Robert Studley Forrest Hughes AO, (born July 28, 1938), usually known as Robert Hughes, is an art critic, writer and television documentary maker. Order of Australia is an order of chivalry established by Elizabeth II, Queen of Australia on 14 February 1975 "for the purpose of according recognition Events 1540 - Thomas Cromwell is executed at the order of Henry VIII of England on charges of Treason. Year 1938 ( MCMXXXVIII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. An art critic is a person who specializes in evaluating Art. Their written critiques or reviews are published in newspapers magazines books and on web sites Documentary film is a broad category of visual expression that is based on the attempt in one fashion or another to " Document " reality Hughes has lived in New York for over 30 years. The City of New York
Hughes was born in Sydney in 1938. Sydney (ˈsɪdniː is the most populous city in Australia, with a Metropolitan area population of approximately 4 Year 1938 ( MCMXXXVIII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. His father and paternal grandfather were prominent lawyers. A lawyer, according to Black's Law Dictionary, is "a person learned in the law as an attorney, Counsel or Solicitor; a person Hughes' father, Geoffrey Forrest Hughes, was an aviator in World War I, with later careers as a solicitor and company director. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All A "solicitor" is a term used in many Common law jurisdictions for a lawyer who offers legal services outside of the courts Robert Hughes' mother was Margaret Eyre Sealy, née Vidal. His older brother, Tom Hughes, is an Australian lawyer and former Attorney-General of Australia. Thomas Eyre Forrest Hughes AO QC (born 26 November 1923) is an Australian politician and lawyer The Attorney-General of Australia is the first law officer of the Crown chief law officer of the Commonwealth of Australia and a Minister of the Crown. Geoffrey Hughes died from lung cancer when Robert was aged 12.
He was educated at St Ignatius' College, Riverview before going on to study arts and then architecture at the University of Sydney. Saint Ignatius' College Riverview is a Roman Catholic, day and Boarding school for boys located in Riverview, a small Suburb The arts is a broad subdivision of Culture, composed of many expressive disciplines. The term architecture (from Greek αρχιτεκτονικήarchitektoniki) can be used to mean a process a profession or documentation The University of Sydney (informally Sydney Uni or USyd) is the oldest university in Australia At university, Hughes made a name for himself within the Sydney "Push" — a group of artists, writers, intellectuals and drinkers. The Sydney Push was a predominantly left-wing intellectual Sub-culture in Sydney from the late 1940s to the early '70s. Among the group were at least two other cultural observers: Germaine Greer and Clive James. Germaine Greer (born 29 January 1939 is an Australian born Writer, Academic, Journalist and Scholar of early modern English literature Clive James AM (born Vivian James, on October 7, 1939 in Kogarah New South Wales) is an Expatriate Australian Hughes failed university and, after subsequently enrolling in architecture school, abandoned his studies to become first a cartoonist and then an art critic for the Sydney periodical The Observer, edited by Donald Horne. Professor Donald Horne (26 December 1921 – 8 September 2005 was an Australian Journalist, Writer, social critic and academic who became one of Australia's   Around this time he wrote a history of Australian painting, titled The Art of Australia, which is still considered to be an important work. It was published in 1966. Hughes was also briefly involved in the original Sydney version of Oz magazine, and wrote art criticism for The Nation and The Sunday Mirror. Oz was first published as a satirical humour magazine between 1963&ndash69 in Sydney, Australia and in its second and more famous incarnation became
Hughes left Australia for London, England in 1965, where he wrote for The Spectator, The Daily Telegraph, The Times and The Observer, among others, and contributed to the London version of Oz. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland For other uses see Spectator. The Spectator is a weekly British Magazine first published on 6 July For "The Daily Telegraph" in Australia see The Daily Telegraph (Australia. The Times is a daily national Newspaper published in the United Kingdom since 1785 when it was known as The Daily Universal Register. The Observer is a British Newspaper published on Sundays In about the same place on the political spectrum as its daily sister paper The In 1970 he obtained the position of art critic for TIME magazine and he moved to New York. Year 1970 ( MCMLXX) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Time (trademarked in capitals as TIME) is a weekly American Newsmagazine, similar to Newsweek and New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous He quickly established himself in the United States as an influential art critic.
Hughes and Harold Hayes were recruited in 1978 to anchor the new ABC News (US) newsmagazine 20/20. Harold T P Hayes (?1989 was a main architect of the New Journalism movement and an editor of Esquire magazine, from 1961 to 1973 This article is about the American news organization See also ABC News (disambiguation ABC News is a division of American A newsmagazine, also spelled news magazine, is usually a weekly Magazine featuring articles or segments on current events 20/20 is an American television Newsmagazine broadcast on ABC since June 6, 1978. His only broadcast, on June 6, 1978, proved so disastrous that, less than a week later, ABC News president Roone Arledge dumped Hughes and Hayes, replacing them with veteran TV host Hugh Downs. Roone Arledge ( July 8, 1931 &ndash December 5, 2002) was an American sports broadcasting pioneer who was chairman of ABC Hugh Malcolm Downs (born February 14, 1921) is a retired American broadcaster Television host
In 1980, the BBC broadcast The Shock Of The New, Hughes's television series on the development of modern art since the Impressionists. A television program (US television programme (UK or television show (U History of Modern art Roots in the 19th century Although modern Sculpture and Architecture are reckoned to have emerged at the end of the nineteenth Impressionism was a 19th-century Art movement that began as a loose association of Paris -based Artists exhibiting their art publicly in the 1860s It was accompanied by a book of the same name; its combination of insight, wit and accessibility are still widely praised.
In 1987, The Fatal Shore, Hughes's study of the British penal colonies and early European settlement of Australia, became an international best-seller. The Fatal Shore The epic of Australia's founding, by Robert Hughes, published 1987 by Harvill Press is a historical account of the United Kingdom 's settlement A penal colony is a Settlement used to detain Prisoners and generally use them for Penal labour in an economically underdeveloped part of the state's
During the 1990s Hughes was a prominent supporter of the Australian Republican Movement. The Australian Republican Movement (ARM is a non-partisan lobby group advocating constitutional change in Australia to a Republican form of government from a constitutional
His 1997 television series American Visions reviewed the history of American art since the Revolution. He was again dismissive of recent art; this time sculptor Jeff Koons was subjected to scathing criticism. Jeff Koons (born January 21 1955) is an American artist whose work incorporates Kitsch imagery using painting sculpture and other forms Australia: Beyond the Fatal Shore (2000) was a series musing on modern Australia and Hughes's relationship with it. During production, Hughes was involved in the near-fatal road accident detailed in the next section.
Hughes' 2002 documentary on the painter Francisco Goya—Goya: Crazy Like a Genius—was broadcast on the first night of the BBC's domestic digital service. Digital television (DTV is the sending and receiving of moving images and sound by discrete ( digital) signals in contrast to the analog signals used by
Hughes published the first volume of his memoirs, Things I Didn’t Know, in 2006. for other uses see Memoir (disambiguation As a literary Genre, a memoir (from the French: mémoire The year 2006 in literature involved some significant events and new books 
On May 28, 1999, during a brief return to Australia, Hughes was seriously injured in a vehicle accident near Broome, Western Australia (WA). Events 585 BC - A Solar eclipse occurs as predicted by Greek philosopher and scientist Thales, while Alyattes is battling Year 1999 ( MCMXCIX) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar) For other places and usages see Broome. Broome is a pearling and tourist town in the Kimberley region of Western Australia, 2200 km north Western Australia is a state occupying the entire western third of the Australian continent. After a day out fishing, Hughes had been driving alone when his hired Nissan Pulsar collided head on with a Holden Commodore. The Nissan Pulsar is a Compact car / Small family car produced by the Japanese automaker Nissan since 1978 when it debuted as a Subcompact car The Holden Commodore is an Automobile manufactured by the Holden division of General Motors (GM in Australia and formerly in New Zealand Hughes's right leg was broken in five places and his right elbow was shattered. He was airlifted to Royal Perth Hospital, was in a coma for several weeks and later claimed no memory of the crash. Royal Perth Hospital (RPH is an 855-bed teaching hospital located on north eastern edge of the CBD of Perth, Western Australia ( In Medicine, a coma (from the Greek koma, meaning deep sleep is a profound state of Unconsciousness. Three men were travelling in the other car, one of whom was injured; they stated that Hughes was driving on the wrong side of the road.
During 2000, Hughes was acquitted of two counts of dangerous driving by Broome magistrate Antoine Bloemen. 2000 ( MM) was a Leap year that started on Saturday of the Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. A magistrate is a judicial officer In Common law systems a magistrate usually has limited authority to administer and enforce the Law. Hughes did not give evidence and his defence was technical, in that the prosecution could not rule out the possibility of a mechanical failure causing the car to veer over the centre line. However, the charges were reinstated and upgraded by the WA Director of Public Prosecutions (DPP), Robert Cock QC. The Director of Public Prosecutions is the officer charged with the prosecution of criminal offences in several Criminal jurisdictions around the world Queen's Counsel ( postnominal QC) &ndash known as King's Counsel ( KC) during the reign of a male sovereign  &ndash are Two men from the other vehicle were not called to give evidence, following allegations that they had attempted to blackmail Hughes. Blackmail is the crime of threatening to reveal substantially true information about a person to the public a family member or associates unless a demand made upon the He was subsequently acquitted.
Hughes was later sued for defamation by Cock and his assistant, Lloyd Rayney. Further controversy arose when it was alleged that Hughes had made a racist remark about Rayney, an Asian Australian. List of racism-related topics|Racism by country Racism, by its simplest definition is the belief that race is the primary determinant of human traits and capacities and that An Asian Australian can be generally defined as a person of Asian continental ancestry or origin who was born in or is an immigrant to Australia. This was denied by Hughes.
The matter came to a close in 2003, when the WA Crown Solicitor's appeal against Hughes's acquittal reached court. This time Hughes pleaded guilty to the charge of dangerous driving causing grievous bodily harm. He was fined A$2,500. The Australian dollar ( sign: $; code: AUD) is the Currency of the Commonwealth of Australia, including Christmas
Hughes married his first wife, Danne Patricia Emerson, in 1967 and was divorced in 1981. During this marriage, Danne also spiralled into cocaine and heroin addiction. Danne died of a brain tumour in 2003 at the age of sixty. A brain tumor is any intracranial Tumor created by abnormal and uncontrolled cell division, normally either in the Brain itself ( Neurons "She was enormously fat from the aftermath of a prolonged cocaine addiction from which her lesbian girlfriend had struggled, on the whole successfully, to free her," Hughes wrote in The Sunday Times (London) on August 20, 2006. Cocaine ( benzoylmethyl ecgonine) is a Crystalline Tropane Alkaloid that is obtained from the leaves of the Coca plant The term " addiction " is used in many contexts to describe an obsession compulsion or excessive Physical dependence or psychological dependence such as A lesbian is a Woman who is romantically or sexually attracted only to other women "I do not miss Danne at all. "
Hughes and Emerson had one child, Danton (30 September 1967 - 2002), named after the French revolutionary, Georges Danton. Events 1399 - Henry IV is proclaimed King of England. 1744 - France and Spain defeat the Year 1967 ( MCMLXVII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. See also 2002 (disambiguation Year 2002 ( MMII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. Georges Jacques Danton ( October 26, 1759 &ndash April 5, 1794) was a leading figure in the early stages of the French Revolution Danton became a sculptor and lived in Sydney's Blue Mountains. Sydney (ˈsɪdniː is the most populous city in Australia, with a Metropolitan area population of approximately 4 In 2002, at age 34, Danton Hughes committed suicide by gassing himself with his car in the garage. As explained by Robert Hughes, "He was very sad, he was very alienated, a condition for which I partly blame myself, as parents always do and must, I suppose, but bad things happened to him that he genuinely wasn't able to handle and that's all I can say about it. "  More recently Hughes has written: "I miss Danton and always will, although we had been miserably estranged for years and the pain of his loss has been somewhat blunted by the passage of time. "
From 1981 until 1996 he was married to Victoria Hughes, formerly, Victoria Whistler.
In 2001 Robert married American Artist and former Art Director, Doris Downes, with whom he had been together for 10 years. The term art director is a blanket title for a variety of similar job functions in Advertising, Publishing, film and Television, the Internet Doris Downes is an American botanical artist and painter of Natural history. She is 21 years his junior. He has two stepchildren from Downes' previous marriage, Freeborn Jewett IV and Fielder Jewett. They divide their time between a loft in New York City and a home in Briarcliff Manor, New York.
His niece Lucy Turnbull (Tom's daughter), a former Lord Mayor of Sydney, is married to Australian businessman and politician Malcolm Turnbull. Lucy Turnbull, née Hughes (born 1958) is an Australian Politician and former Lord Mayor of Sydney and is the wife of Federal Member for Wentworth The Lord Mayor is the title of the Mayor of a major city with special recognition Malcolm Bligh Turnbull (born 24 October 1954 is an Australian politician the current Leader of the Opposition in the Australian Parliament, and parliamentary Robert stayed with them for an extended period during his recovery from injuries in the 1999 car accident.
Barnett Newman once said, 'I thought our quarrel was with Michelangelo. Barnett Newman ( January 29, 1905 &ndash July 4, 1970) was an American Artist. ' Well, bad luck, Barney. You lost.
People don't show it in America, for Christ's sake. How am I supposed to know about Canadian art living in America?
They could tow Australia out to sea and sink it for all I care. 
[The] difference between the Australian and the American experience was that in America space liberates, while in Australia space was the ultimate prison. 
[E]very time I go back to Australia I feel more at home, because Australia is, generally speaking, a saner society than America. That would not be hard. 
The unexamined life, said Socrates, is not worth living. Julian Schnabel (born 26 October 1951) is a American Artist and Filmmaker. The memoirs of Julian Schnabel, such as they are, remind one that the converse is also true. The unlived life is not worth examining.
- - from Nothing if Not Critical:Selected Essays on Art and Artists
As a reviewer, Hughes is the only art critic to twice win America's most coveted award for art criticism (in 1982 and 1985), the Frank Jewett Mather Award, given by the College Art Association of America. Frank Jewett Mather (1868-1953 was an American Art critic and Professor.