Road transport (British English) or road transportation (American English) is transport on roads of passengers or goods. British English or UK English ( BrE, BE, en-GB) is the broad term used to distinguish the forms of the English language used in the Phonology North American English regional phonology In many ways compared to English English, North American English is conservative in its Phonology. Transport or transportation is the movement of people and goods from one place to another A road is an identifiable route, way or path between two or more places.
The first forms of road transport were horses, oxen or even humans carrying goods over dirt tracks that often followed game trails. The history of Road transport started with the development of tracks by humans and their beasts of burden The horse ( Equus caballus) is a hoofed ( Ungulate) Mammal, one of eight living species of the family Equidae. Oxen (singular ox) are Cattle trained as draft animals. Often they are adult castrated males Soil, often typeset as SOiL, is a four piece rock band from Chicago Illinois United States founded by Shaun Glass Tom Schofield Tim King and Adam Zadel Game is any Animal hunted for Food or not normally domesticated (such as Venison) A trail is a Path or Road used for Walking, Cycling, Cross-country skiing, or other activities As commerce increased, the tracks were often flattened or widened to accommodate the activities. Later, the travois, a frame used to drag loads, was developed. A travois ( Canadian French, from French travail, a frame for restraining horses also obsolete travoy or travoise) is a frame The wheel came still later, probably preceded by the use of logs as rollers. A wheel is a circular device that is capable of rotating on its axis facilitating movement or transportation whilst supporting a load ( Mass) or performing labour in machines Lumber or timber is Wood in any of its stages from felling through readiness for use as structural Material for Construction, or A cylinder is one of the most basic curvilinear geometric shapes the Surface formed by the points at a fixed distance from a given Straight line, the axis
With the advent of the Roman Empire, there was a need for armies to be able to travel quickly from one area to another, and the roads that existed were often muddy, which greatly delayed the movement of large masses of troops. The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial To resolve this issue, the Romans built great roads. The Roman roads used deep roadbeds of crushed stone as an underlying layer to ensure that they kept dry, as the water would flow out from the crushed stone, instead of becoming mud in clay soils. The Roman Roads were essential for the growth of the Roman Empire, by enabling the Romans to move armies and trade goods and to communicate news
During the Industrial Revolution, and because of the increased commerce that came with it, improved roadways became imperative. The Industrial Revolution was a period in the late 18th and early 19th centuries when major changes in agriculture manufacturing and transportation had a profound effect on the The problem was rain combined with dirt roads created commerce-miring mud. John Loudon McAdam (1756-1836) designed the first modern highways. John Loudon McAdam ( September 21 1756 – November 26 1836) was a Scottish Engineer and Road -builder He developed an inexpensive paving material of soil and stone aggregate (known as macadam), and he embanked roads a few feet higher than the surrounding terrain to cause water to drain away from the surface. Macadam is a type of Road construction pioneered by the Scotsman John Loudon McAdam in around 1820 At the same time, Thomas Telford, made substantial advances in the engineering of new roads and the construction of bridges, particularly, the London to Holyhead road. Thomas Telford (9 August 1757 - 2 September 1834 was born in Westerkirk, Scotland. Watling Street is the name given to an Ancient trackway in England and Wales that was first used by the Celts mainly between the modern
Various systems had been developed over centuries to reduce bogging and dust in cities, including cobblestones and wooden paving. Cobblestones are stones that were frequently used in the pavement of early Streets "Cobblestone" is derived from the very old English word "cob" Tar-bound macadam (tarmac) was applied to macadam roads towards the end of the 19th century in cities such as Paris. Tarmac (short for tarmacadam, a Portmanteau for Tar -penetration Macadam) is a type of highway surface, pioneered by John Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city In the early 20th century tarmac and concrete paving were extended into the countryside.
Transport on roads can be roughly grouped into two categories: transportation of goods and transportation of people. In many countries licencing requirements and safety regulations ensure a separation of the two industries.
The nature of road transportation of goods depends, apart from the degree of development of the local infrastructure, on the distance the goods are transported by road, the weight and volume of the individual shipment and the type of goods transported. For short distances and light, small shipments a van or pickup truck may be used. A van is a kind of vehicle used for Transporting goods or groups of people A pickup truck is a light Motor vehicle with an open-top rear cargo area which is almost always separated from the cab to allow for chassis flex when carrying or pulling For large shipments even if less than a full truckload (Less than truckload) a truck is more appropriate. Less-Than-Truckload (LTL shipping is the transportation of relatively small Freight. (Also see Trucking and Hauling below). In some countries cargo is transported by road in horse-drawn carriages, donkey carts or other non-motorized mode (see animal-powered transport). Cargo (or freight) refers to goods or produce transported generally for Commercial gain by ship, aircraft, train, "CARTS" redirects here For the transportation system see Capital Area Rural Transportation System, or Chautauqua CARTS. (Non-human animal-powered Transport is a broad category of the Human use of non-human Working animals (also known as "beasts of burden" for the Delivery services (see Delivery (commerce)) are sometimes considered a separate category from cargo transport. Delivery is the process of transporting Goods. Most goods are delivered through a transportation network. In many places fast food is transported on roads by various types of vehicles. Vehicles, derived from the Latin word vehiculum, are non-living Means of transport. For inner city delivery of small packages and documents bike couriers are quite common. Bicycle messengers (also known as bike or cycle couriers are people who work for courier companies (also known as messenger companies carrying and delivering items by
People (Passengers) are transported on roads either in individual cars or automobiles or in mass transit/public transport by bus / Coach (vehicle). This article is about passengers in commercial transportation for other uses see Passenger (disambiguation A passenger is a term broadly used In British English and Australian English, the term coach is used to refer to a large motor vehicle for conveying passengers Special modes of individual transport by road like rikshas or velotaxis may also be locally available. Rickshaws (or rickshas) are a mode of Human-powered transport: a runner draws a two-wheeled Cart which seats one or two persons The cycle rickshaw, being a small-scale local means of transport is also known by a variety of other names such as rickshaw, pedicab, bugbug, cyclo (Also see links below).
Trucking companies (AE) or haulers/hauliers (BE) accept cargo for road transportation. A truck driver (Commonly called a trucker, driver or Teamster in the United States and Canada, a truckie or Cargo (or freight) refers to goods or produce transported generally for Commercial gain by ship, aircraft, train,
In Australia road trains replace rail transport for goods on many routes. A road train or roadtrain is a Trucking concept used in remote areas of Australia, the United States, and Western Canada to move Low-loader or flat-bed trailers are used to haul containers, see containerization, in intermodal transport. Containerization (or containerisation) is a system of Intermodal freight transport Cargo Transport using standard ISO containers Truck drivers operate either independently working directly for the client or through freight carriers or shipping agents. A truck driver (Commonly called a trucker, driver or Teamster in the United States and Canada, a truckie or Some big companies (e. g. grocery store chains) operate their own internal trucking operations.
In the U. S. many truckers own their truck (rig), and are known as owner-operators. This article is about the semi-truck For the North American use of the word see Pickup truck. In the United States and Canada an owner-operator is a self-employed commercial Truck driver or a small business that operates trucks for transporting Goods over Some road transportation is done on regular routes or for only one consignee per run, while others transport goods from many different loading stations/shippers to various consignees. In a Contract of carriage, the consignee is the person to whom the Shipment is to be delivered whether by land Sea or Air. On some long runs only cargo for one lag of the route (to) is known when the cargo is loaded. Truckers may have to wait at the destination for the return cargo (from).
A Bill of Lading issued by the shipper provides the basic document for road freight. A bill of lading (sometimes referred to as a BOL House bill of lading or B/L) is a document issued by a carrier, e On cross-border transportation the trucker will present the cargo and documentation provided by the shipper to customs for inspection (for EC see also Schengen Agreement ). Borders define geographic boundaries of political entities or legal jurisdictions such as Governments States or subnational administrative Customs is an Authority or agency in a Country responsible for collecting and safeguarding customs duties and for controlling the flow of goods The term Schengen Agreement is used for two agreements concluded among European states in 1985 and 1990 which deal with the abolition of systematic Border controls This also applies to shipments that are transported out of a Free port. A free port ( porto franco) or free zone (US Foreign-Trade Zone is a port or area with relaxed jurisdiction with respect to the country of location
To avoid accidents caused by fatigue truckers have to keep to strict rules for drivetime and required rest perionds. Known in the U. S. as hours of service, and in the E. The hours of service ( HOS) are regulations issued by the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA governing the working hours of anyone operating a U. as drivers working hours. Drivers' working hours are regulations within the European Union which govern the working hours of Truck drivers, which entered into force on April 11 2007 See e. g. "Hours of Work and Rest Periods (Road Transport) Convention, 1979" or . Hours of Work and Rest Periods (Road Transport Convention 1979 is an International Labour Organization Convention. Tachographs record the times the vehicle is in motion and stopped. A tachograph is a device that combines the functions of a Clock and a Speedometer. Some companies use two drivers per truck to ensure uninterrupted transportation; with one driver resting or sleeping in a bunk in the back of the cab while the other is driving. (see e. g.  or .
For transport of hazardous materials (see dangerous goods) truckers need a licence, which usually requires them to pass an exam (e. A dangerous good is any Solid, Liquid, or Gas that can harm people other living Organisms property or the environment g. in the EU). They have to make sure they affix proper labels for the respective hazard(s) to their vehicle. Liquid goods are transported by road in tank trucks (AE) or tanker lorries (BE) (also road-tankers) or special tankcontainers for intermodal transport. A tank truck ( United States usage or tanker lorry ( United Kingdom usage is a Motor vehicle designed to carry liquefied loads, For unpackaged goods and liquids weigh stations confirm weight after loading and before delivery. A weigh station is a checkpoint along a highway to inspect vehicular weights For transportion of live animals special requirements have to be met in many countries to prevent cruelty to animals (see animal rights). "Animal liberation" redirects here for other uses see Animal liberation (disambiguation. For fresh and frozen goods refrigerator trucks or reefer (container)s are used. A refrigerator truck is a Van Truck designed to carry perishable freight at specific low temperatures A refrigerated container or reefer is a shipping container used in Intermodal freight transport that is refrigerated for the transportation of
Truck drivers often need special licenses to drive, known in the U. S. as a commercial driver's license. A commercial driver's license ( CDL) is required in the United States to operate any type of vehicle with a gross weight of 26001 lb (11793 kg or over including In the U. K. a Large Goods Vehicle license is required. Large Goods Vehicle ( LGV) or category N2 and N3, is the formal term in the European Union for goods vehicles (i
Today roadways are principally asphalt or concrete. A road is an identifiable route, way or path between two or more places. Asphalt ( is a sticky black and highly viscous liquid or semi-solid that is present in most crude Petroleums and in some natural deposits sometimes termed asphaltum Concrete is a construction material composed of Cement (commonly Portland cement) as well as other cementitious materials such as Fly ash and Slag Both are based on McAdam's concept of stone aggregate in a binder, asphalt cement or Portland cement respectively. Portland cement is the most common type of Cement in general usage in many parts of the world as it is a basic ingredient of Concrete, mortar, Stucco Asphalt is known as a flexible pavement, one which slowly will "flow" under the pounding of traffic. Concrete is a rigid pavement, which can take heavier loads but is more expensive and requires more carefully prepared subbase. So, generally, major roads are concrete and local roads are asphalt. Often concrete roads are covered with a thin layer of asphalt to create a wearing surface.
Modern pavements are designed for heavier vehicle loads and faster speeds, requiring thicker slabs and deeper subbase. Subbase is the layer or successive layers of stone, gravel and sand supporting the pavement. It is needed to spread out the slab load bearing on the underlying soil and to conduct away any water getting under the slabs. Water will undermine a pavement over time, so much of pavement and pavement joint design are meant to minimize the amount of water getting and staying under the slabs.
Shoulders are also an integral part of highway design. They are multipurpose; they can provide a margin of side clearance, a refuge for incapacitated vehicles, an emergency lane, and parking space. They also serve a design purpose, and that is to prevent water from percolating into the soil near the main pavement's edge. Shoulder pavement is designed to a lower standard than the pavement in the traveled way and won't hold up as well to traffic. (Which is why driving on the shoulder is generally prohibited. )
Pavement technology is still evolving, albeit in not easily noticed increments. For instance, chemical additives in the pavement mix make the pavement more weather resistant, grooving and other surface treatments improve resistance to skidding and hydroplaning, and joint seals which were once tar are now made of low maintenance neoprene. Hydroplaning or aquaplaning by a Road Vehicle occurs when a layer of Water builds between the Rubber Tires of the vehicle
Nearly all roadways are built with devices meant to control traffic. Traffic on Roads may consist of Pedestrians ridden or herded Animals Vehicles Streetcars and other Conveyances either singly Most notable to the motorist are those meant to communicate directly with the driver. Broadly, these fall into three categories: signs, signals or pavement markings. They help the driver navigate; they assign the right-of-way at intersections; they indicate laws such as speed limits and parking regulations; they advise of potential hazards; they indicate passing and no passing zones; and otherwise deliver information and to assure traffic is orderly and safe. For a discussion of the maximum speed possible in the universe see Speed of light and Special relativity.
200 years ago these devices were signs, nearly all informal. In the late 19th century signals began to appear in the biggest cities at a few highly congested intersections. They were manually operated, and consisted of semaphores, flags or paddles, or in some cases colored electric lights, all modeled on railroad signals. In the 20th century signals were automated, at first with electromechanical devices and later with computers. Signals can be quite sophisticated: with vehicle sensors embedded in the pavement, the signal can control and choreograph the turning movements of heavy traffic in the most complex of intersections. In the 1920s traffic engineers learned how to coordinate signals along a thoroughfare to increase its speeds and volumes. Traffic engineering is a branch of Civil engineering that uses engineering techniques to achieve the safe and efficient movement of people and goods In the 1980s, with computers, similar coordination of whole networks became possible.
In the 1920s pavement markings were introduced. Initially they were used to indicate the road’s centerline. Soon after they were coded with information to aid motorists in passing safely. Later, with multi lane roads they were used to define lanes. Other uses, such as indicating permitted turning movements and pedestrian crossings soon followed.
In the 20th century traffic control devices were standardized. Before then every locality decided on what its devices would look like and where they would be applied. This could be confusing, especially to traffic from outside the locality. In the United States standardization was first taken at the state level, and late in the century at the federal level. Each country has a Manual of Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD) and there are efforts to blend them into a worldwide standard.
Besides signals signs and markings, other forms of traffic control are designed and built into the roadway. For instance, curbs and rumble strips can be used to keep traffic in a given lane and median barriers can prevent left turns and even U-turns.
As the horse-drawn carriage was replaced by the car and lorry or truck, and speeds increased, the need for smoother roads and less vertical displacement became more apparent, and pneumatic tires were developed to decrease the apparent roughness. A carriage is a wheeled vehicle for people usually horse-drawn This article is about the semi-truck For the North American use of the word see Pickup truck. This article is about tires used on road Vehicles including pneumatic tires and solid tires. Wagon and carriage wheels, made of wood, had a tire in the form of an iron strip that kept the wheel from wearing out quickly. A wagon (in British English, sometimes waggon) or dray is a heavy four-wheeled Vehicle. A wheel is a circular device that is capable of rotating on its axis facilitating movement or transportation whilst supporting a load ( Mass) or performing labour in machines Wood is hard fibrous lignified structural tissue produced as secondary Xylem in the stems of Woody plants notably trees but also shrubs Iron (ˈаɪɚn is a Chemical element with the symbol Fe (ferrum and Atomic number 26 Pneumatic tires, which had a larger footprint than iron tires, also were less likely to get bogged down in the mud on unpaved roads. In computer gaming, a MUD ( Multi-User Dungeon, Domain or Dimension) is a multi-player computer game that combines elements of
Early toll roads were usually built by private companies under a government franchise. A toll road, (also known as a tollway, turnpike, pike, or toll highway, especially if it is constructed to Freeway standards They typically paralleled or replaced routes already with some volume of commerce, hoping the improved road would divert enough traffic to make the enterprise profitable. Plank roads were particularly attractive as they greatly reduced rolling resistance and mitigated the problem of getting mired in mud. Another improvement, better grading to lessen the steepness of the worst stretches, allowed draft animals to haul heavier loads.
A toll road in the United States is often called a turnpike. The term turnpike probably originated from the gate, often a simple pike, which blocked passage until the fare was paid at a toll house (or toll booth in current terminology). A toll road, (also known as a tollway, turnpike, pike, or toll highway, especially if it is constructed to Freeway standards When the toll was paid the pike, which was mounted on a swivel, was turned to allow the vehicle to pass. Tolls were usually based on the type of cargo being transported, not the type of vehicle. The practice of selecting routes so as to avoid tolls is called shunpiking. The term shunpiking comes from the word shun, meaning "to avoid" and pike, a term referring to Turnpikes which were roads which required This may be simply to avoid the expense, as a form of economic protest (or boycott), or simply to seek a road less traveled as a bucolic interlude. A boycott is a form of Consumer activism involving the act of voluntarily abstaining from using buying or dealing with someone or some other organization as an expression of
Companies were formed to build, improve, and maintain a particular section of roadway, and tolls were collected from users to finance the enterprise. The enterprise was usually named to indicate the locale of its roadway, often including the name of one of both of the termini. The word turnpike came into common use in the names of these roadways and companies, and is essentially used interchangeably with toll road in current terminology.
In the United States, toll roads began with the Lancaster Turnpike in the 1790s, within Pennsylvania, connecting Philadelphia and Lancaster. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The Philadelphia and Lancaster Turnpike, first used in 1795 is the first long-distance paved road built in the United States according to engineered plans and specifications The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania ( often colloquially referred to as PA (its abbreviation by natives and Northeasterners is a state located in the Northeastern Philadelphia (ˌfɪləˈdɛlfiə Lancaster is a city in the South Central part of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania and is the County seat of Lancaster County.
In New York State, the Great Western Turnpike was started in Albany in 1799 and eventually extended, by several alternate routes, to near what is now Syracuse, New York. New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous The Great Western Turnpike was a series of Toll roads that crossed part of New York State from east to west Albany is the Capital of the State of New York and the County seat of Albany County. Syracuse (locally ˈsɛrəkjuːs sometimes ˈsɪrəkjuːs or /ˈsɪərəkjuːs/ by non-natives is a city in Central New York, USA.
Toll roads peaked in the mid 19th century, and by the turn of the twentieth century most toll roads were taken over by state highway departments. The twentieth century of the Common Era began on The demise of this early toll road era was due to the rise of canals and railroads, which were more efficient (and thus cheaper) in moving freight over long distances. Roads wouldn't again be competitive with rails and barges until the first half of the 20th century when the internal combustion engine replaces draft animals as the source of motive power.
With the development, mass production, and popular embrace of the automobile, faster and higher capacity roads were needed. In the 1920s limited access highways appeared. Their main characteristics were dual roadways with access points limited to (but not always) grade-separated interchanges. Their dual roadways allowed high volumes of traffic, the need for no or few traffic lights along with relatively gentle grades and curves allowed higher speeds. Traffic on Roads may consist of Pedestrians ridden or herded Animals Vehicles Streetcars and other Conveyances either singly The traffic light, also known as traffic signal, stop light, traffic lamp, stop-and-go lights, robot or semaphore,
The first limited access highways were Parkways, so called because of their often park-like landscaping and, in the metropolitan New York City area, they connected the region's system of parks. Landscaping refers to any activity that modifies the visible features of an area of land including but not limited to living elements, such as The City of New York When the German Autobahns built in the 1930s introduced higher design standards and speeds, road planners and road-builders in the United States started developing and building toll roads to similar high standards. (German ˈaʊtoːbaːn plural Autobahnen; English /ˈɔːtəʊbɑːn/ is the German word for a major high- Speed Road restricted to motor The Pennsylvania Turnpike, which largely followed the path of a partially-built railroad, was the first, opening in 1940. The Pennsylvania Turnpike is a toll highway system operated by the Pennsylvania Turnpike Commission in the state of Pennsylvania, United States.
After 1940 with the Pennsylvania Turnpike, toll roads saw a resurgence, this time to fund limited access highways. The Pennsylvania Turnpike is a toll highway system operated by the Pennsylvania Turnpike Commission in the state of Pennsylvania, United States. In the late 1940s and early 1950s, after World War II interrupted the evolution of the highway, the US resumed building toll roads. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including They were to still higher standards and one road, the New York State Thruway, had standards that became the prototype for the U.S. Interstate Highway System. The New York State Thruway (officially the Governor Thomas E Dewey Thruway) is a limited-access toll Highway in the U The Dwight D Eisenhower National System of Interstate and Defense Highways, commonly called the Interstate Highway System (or simply the Interstate System) Several other major toll-roads which connected with the Pennsylvania Turnpike were established before the creation of the Interstate Highway System. These were the Indiana Toll Road, Ohio Turnpike, and New Jersey Turnpike. The Indiana Toll Road, officially the Indiana East-West Toll Road, is a tolled Highway running east-west across the northernmost part of Indiana The Ohio Turnpike (officially the James W Shocknessy Ohio Turnpike) is a -long Limited-access toll highway in the U The New Jersey Turnpike (or simply The Turnpike as it is known to New Jersey residents is a Toll road in New Jersey and is one of the most heavily traveled
In the United States, beginning in 1956, Dwight D. Eisenhower National System of Interstate and Defense Highways, commonly called the Interstate Highway System was built. The Dwight D Eisenhower National System of Interstate and Defense Highways, commonly called the Interstate Highway System (or simply the Interstate System) It uses 12 foot (3. 65m) lanes, wide medians, a maximum of 4% grade, and full access control, though many sections don't meet these standards due to older construction or constraints. On divided roads including Expressways Motorways or Autobahns the central reservation (British English, median (North American The grade (or gradient or pitch or slope) of any physical feature such as a Hill, Stream, Roof, railroad, or This system created a continental-sized network meant to connect every population center of 50,000 people or more.
By 1956, most limited access highways in the eastern United States were toll roads. In that year, the federal Interstate highway program was established, funding non-toll roads with 90% federal dollars and 10% state match, giving little incentive for states to expand their turnpike system. The Dwight D Eisenhower National System of Interstate and Defense Highways, commonly called the Interstate Highway System (or simply the Interstate System) Funding rules initially restricted collections of tolls on newly funded roadways, bridges, and tunnels. In some situations, expansion or rebuilding of a toll facility using Interstate Highway Program funding resulted in the removal of existing tolls. This occurred in Virginia on Interstate 64 at the Hampton Roads Bridge-Tunnel when a second parallel roadway to the regional 1958 bridge-tunnel was completed in 1976. The Commonwealth of Virginia ( is an American state Interstate 64 (abbreviated I-64) is an Interstate Highway in the eastern United States. The Hampton Roads Bridge-Tunnel (HRBT is the -long (56 km Hampton Roads crossing for Interstate 64 and U
Since the completion of the initial portion of the interstate highway system, regulations were changed, and portions of toll facilities have been added to the system. Some states are again looking at toll financing for new roads and maintenance, to supplement limited federal funding. In some areas, new road projects have been completed with public-private partnerships funded by tolls, such as the Pocahontas Parkway (I-895) near Richmond, Virginia. Public-private partnership ( PPP) describes a government service or private business venture which is funded and operated through a partnership of government and one or more State Route 895, also known as the Pocahontas Parkway and Pocahontas 895, is a primary State highway in the U This article is about the city of Richmond the capital of the Commonwealth of Virginia.
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|Modes. Transport or transportation is the movement of people and goods from one place to another Mode of transport (or means of transport or transport mode or transport modality or form of transport) is a general term for the different . .|
|See also. (Non-human animal-powered Transport is a broad category of the Human use of non-human Working animals (also known as "beasts of burden" for the Aviation refers to activities involving man-made flying devices ( Aircraft) including the people organizations and regulatory bodies involved with them Cable transport refers to the broad class of Transport modes that rely on vehicles pulled by cables rather than having an internal power source Human-powered transport is the Transport of person(s and/or goods using Human Muscle power Pipeline transport is the transportation of goods through a pipe. Space transport is the use of Spacecraft to Transport people or cargo through Outer space. "Railroad" and "Railway" both redirect here For other uses see Railroad (disambiguation. . .|
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