Richard Heinrich Ludwig Avenarius (November 19, 1843 – August 18, 1896) was a German-Swiss philosopher. Events 1095 - The Council of Clermont, called by Pope Urban II to discuss sending the First Crusade to the Holy Land Year 1843 ( MDCCCXLIII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common Events 293 BC - The oldest known Roman temple to Venus is founded starting the institution of Vinalia Rustica. Year 1896 ( MDCCCXCVI) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap year Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation Philosophy is the study of general problems concerning matters such as existence knowledge truth beauty justice validity mind and language He formulated the radical positivist doctrine of "empirical criticism" or empirio-criticism. Positivism is the Philosophy that the only authentic knowledge is knowledge that is based on actual sense experience A central concept in Science and the Scientific method is that all Evidence must be empirical, or empirically based that is dependent on evidence The word critic comes from the Greek el κριτικός ( el-Latn kritikós) "able to discern" which in turn derives from the word He was a professor at the University of Zurich. The University of Zurich ( German: Universität Zürich) located in the city of Zurich, is the largest University in Switzerland
Avenarius believed that scientific philosophy must be concerned with purely descriptive definitions of experience, which must be free of both metaphysics and materialism. Philosophy of science is the study of assumptions foundations and implications of Science. Metaphysics is the branch of Philosophy investigating principles of reality transcending those of any particular science The Philosophy of materialism holds that the only thing that can be truly proven to exist is Matter, and is considered a form of Physicalism. His opposition to the materialist assertions of Karl Vogt resulted in a violent attack upon empirio-criticism by Vladimir Lenin in the latter's Materialism and Empiriocriticism. Carl Christoph Vogt ( July 5, 1817 in Gießen, Germany – May 5, 1895 in Geneva, Switzerland was a German
Avenarius' principal works are the famously difficult Kritik der reinen Erfahrung (Critique of Pure Experience, 1888-1890) and The Human Concept of the World (1891) which influenced Ernst Mach, Ber Borochov and, to a lesser extent, William James. Ernst Mach (max ( February 18, 1838 &ndash February 19, 1916) was an Austrian Physicist and Philosopher and Dov Ber Borochov (1881-1917 was a Marxist Zionist and one of the founders of the Labor Zionist movement as well as a pioneer in the study of Yiddish For other people named William James see William James (disambiguation William James (January 11 1842 – August 26 1910 was a pioneering
Avenarius was the second son of the German publisher Eduard Avenarius and Cacilie Wagner, Richard Wagner's youngest sister. Wagner was Avenarius' godfather . A godparent, in many denominations of Christianity, is someone who sponsors a child's Baptism.