Portrait attributed to George Willison, c. 1770-75
|Birth date||3 July 1728|
|Birth place||Linktown of Abbotshall|
(now Kirkcaldy), Fife
|Date of death||3 March 1792 (Aged 63)|
|Place of death||London|
|Significant buildings||Syon House|
Robert Adam (3 July 1728 – 3 March 1792) was a Scottish neoclassical architect, interior designer and furniture designer. Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain. Events 324 - Battle of Adrianople Constantine I defeats Licinius, who flees to Byzantium. Year 1728 ( MDCCXXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Kirkcaldy (kɪrˈkɔːdi Cathair Chaladain) is a town and former Royal burgh in Fife, on the east coast of Scotland. Fife ( Gaelic: Fìobha) is a Council area of Scotland, situated between the Firth of Tay and the Firth of Forth, with inland Events 1284 - Statute of Rhuddlan incorporated the Principality of Wales into England 1575 - Indian Year 1792 ( MDCCXCII) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year Syon House and its 200 acre (80 Hectare /800000 m² Park is situated in West London, in England. Culzean Castle (pronounced cull-ANE: see Yogh) is a Castle near Maybole, Carrick on the Ayrshire coast of Scotland Kedleston Hall is an English country house in Kedleston, Derbyshire, approximately four miles north-west of Derby, and is the seat of the Pulteney Bridge is a Bridge that crosses the River Avon, in Bath, England and completed in 1773. Events 324 - Battle of Adrianople Constantine I defeats Licinius, who flees to Byzantium. Year 1728 ( MDCCXXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Events 1284 - Statute of Rhuddlan incorporated the Principality of Wales into England 1575 - Indian Year 1792 ( MDCCXCII) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain. Neoclassicism (sometimes rendered as Neo-Classicism or Neo-classicism) is the name given to quite distinct movements in the decorative and An architect is a licensed individual who leads a design team in the Planning and Design of buildings and participates in oversight of Building Construction Interior design is a practice concerned with anything that is found inside a space - walls windows doors finishes textures light furnishings and furniture A list of notable people whose primary occupation is Furniture Design and/or Cabinet making. He was the son of William Adam (1689–1748), Scotland's foremost architect of the time, and trained under him. William Adam (1689 &ndash 24 June 1748 was a Scottish Architect, mason, and Entrepreneur. With his older brother John, Robert took on the family business, which included lucrative work for the Board of Ordnance, after William's death. John Adam ( 5 March 1721 &ndash 25 June 1792) was a Scottish Architect. The Board of Ordnance was a British government body responsible for the supply of armaments and munitions to the British Army.
In 1754 he left for Rome, spending nearly five years on the continent studying architecture under Charles-Louis Clérisseau and Giovanni Battista Piranesi. Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 Charles-Louis Clérisseau ( 28 August 1721 &ndash 9 January 1820) the French architectural draughtsman Antiquary, and artist occupies On his return to Britain, he established a practice in London, where he was joined by his younger brother James. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. James Adam ( 21 July 1732 &ndash 20 October 1794) was a Scottish Architect and Furniture designer, but Here he developed the "Adam Style", and his theory of "movement" in architecture, based on his studies of antiquity. The Adam style (or Adamesque) is a style of neoclassical Architecture and design as practised by Scottish architect Robert Adam ( He became one of the most successful architects of his day, and held the post of Architect of the Kings Works from 1761–1769. The Office of Works was established in the English Royal household in 1378 to oversee the building of the royal castles and residences
He is considered by many to be the greatest architect of the late 18th century, and his work influenced the development of Western architecture, both in Europe and in North America. He was leader of the first phase of the classical revival in England and Scotland from around 1760 until his death. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain.  His rival Sir William Chambers was the leading official British architect of the era, but Adam received many important commissions from private clients and had a more lasting stylistic influence. Sir William Chambers ( 27 October 1723 &ndash 17 February 1796) was a Scottish Architect, born in Gothenburg
Adam was born at Gladney House in Kirkcaldy, Fife, although the family moved to Edinburgh later that same year. Kirkcaldy (kɪrˈkɔːdi Cathair Chaladain) is a town and former Royal burgh in Fife, on the east coast of Scotland. Fife ( Gaelic: Fìobha) is a Council area of Scotland, situated between the Firth of Tay and the Firth of Forth, with inland As a child he was noted as having a "feeble constitution".  From the age of six Adam attended the Edinburgh High School, where he learned Latin until he was fifteen. The Royal High School (RHS of Edinburgh can trace its roots back to 1128 and is one of the oldest schools in Scotland. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. In autumn 1743 he matriculated at Edinburgh University, and attended classes including mathematics, taught by Colin Maclaurin, and anatomy, taught by Alexander Monro primus. The University of Edinburgh (Oilthigh Dhùn Èideann founded in 1582 is a renowned centre for teaching and research in Edinburgh, Scotland, UK. Colin Maclaurin (February 1698 &ndash June 14, 1746) was a Scottish Mathematician. Alexander Monro ( September 19, 1697 &ndash July 10, 1767) was the founder of Edinburgh Medical School. His studies were interrupted by the arrival of Bonnie Prince Charlie and his Highlanders, who occupied Edinburgh during the 1745 Jacobite rising. For the US politician see Charles E Stuart For "Betty Burke" see The 'Forty-Five' below The Jacobite Risings were a series of uprisings rebellions and wars in the kingdoms of England, Kingdom of Scotland (later the United Kingdom of Great Britain At the end of the year, Robert fell seriously ill for some months, and it seems unlikely that he returned to university, having completed only two years of study. 
On his recovery from illness in 1746, he joined his elder brother John as apprentice to his father. He assisted William Adam on projects such as the building of Inveraray Castle and the continuing extensions of Hopetoun House. Inveraray Castle ( Gaelic Caisteal Inbhir Aora kaʃd̊ʲəɫ̪ iɲɪɾʲˈɯːɾə is a Castle in western Scotland. Hopetoun House is the traditional residence of the Earl of Hopetoun (later the Marquess of Linlithgow) William's position as Master Mason to the Board of Ordnance also began to generate much work, as the Highlands were fortified following the failed Jacobite revolt. Robert's early ambition was to be an artist rather than architect, and the style of his early sketches in the manner of Salvator Rosa are reflected in his earliest surviving architectural drawings, which show picturesque gothic follies. Salvator Rosa ( 1615 - March 15, 1673) was an Italian Baroque painter poet and Printmaker, active in Naples Rome See also Gothic art Gothic architecture is a style of Architecture which flourished during the high and late medieval period. In Architecture, a folly is a Building constructed strictly as a decoration having none of the usual purposes of housing or sheltering associated with a conventional  William Adam died in June 1748, and left Dowhill, a part of the Blair Adam estate which included a tower house, to Robert. A tower house is a particular type of stone structure built for defensive purposes as well as habitation.
On William Adam's death, John Adam inherited both the family business and the position of Master Mason to the Board of Ordnance. He immediately took Robert into partnership, later to be joined by James Adam. The Adam Brothers' first major commission was the decoration of the grand state apartments on the first floor at Hopetoun House, followed by their first "new build" at Dumfries House. A state room in a large European Mansion is usually one of a suite of very grand rooms which were designed to impress Dumfries House is a Palladian Country house in Ayrshire, Scotland. For the Board of Ordnance, the brothers were the main contractor at Fort George, a large modern fort near Inverness designed by military engineer Colonel Skinner. See also Fort George disambiguation page Fort George, Ardersier, Highland, Scotland, is a large 18th century Inverness (Inbhir Nis iɲɪɾʲˈniʃ is a city in northern Scotland. A military engineer is primarily responsible for the design and construction of offensive defensive and logistical structures for Warfare Other duties include the Visits to this project, begun in 1750, would occupy the brothers every summer for the next ten years, and, along with works at many other barracks and forts, provided Robert with a solid foundation in practical building. 
In the winter of 1749–1750, Adam travelled to London with his friend, the poet John Home. John Home ( 22 September 1722 &ndash 5 September 1808) was a Scottish Poet and Dramatist. He took the opportunity for architectural study, visiting Wilton, designed by Inigo Jones, and the Queens Hermitage in Richmond by Roger Morris. Wilton House is an English country house situated at Wilton near Salisbury in Wiltshire. Iñigo Jones ( July 15, 1573 &ndash June 21, 1652) is regarded as the first significant British architect, and the first to bring Richmond is a town and the principal settlement of the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames in England. His sketchbook of the trip also shows a continuing interest in gothic architecture. 
Among his friends at Edinburgh were the philosopher Adam Ferguson and the artist Paul Sandby who he met in the Highlands. Adam Ferguson, also known as Ferguson of Raith (20 June 1723 ( O Paul Sandby (1731 (baptised - 9 November 1809) was an English Map -maker turned landscape painter in Watercolours who Other Edinburgh acquaintances included Gilbert Elliot, William Wilkie, John Home and Alexander Wedderburn. William Wilkie (1721 - 1772 was a Scottish Poet. The son of a Farmer, he was born in West Lothian and educated at Edinburgh. Alexander Wedderburn 1st Earl of Rosslyn ( 13 February 1733 &ndash 2 January 1805) Lord Chancellor of Great Britain, 
In 1754, Robert Adam set off for Europe on the Grand Tour of France and Italy, in the company of Charles Hope-Weir, brother of the Earl of Hopetoun. The Arch of Constantine (Italian Arco di Costantino is a Triumphal arch in Rome, situated between the Colosseum and the Palatine Hill. The Grand Tour was the traditional travel of Europe undertaken by mainly upper-class European young men of means The Hon Charles Hope-Weir (or Hope-Vere) ( 8 May 1710 - 30 December 1791) was a Scottish politician John Hope 2nd Earl of Hopetoun (b 7 September 1704 - d 12 February 1781) was the son of Charles Hope 1st Earl of Hopetoun and Hope agreed to take Adam on the tour at the suggestion of his uncle, the Marquess of Annandale, who had undertaken the Grand Tour himself. Adam met Hope-Weir in France, and they travelled on to Italy together, before falling out in Rome over travelling expenses and accommodation. Robert Adam stayed on in Rome until 1757, studying classical architecture and honing his drawing skills. His tutors included the French architect and artist Charles-Louis Clérisseau, and the Italian artist Giovanni Battista Piranesi. Charles-Louis Clérisseau ( 28 August 1721 &ndash 9 January 1820) the French architectural draughtsman Antiquary, and artist occupies Here, he became aquainted with the work of the pioneering classical archaeolgist and art historian, theorist Johann Joachim Winckelmann. Johann Joachim Winckelmann ( December 9, 1717 - June 8, 1768) a German Art historian and Archaeologist, On his return journey, Adam and Clerisseau spent time intensively studying the ruins of Diocletian's Palace at Spalato in Dalmatia (now known as Split, in modern Croatia). Diocletian's Palace ( Dioklecijanova palača in Croatian) is a building in Split in Croatia that was built by the emperor Diocletian Dalmatia ( Croatian: Dalmacija, see names in other languages) is a region on the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea, situated mostly in modern Split (Spalatum Ancient Greek: Aspálathos, Ασπάλαθος Spalato is the largest and most important Dalmatian city the second-largest Croatia (Hrvatska ˈxȓvatska officially the Republic of Croatia ( Republika Hrvatska) is a southern Central European country at the crossroads between  These studies were later published as Ruins of the Palace of the Emperor Diocletian at Spalatro in Dalmatia in 1764.
He returned to Great Britain in 1758 and set up in business in London with his brother James Adam. See also Kingdom of Great Britain Great Britain (Breatainn Mhòr Prydain Fawr Breten Veur Graet Breetain is the larger of the two main islands London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. They focused on designing complete schemes for the decoration and furnishing of houses. Palladian design was popular, and Robert designed a number of country houses in this style, but Robert evolved a new, more flexible style incorporating elements of classical Roman design alongside influences from Greek, Byzantine and Baroque styles. PLEASE DO NOT ADD AN INFO BOX TO THIS PAGE --> Palladian architecture is a European style of Architecture derived from the designs of the Italian The Architecture of Ancient Rome adopted the external Greek architecture for their own purposes which were so different from Greek buildings as to create a new Architecture was extinct in Greece from the end of the Mycenaean period (about 1200 BC to the 7th century BC when urpeppeeban life and prosperity recovered Byzantine architecture is the Architecture of the Byzantine Empire. Baroque art redirects here Please disambiguate such links to Baroque painting, Baroque sculpture, etc  The Adam brothers' success can also be attributed to a desire to design everything down to the smallest detail, ensuring a sense of unity in their designs.
Adam was elected a member of the Royal Society of Arts in 1758 and of the Society of Antiquaries in 1761, the same year he was appointed Architect of the King’s Works (jointly with Sir William Chambers). Bath is a city in Somerset in the south west of England It is situated west of London and south-east of Bristol. The Royal Society for the encouragement of Arts Manufactures and Commerce ( RSA) is a British multi-disciplinary institution based in London. The Office of Works was established in the English Royal household in 1378 to oversee the building of the royal castles and residences Sir William Chambers ( 27 October 1723 &ndash 17 February 1796) was a Scottish Architect, born in Gothenburg His younger brother James succeeded him in this post when he relinquished the role in 1768 in order to devote more time to his elected office as Member of Parliament for Kinross-shire. Clackmannanshire and Kinross-shire were constituencies of the House of Commons of the Parliament of Great Britain from 1708 to 1801 and
Robert Adam died suddenly at his home, 11 Albermarle Street, London, after a blood vessel in his stomach burst. He was 64. He was buried in Westminster Abbey. The Collegiate Church of St Peter at Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a large mainly Gothic church He left nearly 9,000 drawings, most of which were purchased by the architect John Soane and are now at the Soane Museum in London. Sir John Soane ( 10 September 1753 &ndash 20 January 1837) was an English Architect who specialised in the Neo-Classical Sir John Soane's Museum (often abbreviated to the Soane Museum) is a Museum of Architecture, and was formerly the house and studio of the Neo-classical
Robert Adam rejected the Palladian style, as introduced to England by Inigo Jones, and advocated by Lord Burlington, as "ponderous" and "disgustful". PLEASE DO NOT ADD AN INFO BOX TO THIS PAGE --> Palladian architecture is a European style of Architecture derived from the designs of the Italian Iñigo Jones ( July 15, 1573 &ndash June 21, 1652) is regarded as the first significant British architect, and the first to bring Lord Burlington redirects here Lord Burlington most frequently refers to the architect and patron Richard Boyle 3rd Earl of Burlington.  However, he continued their tradition of drawing inspiration directly from classical antiquity, during his four-year stay in Europe. Classical antiquity (also the classical era or classical period) is a broad term for a long period of cultural History centered on the Mediterranean  Through the adoption of classical motifs, Adam developed a new style of architectural decoration.
The Adam brother's principle of "movement" was largely Robert's conception, although the theory was first written down by James. "Movement" relied on dramatic contrasts and diversity of form, and drew on the picturesque aesthetic. Picturesque is an Aesthetic ideal first introduced into English cultural debate in 1782 by William Gilpin in Observations of the River Wye and Several Parts The first volume of the Adam brother's Works (1773) cited Kedleston Hall, designed by Robert in 1761, as an outstanding example of movement in architecture. Kedleston Hall is an English country house in Kedleston, Derbyshire, approximately four miles north-west of Derby, and is the seat of the
By contrasting room sizes and decorative schemes, Adam applied the concept of movement to his interiors also. His style of decoration, described by Pevsner as "Classical Rococo", drew on Roman "grotesque" stucco decoration. Rococo is a style of 18th century French art and Interior design. When used in conversation grotesque commonly means strange fantastic ugly or bizarre and thus is often used to describe weird shapes and distorted forms such as Halloween Stucco or render is a material made of an aggregate, a binder, and water 
Robert Adam's work had influenced the direction of architecture across the western world. In North America, the Federal style owes much to neoclassicism as practised by Adam. Chester TownshipJPG|thumb|right|A federal style colonial home in Chester Township New Jersey]] Federal-style architecture occurred in the United States between 1780 In Europe, Adam notably influenced Charles Cameron, the Scotsman who designed Tsarskoye Selo and other Russian palaces for Catherine the Great. Charles Cameron (1743-1812 was a Scottish architect who introduced the Adam style into Russian architecture. Tsarskoye Selo (Ца́рское Село́ " Tsar 's Village" is a former Russian residence of the imperial family and visiting Catherine II, called Catherine the Great (Екатерина II Великая Yekaterina II Velikaya;) reigned as Empress of Russia for 34 years  However, by the time of his death, Adam's neoclassicism was being superseded in Britain by a more severe, Greek phase of the classical revival, as practiced by James "Athenian" Stuart. James "Athenian" Stuart (1713 - 2 February 1788) was an English Archaeologist, Architect and artist best The Adam brothers employed several draughtsmen who would go on to establish themselves as architects, including George Richardson, and the Italian Joseph Bonomi, who Robert originally hired in Rome. George Richardson (1737/8–c1813 was a Scottish architectural and decorative draftsman and writer on Architecture. Joseph Bonomi the Elder ( 19 January 1739 - 9 March 1808) was an Italian Architect and draughtsman notable for
During their lifetime Robert and James Adam published two volumes of their designs, Works in Architecture of Robert and James Adam (in 1773-78 and 1779; a third volume was published posthumously, in 1822).
|Parliament of Great Britain|
|Member for Clackmannanshire and Kinross-shire|
|Architect of the King's Works|
Served alongside: Sir William Chambers
Sir Robert Taylor and James Adam