything else
He created the thought experiment of the Utility monster in order to show that average utilitarianism could lead to a situation where the needs of the vast majority were sacrificed for one individual. The utility monster is a Thought experiment in the study of Ethics.
Nozick was notable for his curious, exploratory style and methodological ecumenism. Ecumenism (also oecumenism, œcumenism) refers to initiatives aimed at greater Religious unity or cooperation Often content to raise tantalizing philosophical possibilities and then leave judgment to the reader, Nozick was also notable for inventively drawing from literature outside of philosophy (e. g. , economics, physics, evolutionary biology) to infuse his work with freshness and relevance. Economics is the social science that studies the production distribution, and consumption of goods and services. Physics (Greek Physis - φύσις in everyday terms is the Science of Matter and its motion. Evolutionary biology is a sub-field of Biology concerned with the origin of Species from a Common descent, and Descent of species