|Robert Traill Spence Lowell IV|
|Born||March 1, 1917|
|Died||September 12, 1977|
New York City, New York
|Spouse(s)||Jean Stafford (1940-1948)|
Elizabeth Hardwick (1949-1970)
Caroline Blackwood (1970-1977)
|Relative(s)||Amy Lowell, James Russell Lowell|
Robert Lowell (March 1, 1917–September 12, 1977), born Robert Traill Spence Lowell, IV, was an American poet whose works, confessional in nature, engaged with the questions of history and probed the dark recesses of the self. Events 86 BC - Lucius Cornelius Sulla, at the head of a Roman Republic army enters in Athens, removing the Tyrant Year 1917 ( MCMXVII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Events 1213 - Albigensian Crusade: Simon de Montfort 5th Earl of Leicester, defeats Peter II of Aragon at the Also 1977 (album by Ash. Year 1977 ( MCMLXXVII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays The City of New York New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous Employment is a Contract between two parties, one being the employer and the other being the employee. A poet is a person who writes Poetry. Etymology From the Ancient greek: ποιέω, poieō: "I make or compose" Nationality is a relationship between a Person and their State of Origin, Culture, association Affiliation and/or Loyalty The United States of America —commonly referred to as the A literary genre is a category of literary composition Genres may be determined by Literary technique, tone, Content, or even (as in the case of fiction Confessional poetry trafficks in intimate and sometimes unflattering information about details of the poet's personal life such as in poems about illness sexuality and despondence Jean Stafford ( July 1, 1915 &ndash March 26, 1979) was an American short story writer and novelist who won the Pulitzer Prize Elizabeth Hardwick may refer to Bess of Hardwick, Elizabethan courtier Elizabeth Hardwick (writer Amy Lawrence Lowell ( February 9, 1874 — May 12, 1925) was an American Poet of the Imagist school from Brookline James Russell Lowell (February 22 1819 – August 12 1891 was an American Romantic poet critic editor and Diplomat. Elizabeth Bishop ( February 8, 1911 &ndash October 6, 1979) was an American Poet and Writer from Worcester John Crowe Ransom ( April 30, 1888, Pulaski Tennessee - July 3, 1974, Gambier Ohio) was an American Poet Harold Hart Crane ( July 21, 1899 – April 27, 1932) was an American Poet. John Orley Allen Tate ( November 19, 1899 - February 9, 1979) was an American Poet, essayist and social commentator and Elizabeth Bishop ( February 8, 1911 &ndash October 6, 1979) was an American Poet and Writer from Worcester Sylvia Plath (October 27 1932 &ndash February 11 1963 was an American Poet, Novelist and Short story Writer. Anne Sexton ( November 9, 1928, Newton Massachusetts — October 4, 1974, Weston Massachusetts) born Anne Gray Maxine Kumin (born 1925 is an American Poet and Author. Life Born in Philadelphia, Kumin the daughter of Jewish parents Events 86 BC - Lucius Cornelius Sulla, at the head of a Roman Republic army enters in Athens, removing the Tyrant Year 1917 ( MCMXVII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Events 1213 - Albigensian Crusade: Simon de Montfort 5th Earl of Leicester, defeats Peter II of Aragon at the Also 1977 (album by Ash. Year 1977 ( MCMLXXVII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays A poet is a person who writes Poetry. Etymology From the Ancient greek: ποιέω, poieō: "I make or compose" Confessional poetry trafficks in intimate and sometimes unflattering information about details of the poet's personal life such as in poems about illness sexuality and despondence History is the study of the past particularly the written record Those who study history as a Profession are called Historians Etymology He is generally considered to be among the greatest American poets of the twentieth century. The twentieth century of the Common Era began on
He was born in Boston, Massachusetts to a Boston Brahmin family that included the poets Amy Lowell and James Russell Lowell. Boston Brahmins, also called the First Families of Boston and cold roast Boston, are the class of New Englanders who claim hereditary and cultural descent Amy Lawrence Lowell ( February 9, 1874 — May 12, 1925) was an American Poet of the Imagist school from Brookline James Russell Lowell (February 22 1819 – August 12 1891 was an American Romantic poet critic editor and Diplomat. His mother, Charlotte Winslow, was a direct descendant of William Samuel Johnson, a signer of the United States Constitution, Jonathan Edwards, the famed philosopher, Anne Hutchinson, the Puritan preacher and healer, Robert Livingston the Elder, Thomas Dudley, the second governor of Massachusetts, and Mayflower passengers James Chilton and his daughter Mary Chilton. William Samuel Johnson (1727-1819 was an early American statesman who was notable for signing the United States Constitution, for representing Connecticut in the The Constitution of the United States of America is the supreme Law of the United States. This article is about the theologian (b 1703 for other uses of Jonathan Edwards see Jonathan Edwards. Anne Hutchinson ( July 20, 1591 – August 20, 1643) was the unauthorized Puritan minister of a dissident church discussion Robert Livingston the Elder ( December 13, 1654 – October 1, 1728) was a New York colonial official and first lord of Thomas Dudley ( October 12, 1576 July 31, 1653) was a colonial magistrate who served several terms as governor of the Massachusetts The Mayflower was the famous Ship that transported the English Separatists better known as the Pilgrims, from Southampton, England James Chilton (B 1556 D December1620 was born in England and lived in Canterbury Mary Chilton (1607-ca1679 was a Pilgrim and purportedly the first European woman to step ashore at Plymouth Massachusetts. He was at St. Mark's School, a prominent prep-school in Southborough, Mass, before attending Harvard College for two years and transferring to Kenyon College in Gambier, Ohio, to study under John Crowe Ransom. St Mark’s School is a Coeducational, Episcopal, preparatory school, situated on in Southborough Massachusetts, from Boston Harvard College is the undergraduate section and oldest school of Harvard University, a Private university in the United States founded in 1636 by the Massachusetts Kenyon College is a private liberal arts college in Gambier Ohio, founded in 1824 by Bishop Philander Chase of the The Episcopal Church John Crowe Ransom ( April 30, 1888, Pulaski Tennessee - July 3, 1974, Gambier Ohio) was an American Poet  He converted from Episcopalianism to Catholicism, which influenced his first two books, Land of Unlikeness (1944) and the Pulitzer Prize winning Lord Weary's Castle (1946). Events Works published in English United Kingdom W H Auden, For the Time Being A Christmas Oratorio Events W H Auden becomes a US citizen Ezra Pound brought back to the United States on treason charges but found unfit to face trial In 1950, Lowell was included in the influential anthology Mid-Century American Poets as one of the key literary figures of his generation. Events Charles Olson publishes his seminal essay Projective Verse. Among his contemporaries who also appeared in that book were Muriel Rukeyser, Karl Shapiro, Elizabeth Bishop, Theodore Roethke, Randall Jarrell, and John Ciardi, all poets who came into prominence in the 1940s. Muriel Rukeyser ( December 15, 1913 &ndash February 12, 1980) was an American poet and political activist best known for her Karl Jay Shapiro (b November 10 1913, Baltimore Maryland – d Elizabeth Bishop ( February 8, 1911 &ndash October 6, 1979) was an American Poet and Writer from Worcester Theodore Huebner Roethke (ˈrɛtkə RET-keh) May 25]] 1908 &ndash August 1 1963) was an American Poet, who published several volumes Randall Jarrell ( May 06, 1914 – October 14, 1965) was a United States Poet, Novelist, Critic John Anthony Ciardi ( June 24, 1916 - March 30, 1986) was an American Poet, translator, and Etymologist
Lowell was a conscientious objector during World War II and served several months at the federal prison in Danbury, Connecticut. A conscientious objector (CO is an individual who on religious moral or ethical grounds refuses to participate as a combatant in war or in some cases to take any role that would support World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including The Federal Correctional Institution Danbury is a federal Prison for women (formerly for men in the United States. During the 1960s he was active in the civil rights movement and opposed the US involvement in Vietnam. His participation in the October 1967 peace march in Washington, DC, and his subsequent arrest are described in the early sections of Norman Mailer's The Armies of the Night. Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D Norman Kingsley Mailer ( January 31, 1923 &ndash November 10, 2007) was an American Novelist, Journalist,
Lowell suffered with alcoholism and manic depression and was hospitalized many times throughout his life. Alcoholism is a term with multiple and sometimes conflicting definitions He was married to novelist Jean Stafford from 1940 to 1948. Jean Stafford ( July 1, 1915 &ndash March 26, 1979) was an American short story writer and novelist who won the Pulitzer Prize In 1949 he married the writer Elizabeth Hardwick. Elizabeth Hardwick may refer to Bess of Hardwick, Elizabethan courtier Elizabeth Hardwick (writer In 1970 he left Elizabeth Hardwick for the British author Lady Caroline Blackwood. He spent many of his last years in England. Lowell died in 1977, having suffered a heart attack in a cab in New York City on his way to see Elizabeth Hardwick. Elizabeth Hardwick may refer to Bess of Hardwick, Elizabethan courtier Elizabeth Hardwick (writer He is buried in Stark Cemetery, Dunbarton, New Hampshire. Dunbarton, is a town in Merrimack County, New Hampshire, United States.
Lowell's collected poems were published in 2003 and his letters in 2005, leading to a renewed interest in his work. Events January 29 &mdash Poet Dana Gioia, who had retired early from his career as a corporate executive at General Foods to write full time becomes Events October 7 &mdash Celebrations marking the 50th anniversary of the first reading of Allen Ginsberg
He reached wide acclaim for his 1946 book, Lord Weary's Castle, which included ten poems slightly revised from his earlier Land of Unlikeness, and thirty new poems. Events W H Auden becomes a US citizen Ezra Pound brought back to the United States on treason charges but found unfit to face trial Among the better known poems in the volume are "Mr Edwards and the Spider" and "The Quaker Graveyard in Nantucket. The Quaker Graveyard in Nantucket is an influential poem by Robert Lowell. " Lord Weary's Castle was awarded the Pulitzer Prize in 1947. The Pulitzer Prize, ˈpʊlɨtsɚ PULL-it-sər is an American award regarded as the highest national honor in Newspaper journalism, Events Dorothy Parker divorces Alan Campbell for the first time Lowell's early poems are formal, ornate, and concerned with violence and theology; a typical example is the close of "The Quaker Graveyard" -- "You could cut the brackish winds with a knife / Here in Nantucket and cast up the time / When the Lord God formed man from the sea's slime / And breathed into his face the breath of life, / And the blue-lung'd combers lumbered to the kill. / The Lord survives the rainbow of His will. "
The Mills of the Kavanaughs (1951) did not receive similar acclaim, but Lowell was able to revive his reputation with Life Studies (1959). Events Poet Cid Corman began Origin magazine in response to the failure of a magazine that Robert Creeley had planned Life Studies is the fourth book of poems by Robert Lowell. Many critics consider it Lowell's most important book and the Academy of American Poets named it one Events In the United States "Those serious new Bohemians the beatniks, occupied with reading their deliberately undisciplined protesting verse The poems in this book were written in a mix of free and metered verse, with much more informal language than he used in his first two books. It marked both a big turning point in Lowell's career, and a turning point for American poetry in general. The poetry of the United States arose first during its beginnings as the constitutionally unified Thirteen colonies (although before this a strong Because many of the poems documented details from Lowell's family life and personal problems, one critic, M. L. Rosenthal, labeled the book "confessional. " For better or worse, this label stuck. Lowell's editor and friend Frank Bidart notes in his afterword to Lowell's Collected Poems, "Lowell is widely, perhaps indelibly associated with the term 'confessional,'" though Bidart questions the accuracy of this label. Frank Bidart (born 1939 in Bakersfield California) is an American academic and award-winning poet 
Lowell followed Life Studies with Imitations, a volume of loose translations of poems by classical and modern European poets, including Rilke, Montale, Baudelaire, Pasternak, and Rimbaud, for which he received the 1962 Bollingen Poetry Translation Prize. Rainer Maria Rilke (also Rainer Maria von Rilke (4 December 1875 &ndash 29 December 1926 is considered one of the German language 's greatest 20th century Poets Montale is a Comune (municipality in the Province of Pistoia in the Italian region Tuscany, located about 25 km northwest of "Rimbaud" redirects here For other uses see Rimbaud (disambiguation Jean Nicolas Arthur Rimbaud (ræm'boʊ or in French aʁtyʁ Events Writers in the Soviet Union this year were allowed to publish criticism of Joseph Stalin and were given more freedom generally although many were severely
His next book For the Union Dead, 1964, was also widely praised, particularly for its title poem, which invokes Allen Tate's "Ode to the Confederate Dead. Events Among the many books of poetry published this year Robert Lowell 's For the Union Dead is greeted with particular acclaim John Orley Allen Tate ( November 19, 1899 - February 9, 1979) was an American Poet, essayist and social commentator and " In Near the Ocean, which followed a couple of years later, Lowell had returned to stanzaic forms. The best known poem in this volume, "Waking Early Sunday Morning," is written in eight-line stanzas borrowed from Andrew Marvell's poem "Upon Appleton House. Andrew Marvell ( 31 March 1621 &ndash 16 August 1678) was an English metaphysical poet, and the son of a Church of "
During 1967 and 1968 he experimented with a verse journal, published as Notebook, 1967-68. These fourteen-line poems loosely based on the sonnet form were reworked into three volumes. The sonnet is one of the poetic forms that can be found in Lyric poetry from Europe. History deals with public history from antiquity onwards, and with modern poets Lowell had known; For Lizzie and Harriet describes the breakdown of his second marriage; and The Dolphin, which won the 1974 Pulitzer Prize, includes poems about his marriage to Caroline Blackwood and their life in England. Events The Jack Kerouac School of Disembodied Poetics is founded by Allen Ginsberg and Anne Waldman. The Pulitzer Prize, ˈpʊlɨtsɚ PULL-it-sər is an American award regarded as the highest national honor in Newspaper journalism,
A minor controversy erupted when he incorporated private letters from his second wife, Elizabeth Hardwick into For Lizzie and Harriet. Elizabeth Hardwick may refer to Bess of Hardwick, Elizabethan courtier Elizabeth Hardwick (writer He was particularly criticized for this by his friends Adrienne Rich and Elizabeth Bishop. Adrienne Cecile Rich (born May 16 1929 in Baltimore, Maryland) is an American poet essayist and Feminist. Elizabeth Bishop ( February 8, 1911 &ndash October 6, 1979) was an American Poet and Writer from Worcester