|Negative & positive|
In the jurisprudence and the law, a right is the legal or moral entitlement to do or refrain from doing something, or to obtain or refrain from obtaining an action, thing or recognition in civil society. "Animal liberation" redirects here for other uses see Animal liberation (disambiguation. Children's rights are the Human rights of Children with particular attention to the rights of special protection and care afforded to the young including their Social equality is a social state of affairs in which all people within a specific society or isolated group have the same status in a certain respect The Fathers' rights movement has been characterized as a Civil rights movement whose members are primarily interested in issues affecting fathers and children related to Lesbian Gay Bisexual and Transgender social movements share related goals of social acceptance of Homosexuality, Bisexuality and Transgenderism Lesbian Group rights are the Rights held by a Group rather than by its members severally or rights held only by individuals within the specified group contrast with Human rights refers to the "basic Rights and freedoms to which all humans are entitled Individual rights refer to the Rights of Individuals in contrast with Group rights. Men’s rights are the freedoms inherently possessed by men and boys of all ages which may be institutionalized ignored or suppressed by law custom and behavior in a particular Some philosophers and political scientists make a distinction between negative and positive Rights, not to be confused with the similar but different distinction between Reproductive rights are Rights relating to reproduction and Reproductive health. The right of self-defense (also called alter ego defense, defense of others, defense of a third person) is the right for civilians acting on their The term "social rights" is sometimes used to distinguished those rights arising from the Social contract, akin to Natural rights arising from nature but before The division of Human rights into three generations was initially proposed in 1979 by the Czech jurist Karel Vasak at the International Institute of Labor rights or workers' rights are a group of Legal rights and claimed Human rights having to do with Labor relations between Workers Youth rights refers to a set of philosophies intended to enhance Civil rights for young people. Entitlement is a guarantee of access to benefits because of rights or by agreement through Law. Civil society is composed of the totality of voluntary civic and social organizations and institutions that form the basis of a functioning Society as opposed to the force-backed Rights serve as rules of interaction between people, and, as such, they place constraints and obligations upon the actions of individuals or groups (for example, if one has a right to life, this means that others do not have the liberty to kill him). Right to life is a phrase that describes the belief that a Human being has an essential Right to live particularly that a human being has the right not to be
Most modern conceptions of rights are universalist and egalitarian — in other words, equal rights are granted to all people. Universalism can be classified as a Religion, Theology and Philosophy that generally holds all persons and creatures are related to God or the Divine and Egalitarianism (derived from the French word égal, meaning equal) is a political doctrine that holds that all people should be treated as equals and have There are two main modern conceptions of rights: on the one hand, the idea of natural rights holds that there is a certain list of rights enshrined in nature that cannot be legitimately modified by any human power. On the other hand, the idea of legal rights holds that rights are human constructs, created by society, enforced by governments and subject to change.
By contrast, most pre-modern conceptions of rights were hierarchical, with different people being granted different rights, and some having more rights than others. @@@ main@@@ - title Hierarchy@@@ keywords structure; sociology; information@@@ review@@@ - For instance, the rights of a father to be respected by his son did not indicate a duty upon the father to return that respect, and the divine right of kings to hold absolute power over their subjects did not leave room for many rights to be granted to the subjects themselves. Duty (from "due" that which is owing O Fr deu did past participle of devoir Lat The Divine Right of Kings is a general term that refers to the philosophy and ideas used to justify the authority and legitimacy of Monarchs in Medieval and The concept of natural right developed in the School of Salamanca in the late 16th century, and first gained widespread acceptance nearly 200 years later, during the Age of Enlightenment. The School of Salamanca is the Renaissance of thought in diverse intellectual areas by Spanish theologians, rooted in the intellectual and pedagogical The Age of Enlightenment or The Enlightenment is a term used to describe a phase in Western philosophy and cultural life centered upon the eighteenth century
It is not generally considered necessary that a right should be understood by the holder of that right; thus rights may be recognized on behalf of another, such as children's rights or the rights of people declared mentally incompetent to understand their rights. Children's rights are the Human rights of Children with particular attention to the rights of special protection and care afforded to the young including their However, rights must be understood by someone in order to have legal existence, so the understanding of rights is a social prerequisite for the existence of rights. Therefore, educational opportunities within society have a close bearing upon the people's ability to erect adequate rights structures.
There are two fundamental controversies surrounding the notion of rights: First, there is the question of the basis for rights (on what basis rights can be said to exist). Second, there is the question of the content of rights (what the rights of a person actually are).
|Legal status of Persons|
In modern English and European systems of jurisprudence and law, a right is the legal or moral entitlement to do or refrain from doing something or to obtain or refrain from obtaining an action, thing or recognition in civil society. In Law legal status refers to the concept of individuals having a particular place in society relative to the law as it determines the laws which affect them The term person is used in Common sense to mean an individual Human being. Nationality is a relationship between a Person and their State of Origin, Culture, association Affiliation and/or Loyalty Naturalization is the acquisition of Citizenship or Nationality by somebody who was not a citizen or national of that country when he or she was born The Leave to Remain is the legal status of a person issued by a government office of internal affairs to one who is not yet a citizen Immigration refers to the movement of people among countries While the movement of people has existed throughout human history at various levels modern immigration implies long-term Illegal immigration refers to Immigration across National Borders in a way that violates the Immigration laws of the destination Country Statelessness is the Legal and social concept of a person lacking belonging (or a legally enforceable claim to any recognised State. A native-born citizen of a country is a person who was born within the country's territory and has been legally recognized as that country's citizen from birth Naturalization is the acquisition of Citizenship or Nationality by somebody who was not a citizen or national of that country when he or she was born Multiple citizenship, or multiple nationality is a status in which a person is concurrently regarded as a Citizen under the laws of more than one state. In US law, an alien is a legal term for a person, either a corporation or a human who is not a United States national. The term migrant worker has different official meanings and connotations in different parts of the world the United Nations' definition is very broad essentially including anyone According to the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, a refugee is a person who owing to a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race Illegal immigration refers to Immigration across National Borders in a way that violates the Immigration laws of the destination Country A political prisoner is someone held in Prison or otherwise detained perhaps under House arrest, for his or her involvement in political activity A stateless person is someone with no Citizenship or Nationality. Administrative detention - Is an arrest without trial usually for security reasons Immigration law refers to national Government policies which control the phenomenon of Immigration to their country Nationality law is the branch of a country's legal system wherein legislation custom and court precedent combine to define the ways in which that country's Nationality and The term nationalism can refer to an Ideology, a sentiment, a form of Culture, or a Social movement that focuses on the Nation Nativism is an Opposition to immigration which originated in United States politics with roots in the country's historic role as a Melting pot. Illegal immigration refers to Immigration across National Borders in a way that violates the Immigration laws of the destination Country Compare with duty, referring to behaviour that is expected or required of the person, and with privilege, referring to something that can be conferred and revoked.
The specific enumeration of rights accorded to people has historically differed greatly from one century to the next, and from one regime to the next, but nowadays is normally addressed by the constitutions of the respective nations. Generally speaking (within the English and European systems) a right corresponds with a complementary obligation that others have on the same object or realm; for instance, if someone has a right to something, simultaneously another party or parties have an obligation to do something (or to abstain from doing something) in order to respect that right or to give concrete execution to that right to be(. . . ).
Property rights provide a good example: society recognizes that individuals have title to particular property as defined by the transaction by which they acquired the property granting the individual free use and possession of the property. Property is any physical or virtual entity that is owned by an individual In many cases, especially regarding ideological and similar rights, the obligation depends on the legal system in its entirety, or on the state, or on the generical universality of other subjects submitted to the law.
Societal rights or civil rights are bestowed to its citizenry by society and are a set of obligations that are purported as a social contract. Social contract describes a broad class of republican theories whose subjects are implied agreements by which people form Nations and maintain a Social order Societal rights are a privilege of membership and the benefits are limited to its members though may be extended to temporary guests. Access to societal rights is dependent on government grants and on the citizen fulfilling their obligations e. g. complying with laws and paying taxes.
The right can therefore be a faculty of doing something, of omitting or refusing to do something or of claiming something. Some interpretations express a typical form of right in the faculty of using something, and this is more often related to the right of ownership of property. The faculty (in all the above mentioned senses) can be originated by a (generical or specific) law, or by a private contract (which is sometimes exactly defined as a specific law between or among volunteer parties). A contract is an exchange of promises between two or more parties to do or refrain from doing an act which is enforceable in a court of law
Other interpretations consider the right as a sort of freedom of something or as the object of justice. One of the definitions of justice is in fact the obligation that the legal system has toward the individual or toward the collectivity to grant respect or execution to his/her/its right, ordinarily with no need of explicit claim.
Aristotle, in the Nicomachean Ethics (book five), claims that there is a large difference between written (generalized) justice and what is actually right for the (specific) individual. Aristotle (Greek Aristotélēs) (384 BC – 322 BC was a Greek philosopher a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. Nicomachean Ethics (sometimes spelled "Nichomachean" or Ta Ethika, is a work by Aristotle on Virtue and Moral character which
But what obscures the matter is that though what is equitable is just, it is not identical with, but a correction of, that which is just according to law.
The reason of this is that every law is laid down in general terms, while there are matters about which it is impossible to speak correctly in general terms. Where, then, it is necessary to speak in general terms, but impossible to do so correctly, the legislator lays down that which holds good for the majority of cases, being quite aware that it does not hold good for all.
The law, indeed, is none the less correctly laid down because of this defect; for the defect lies not in the law, nor in the lawgiver, but in the nature of the subject-matter, being necessarily involved in the very conditions of human action.—Aristotle, The Nicomachean Ethics (10-3) (Peters' translation)
Rights can be divided into individual rights, which are held by individuals (or corporations) recognised by the legal system, and collective rights, which are held by an ensemble of people or a subgroup of people who have a certain characteristic in common. Individual rights refer to the Rights of Individuals in contrast with Group rights. A corporation is a separate legal entity usually used to conduct business In some cases there can be an amount of tension between individual and collective rights. In other cases, the view of collective and individual rights held by one group can come into sharp and bitter conflict with the view of rights held by another group. For instance compare Manifest destiny with Trail of Tears. Manifest Destiny was the belief that the United States was destined to expand from the Atlantic seaboard to the Pacific Ocean. The Trail of Tears was the forced relocation of Native Americans from their homelands to Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma in the Western United States
With reference to the object of the right, a common general distinction is among: