Roasting is a cooking method that uses dry heat, whether an open flame, oven, or other heat source. An oven is an enclosed compartment for Heating, Baking or Drying. Roasting usually causes caramelization of the surface of the food, which is considered a flavour enhancement. Caramelization or caramelisation is the Oxidation of Sugar, a process used extensively in cooking for the resulting nutty flavor and brown color Flavor or flavour is the sensory impression of a Food or other substance, and is determined Meats and most root and bulb vegetables can be roasted. In modern English usage meat most often refers to Animal tissue used as food mostly Skeletal muscle and associated Fat, but it may also refer Root vegetables are plant roots used as Vegetables Other underground plants are often erroneously called root vegetables Any piece of meat, especially red meat, that has been cooked in this fashion is called a roast. For mammal meat see Red meat. For the band see Red Meat (band. Also, meats and vegetables prepared in this way are described as "roast", e. g. , roast chicken or roast squash. Some foods such as coffee and chocolate are always roasted. CoFFEE is an Open source Software for computer supported collaborative learning (CSCL in a digital classroom Chocolate ( pronounced or /-ˈələt/ comprises a number of raw and processed foods that are produced from the seed of the tropical Cacao tree
For roasting the food may be placed on a rack, in a roasting pan or, to ensure even application of heat, may be rotated on a spit or rotisserie. Rotisserie is a style of Roasting where meat is Skewered on a spit - a long solid rod used to hold food while it is being cooked over a fire in a During oven roasting hot air circulates around the meat, cooking all sides evenly. There are several theories for roasting meats correctly: low temperature cooking, high temperature cooking and a combination of both. Each method can be suitable under the appropriate circumstances.
The objective in any case is to retain as much moisture as possible in the finished product, while providing the texture and color people prefer. During roasting, meats and vegetables are usually basted on the surface with butter, lard or oil to reduce the loss of moisture by evaporation. Butter is a Dairy product made by churning fresh or fermented Cream or Milk. Lard is pig Fat in both its rendered and unrendered forms Lard was commonly used in many cuisines as a Cooking fat or Shortening Cooking oil is purified Fat of Plant or Animal origin which is liquid at room temperature Recently, plastic oven bags have become popular for roasts. These cut cooking times and reduce the loss of moisture during roasting. They are particularly popular for turkeys. 
Until the late 19th century, roasting by dry heat in an oven was called baking. Roast beef is a cut of Beef which is roasted in an Oven. Roast beef is often served within sandwiches and sometimes is used to make hash The potato is a Starchy Tuberous crop Vegetable from the perennial Solanum tuberosum of the Solanaceae Yorkshire pudding is a dish that originated in Yorkshire but attained wider popularity Roasting originally meant turning meat or a bird on a spit in front of a fire. It is one of the oldest forms of cooking known.
Traditionally recognized roasting methods consist only of baking and cooking over or near an open fire. Grilling is normally not technically a roast, since grilled meat is usually seasoned with wet ingredients or marinated. For the device used to cook see Grill (cooking, for other uses see Grill. Marination, also known as marinating, is the process of soaking foods in a seasoned often acidic liquid before cooking Smoking differs from roasting because of the lower temperature and controlled smoke application. Smoking is the process of flavoring, Cooking, or preserving Food by exposing it to the Smoke from burning or smoldering plant materials
Most meat roasts are large cuts of meat, and need to cook for a long time. Many roasts are tied with string prior to roasting. Tying holds them together during roasting, keeping any stuffing inside, and keeps the roast in a round profile, which promotes even cooking. 
Prior to roasting in an oven, meat is generally "browned" by brief exposure to high temperature. Browning is the process of partially cooking Meat to help remove excessive Fat and to give the meat a brown color and flavor via the Maillard reaction. This imparts a traditional flavor and color to the roast. Red meats such as beef, lamb, and venison, and certain game birds are often roasted to be "pink" or "rare" meaning that the center of the roast is still red. For reasons of hygiene this practice is not recommended with pork and poultry. Although there is a growing fashion in some restaurants to serve "rose pork," temperature monitoring of the center of the roast is the only sure way to avoid foodborne disease. 
In Britain and Ireland, a roast of meat may be referred to as a joint, or a leg, if it is a leg. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world
Coffee goes through two changes in the roast. Roasting coffee transforms the chemical and physical properties of green coffee beans into roasted Coffee products CoFFEE is an Open source Software for computer supported collaborative learning (CSCL in a digital classroom In the first, the bean releases its internal water vapor, after which the bean 'cracks'. The second stage is caramelization. Caramelization or caramelisation is the Oxidation of Sugar, a process used extensively in cooking for the resulting nutty flavor and brown color The level of caramelization defines the type of roast, from light to dark. After a second 'crack' the coffee begins to carbonize and generally the roasting is stopped at this point even for the darkest roast. Carbonization or Carbonisation is the term for the conversion of an Organic substance into Carbon or a carbon-containing residue through Pyrolysis
Roasting is a preferred method of cooking for most poultry, and certain cuts of beef, pork, or lamb. Poultry is the category of Domesticated Birds which some humans keep for the purpose of collecting their eggs, or kill for their Meat and/or Beef is the Culinary name for Meat from Bovines especially domestic Cattle (cows Pork' is the Culinary name for Meat from the domestic Pig ( Sus scrofa) often specifically the fresh meat but can be used as an all-inclusive Lamb, hogget, and mutton are the meat of Domestic sheep. The meat of an animal in its first year is lamb; that of an older sheep is hogget Some vegetables, such as potatoes, zucchini, pumpkin, turnips, parsnips, cauliflower, squash, and peppers lend themselves to roasting as well. The potato is a Starchy Tuberous crop Vegetable from the perennial Solanum tuberosum of the Solanaceae Zucchini ( in North American and Australian English) or courgette (/kʊǝrˈʒɛt/ or in New Zealand and British English Pumpkin is a Gourd -like squash of the genus Cucurbita and the family Cucurbitaceae (which also includes gourds For similar vegetables also called "turnip" see Turnip (disambiguation. The parsnip ( Pastinaca sativa) is a Root vegetable related to the Carrot. Cauliflower is one of several vegetables in the species Brassica oleracea, in the family Brassicaceae. Squashes generally refer to four species of the genus Cucurbita native to the Mexico and Central America, also called marrows depending Capsicum is a Genus of Plants from the nightshade family ( Solanaceae) native to the Americas, where it was cultivated for thousands Roasted chestnuts are also a popular snack in winter. Chestnut ( Castanea) (including some chinkapin or Chinquapin) is a Genus of eight or nine Species of Deciduous