|Rice, white, long-grain, regular,|
Nutritional value per 100 g (3. 5 oz)
|Energy 370 kcal 1530 kJ|
|Percentages are relative to US|
recommendations for adults. Reference Daily Intake (or Recommended Daily Intake ( RDI) is the daily dietary intake level of a nutrient which was considered (at the time they were defined to be sufficient
Source: USDA Nutrient database
Rice is a cereal foodstuff which forms an important part of the diet of a great many people worldwide.
Domesticated rice comprises two species of food crops in the Poaceae ("true grass") family, Oryza sativa and Oryza glaberrima. In Biology, a species is one of the basic units of Biological classification and a Taxonomic rank. Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture Poaceae or Gramineae is a family in the Class Liliopsida of the flowering plants. These plants are native to tropical and subtropical southern Asia and southeastern Africa. Plants are living Organisms belonging to the kingdom Plantae. 
The name wild rice is usually used for species of the different but related genus Zizania, both wild and domesticated, although the term may be used for primitive or uncultivated varieties of Oryza. Wild rice is any of the four species of plants that make up the genus Zizania (common names Canada rice, Indian rice, and water oats Wild rice is any of the four species of plants that make up the genus Zizania (common names Canada rice, Indian rice, and water oats
Rice is grown as a monocarpic annual plant, although in tropical areas it can survive as a perennial and can produce a ratoon crop and survive for up to 20 years. Monocarpic plants are those that Flower, set Seeds and then die Botanically an annual plant is a Plant that usually germinates, Flowers and dies in one Year. A perennial plant or perennial ( Latin per, "through" annus, "year" is a Plant that lives for more than Ratooning is a method sometimes used in Sugarcane Propagation.  Rice can grow to 1–1. 8 m tall, occasionally more depending on the variety and soil fertility. Soil, often typeset as SOiL, is a four piece rock band from Chicago Illinois United States founded by Shaun Glass Tom Schofield Tim King and Adam Zadel The grass has long, slender leaves 50–100 cm long and 2–2. In Botany, a leaf is an above-ground Plant organ specialized for Photosynthesis. 5 cm broad. The small wind-pollinated flowers are produced in a branched arching to pendulous inflorescence 30–50 cm long. See also Pollination syndrome Anemophily or wind pollination is a form of Pollination whereby Pollen is distributed by Wind A flower, also known as a bloom or Blossom, is the reproductive structure found in Flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, also An inflorescence is a group or cluster of Flowers arranged on a stem that is composed of a main Branch or a complicated arrangement of branches The edible seed is a grain (caryopsis) 5–12 mm long and 2–3 mm thick. A seed (in some plants referred to as a kernel) is a small embryonic Plant enclosed in a covering called the seed coat usually with some stored
Rice is a staple for a large part of the world's human population, especially in tropical Latin America, and East, South and Southeast Asia, making it the second-most consumed cereal grain. A staple food is a Food that forms the basis of a Traditional diet. The world population is the total number of living Humans on Earth at a given time  Rice provides more than one fifth of the calories consumed worldwide by humans. This article is about the unit of energy For its use in Nutrition and Food labelling regulations, see the article on Food energy.  In early 2008, some governments and retailers began rationing supplies of the grain due to fears of a global rice shortage. 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Rationing is the controlled distribution of resources and scarce goods or services 
Rice cultivation is well-suited to countries and regions with low labour costs and high rainfall, as it is very labour-intensive to cultivate and requires plenty of water for cultivation. Tillage is the agricultural preparation of the Soil by Ploughing ripping or turning it Rain is Liquid precipitation. On Earth it is the condensation of atmospheric Water vapor into drops heavy enough to fall often making it to Tillage is the agricultural preparation of the Soil by Ploughing ripping or turning it Rice can be grown practically anywhere, even on a steep hill or mountain. Although its species are native to South Asia and certain parts of Africa, centuries of trade and exportation have made it commonplace in many cultures.
The traditional method for cultivating rice is flooding the fields with or after setting the young seedlings. This simple method requires sound planning and servicing of the water damming and channeling, but reduces the growth of less robust weed and pest plants that have no submerged growth state, and deters vermin. Whilst with rice growing and cultivation the flooding is not mandatory, all other methods of irrigation require higher effort in weed and pest control during growth periods and a different approach for fertilizing the soil.
According to the Microsoft Encarta Dictionary (2004) and the Chambers Dictionary of Etymology (1988), the word rice has an Indo-Iranian origin. Encarta is a Digital Multimedia Encyclopedia published by Microsoft Corporation. The Indo-Iranian language group constitutes the easternmost extant branch of the Indo-European family of languages It came to English from Greek óryza, via Latin oriza, Italian riso and finally Old French ris (the same as present day French riz). English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Italian ( or lingua italiana) is a Romance language spoken by about 63 million people as a First language, primarily in Italy. Old French was the Romance Dialect continuum spoken in territories which span roughly the northern half of modern France and parts of modern Belgium French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people
It has been speculated that the Indo-Iranian vrihi itself is borrowed from a Dravidian vari (< PDr. *warinci) or even a Munda language term for rice, or the Tamil name arisi (அரிசி) from which the Arabic ar-ruzz, from which the Portuguese and Spanish word arroz originated. Tamil (ta தமிழ்; t̪əmɨɻ is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamil people of the Indian subcontinent. Arabic (ar الْعَرَبيّة (informally ar عَرَبيْ) in terms of the number of speakers is the largest living member of the Semitic language Portuguese ( or língua portuguesa) is a Romance language that originated in what is now Galicia (Spain and northern Portugal.
The seeds of the rice plant are first milled using a rice huller to remove the chaff (the outer husks of the grain). A huller (or sometimes called a rice husker) is a kind of Agricultural machinery to hull Rice. Chaff (tʃɑːf or /tʃæf/ depending on dialect &ndash both to rhyme with "half" is the inedible dry scaly protective casings of the seeds of Cereal grain, or At this point in the process, the product is called brown rice. Brown rice (or "hulled rice" is unmilled or partly milled Rice, a kind of Whole grain. The milling may be continued, removing the 'bran' (i. Bran is the hard outer layer of Grain and consists of combined Aleurone and Pericarp. e. the rest of the husk and the germ), thereby creating white rice. The germ is the "heart" of the Cereal kernel the Embryo of the Seed. White rice is the name given to milled Rice which has had its Husk, Bran, and germ removed White rice, which keeps longer and is preferred by most, lacks some important nutrients; in a limited diet which does not supplement the rice, brown rice helps to prevent the deficiency disease beriberi. White rice is the name given to milled Rice which has had its Husk, Bran, and germ removed Beriberi (pronounced Berry-berry) is a Nervous system ailment caused by Thiamine (vitamin B1 deficiency
White rice may be also buffed with glucose or talc powder (often called polished rice, though this term may also refer to white rice in general), parboiled, or processed into flour. White rice is the name given to milled Rice which has had its Husk, Bran, and germ removed Talc (derived from the Persian via Arabic talq) is a Mineral composed of Hydrated Magnesium Silicate with Parboiled rice is Rice that has been boiled in the Husk. Parboiling makes rice easier to process by hand improves its nutritional profile and changes its texture Flour is a powder made of Cereal grains It is the key ingredient of Bread, which is a staple food in many countries and therefore the availability White rice may also be enriched by adding nutrients, especially those lost during the milling process. While the cheapest method of enriching involves adding a powdered blend of nutrients that will easily wash off (in the United States, rice which has been so treated requires a label warning against rinsing), more sophisticated methods apply nutrients directly to the grain, coating the grain with a water insoluble substance which is resistant to washing.
Despite the hypothetical health risks of talc (such as stomach cancer), talc-coated rice remains the norm in some countries due to its attractive shiny appearance, but it has been banned in some and is no longer widely used in others such as the United States. Talc (derived from the Persian via Arabic talq) is a Mineral composed of Hydrated Magnesium Silicate with Even where talc is not used, glucose, starch, or other coatings may be used to improve the appearance of the grains; for this reason, many rice lovers still recommend washing all rice in order to create a better-tasting rice with a better consistency, despite the recommendation of suppliers. Talc (derived from the Persian via Arabic talq) is a Mineral composed of Hydrated Magnesium Silicate with Much of the rice produced today is water polished.
Rice bran, called nuka in Japan, is a valuable commodity in Asia and is used for many daily needs. Bran is the hard outer layer of Grain and consists of combined Aleurone and Pericarp. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. It is a moist, oily inner layer which is heated to produce an oil. It is also used as a pickling bed in making rice bran pickles and Takuan. are a type of Japanese pickle, made by fermenting vegetables in rice Bran (nuka also known as Takuwan is a popular traditional Japanese Pickle.
Raw rice may be ground into flour for many uses, including making many kinds of beverages such as amazake, horchata, rice milk, and sake. Flour is a powder made of Cereal grains It is the key ingredient of Bread, which is a staple food in many countries and therefore the availability A drink, or beverage, is a Liquid specifically prepared for Human consumption is a traditional sweet low-alcoholic Japanese drink made from fermented Rice. Horchata or orxata is the name for several kinds of vegetable beverages made of ground Almonds Sesame seeds, Rice, Barley or Rice milk is a kind of Grain milk processed from Rice. It is mostly made from Brown rice and commonly unsweetened the sweetness in most rice milk Rice flour does not contain gluten and is suitable for people on a gluten-free diet. Gluten is a composite of the proteins Gliadin and Glutenin. These exist conjoined with Starch, in the Endosperms of some A gluten-free diet is recommended amongst other things in the treatment of Coeliac disease and Wheat allergy. Rice may also be made into various types of noodles. A noodle is food made from unleavened Dough that is cooked in a boiling liquid Raw wild or brown rice may also be consumed by raw-foodist or fruitarians if soaked and sprouted (usually 1 week to 30 days).
Processed rice seeds must be boiled or steamed before eating. Cooked rice may be further fried in oil or butter, or beaten in a tub to make mochi. Cooking oil is purified Fat of Plant or Animal origin which is liquid at room temperature Butter is a Dairy product made by churning fresh or fermented Cream or Milk. Mochi ( Japanese: ja [[wiktiary餅 餅]] Chinese: zh-TW [[wiktionary麻 麻]][[wiktionary糬 糬]] is a Japanese and Chinese Rice cake
Rice is a good source of protein and a staple food in many parts of the world, but it is not a complete protein: it does not contain all of the essential amino acids in sufficient amounts for good health, and should be combined with other sources of protein, such as nuts, seeds, beans or meat. See also Protein in nutrition A complete protein (or whole protein) is a Protein that contains all of the Essential amino acids for 
Rice, like other cereal grains, can be puffed (or popped). In Botany, a caryopsis is a type of simple dry Fruit &mdash one that is monocarpelate (formed from a single Carpel) and Indehiscent (not Puffed rice is a type of Puffed grain made from Rice; usually made by heating rice kernels under High pressure in the presence of Steam, though This process takes advantage of the grains' water content and typically involves heating grains in a special chamber. Water is a common Chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all known forms of Life. Further puffing is sometimes accomplished by processing pre-puffed pellets in a low-pressure chamber. Pressure (symbol 'p' is the force per unit Area applied to an object in a direction perpendicular to the surface The ideal gas law means that either lowering the local pressure or raising the water temperature results in an increase in volume prior to water evaporation, resulting in a puffy texture. The ideal gas law is the Equation of state of a hypothetical Ideal gas, first stated by Benoît Paul Émile Clapeyron in 1834 Temperature is a physical property of a system that underlies the common notions of hot and cold something that is hotter generally has the greater temperature The volume of any solid plasma vacuum or theoretical object is how much three- Dimensional space it occupies often quantified numerically Evaporation is the process by which Molecules in a Liquid state (e Mouthfeel is a product’s physical and Chemical interaction in the mouth Bulk raw rice density is about 0. 9 g/cm³. It decreases more than tenfold when puffed.
There are many varieties of rice; for many purposes the main distinction is between long- and short-grain rice. The grains of long-grain rice tend to remain intact after cooking; short-grain rice becomes more sticky. Short-grain rice is used for sweet dishes, and for risotto and many Spanish dishes. Risotto is a rich and creamy traditional Italian rice dish It is one of the most common ways of Cooking rice in Italy.
Rice is cooked by boiling or steaming, and absorbs water during cooking. Boiling (also called ebullition) a type of Phase transition, is the rapid vaporization of a Liquid, which typically occurs when a liquid Steaming is a method of Cooking using Steam. Steaming is considered a relatively healthier cooking technique and capable to cook almost all kinds of food It can be cooked in just as much water as it absorbs (the absorption method), or in a large quantity of water which is drained before serving (the rapid-boil method). Electric rice cookers, popular in Asia and Latin America, simplify the process of cooking rice. A rice cooker or rice steamer is a device used primarily for Cooking Rice. Rice is often heated in oil before boiling, or oil is added to the water; this is thought to make the cooked rice less sticky.
In Arab cuisine rice is an ingredient of many soups and dishes with fish, poultry and meat. Arab cuisine is defined as the various regional cuisines spanning the Arab World from Iraq to Morocco to Somalia to Yemen, and incorporating It is also used to stuff vegetables or is wrapped in grape leaves. When combined with milk, sugar and honey, it is used to make desserts. In some regions, such as Tabaristan, bread is made using rice flour. Medieval Islamic texts spoke of medical uses for the plant. 
Also extremely popular are combination cooking methods; for example fried rice is boiled or steamed rice stir-fried in oil. Fried rice is a popular component of Chinese cuisine and other forms of Asian cuisine.
Rice may also be made into rice porridge (also called congee or rice gruel) by adding more water than usual, so that the cooked rice is saturated with water to the point that it becomes very soft, expanded, and fluffy. Rice porridge is commonly eaten as a breakfast food, and is also a traditional food for the sick.
Rice may be soaked prior to cooking, which decreases cooking time. For some varieties, soaking improves the texture of the cooked rice by increasing expansion of the grains. In Botanical nomenclature or biological nomenclature variety is a low-level Taxonomic rank below that of species and signifies members of different populations can
In some countries parboiled rice, also known as Minute rice or easy-cook rice, is popular. Parboiled rice is Rice that has been boiled in the Husk. Parboiling makes rice easier to process by hand improves its nutritional profile and changes its texture Minute Rice is a brand of Parboiled rice. The product was introduced in 1949 by General Foods, who merged with Kraft in 1990 and became Kraft Parboiled rice is subjected to a steaming or parboiling process while still a brown rice. This causes nutrients from the outer husk to move into the grain itself. The parboil process causes a gelatisisation of the starch in the grains. The grains become less brittle, and the colour of the milled grain changes from white to yellow. The rice is then dried, and can then be milled as usual or used as brown rice. Milled parboiled rice is nutritionally superior to standard milled rice. Parboiled rice has an additional benefit in that it does not stick to the pan during cooking as happens when cooking regular white rice.
A nutritionally superior method of preparing brown rice known as GABA Rice or GBR (Germinated Brown Rice) may be used. This involves soaking washed brown rice for 20 hours in warm water (38 °C or 100 °F) prior to cooking it. The Celsius Temperature scale was previously known as the centigrade scale. Fahrenheit is a temperature scale named after Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736 a German Physicist who proposed it in 1724 This process stimulates germination, which activates various enzymes in the rice. Germination is the process whereby growth emerges from a period of dormancy Enzymes are Biomolecules that catalyze ( ie increase the rates of Chemical reactions Almost all enzymes are Proteins By this method, a result of research carried out for the United Nations Year of Rice, it is possible to obtain a more complete amino acid profile, including GABA. The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security In Chemistry, an amino acid is a Molecule containing both Amine and Carboxyl Functional groups In Biochemistry, this Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA is the chief inhibitory Neurotransmitter in the Mammalian Central nervous system.
Cooked rice can contain Bacillus cereus spores which produce an emetic toxin when left between 4-60 degrees Celsius . Bacillus cereus is an endemic, soil-dwelling Gram-positive, rod-shaped, beta hemolytic bacteria that causes Foodborne Vomiting (also called throwing up, emesis) is the forceful expulsion of the contents of one's Stomach through the Mouth and sometimes the When storing cooked rice for use the next day, rapid cooling is advised to reduce the risk of contamination.
Two species of rice were domesticated, Asian rice (O. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. Domestication (from Latin domesticus) refers to the process whereby a Population of Animals sativa) and African rice (O. glaberrima). According to Londo and Chiang, O. sativa appears to have been domesticated from wild (Asian) Oryza rice, Oryza rufipogon around the foothills of the Himalayas, with O. Foothills are geographically defined as gradual increases in hilly areas at the base of a Mountain range. sativa var. indica on the Indian side and O. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country sativa var. japonica on the Chinese and Japanese side. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics.  The different histories have led to different ecological niches for the two main types of rice. Indica are mainly lowland rices, grown mostly submerged, throughout tropical Asia, while japonica are usually cultivated in dry fields, in temperate East Asia, upland areas of Southeast Asia and high elevations in South Asia. (Oka 1988)
Current genetic analysis suggests that O. sativa would be best divided into five groups, labeled indica, aus, aromatic, temperate japonica and tropical japonica. The same analysis suggests that indica and aus are closely related, as are tropical japonica, temperate japonica, and aromatic.  Further analysis of the genetic material of various types of rice indicates that japonica was the first cultivar to emerge, followed by the indica, aus, and aromatic groups, whose genome did show significant differences in age. Within the japonica group, there is some genetic evidence that temperate japonica is derived from tropical japonica. 
Other studies have suggested that there are three groups of Oryza sativa cultivars: the short-grained "japonica" or "sinica" varieties, exemplified by Japanese rice; the long-grained "indica" varieties, exemplified by Basmati rice; and the broad-grained "javonica" varieties, which thrive under tropical conditions (Zohary and Hopf, 2000). Japanese rice, or japonica, is a short-grain variety of Rice ( Oryza sativa var Basmati (बासमती باسمتی is a variety of long grain Rice, famous for its Fragrance and delicate flavour. The earliest find site for the japonica variety, dated to the 5th millennium BCE, was in the earliest phases of the Hemudu culture on the south side of Hangzhou Bay in China, but was found along with japonica types. The fifth millennium is a period of time that will begin on 1 January, 4001, and will end on 31 December 5000. The Hemudu culture (河姆渡文化 (5000 BC to 4500 BC was a Neolithic culture that flourished just south of the Hangzhou Bay in Jiangnan in modern Hangzhou Bay or the Bay of Hangzhou is an inlet of the East China Sea, bordered by the province of Zhejiang and the municipality of Shanghai. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National
According to the Encyclopædia Britannica:
The origin of rice culture has been traced to India in about 3000 BCE. Rice culture gradually spread westward and was introduced to southern Europe in medieval times. With the exception of the type called upland rice, the plant is grown on submerged land in the coastal plains, tidal deltas, and river basins of tropical, semitropical, and temperate regions. The seeds are sown in prepared beds, and when the seedlings are 25 to 50 days old, they are transplanted to a field, or paddy, that has been enclosed by levees and submerged under 5 to 10 cm (2 to 4 inches) of water, remaining submerged during the growing season.
Wild Oryza rice appeared in the Belan and Ganges valley regions of northern India as early as 4530 BCE and 5440 BCE respectively. The Ganges (ˈgænʤiːz also Ganga, Devanāgarī: hi गंगा in most Indian languages) is the major river in the Indian subcontinent Geography Northern India lies mainly on continental India and a very small part of it lies on the Indian peninsula Agricultural activity during the second millennium BC included rice cultivation in the Kashmir and Harrappan regions. This article is about the geographical region of greater Kashmir Harappa ( Urdu:, Hindi: हड़प्पा) is a City in Punjab, northeast Pakistan, about 35km (22 miles southwest  Mixed farming was the basis of Indus valley economy. The Indus Valley Civilization (Mature period 2600&ndash1900 BCE abbreviated IVC, was an ancient Civilization that flourished in the Indus River basin Farmers planted their crops in integrated fields. Rice, grown on the west coast, was cultivated in the Indus valley.  Rice, along with barley, meat, dairy products and fish constituted the dietary staple of the ancient Dravidian people. Dravidian peoples refers to the peoples that natively speak languages belonging to the Dravidian language family. 
There is mention of ApUpa, Puro-das and Odana (rice-gruel) in the Rig Veda, terms that refer to rice dishes, The rigvedic commentator Sayana refers to "tandula" when commenting on RV 1. The Rigveda ( Sanskrit sa ऋग्वेद ṛgveda, a compound of ṛc "praise verse" and veda "knowledge" Sāyaṇa ( सायण, with honorific Sāyaṇācārya;died 1387 was an important commentator on the Vedas He flourished under King Bukka I 16. 2. , which means rice.  The Rigvedic term dhana (dhanaa, dhanya) means rice.  Both Charaka and Sushruta mention rice in detail. For the village in Azerbaijan see Çərəkə; for the book Charaka Samhita see Charaka Samhita. Sushruta was a surgeon and teacher of Ayurveda who flourished in the Indian city of Kashi by the 6th century BCE  The Arthasastra discusses aspects of rice cultivation. The Arthashastra ( IAST: Arthaśāstra) is a Treatise on statecraft, economic policy and Military strategy which  The Kashyapiyakrishisukti by Kashyapa is the most detailed ancient Sanskrit text on rice cultivation. This article is about the Hindu sage Kashyapa or Kasyapa See also Kassapa Buddha for information on the ancient buddha and Mahakasyapa information on the disciple 
Z. Zhao, a Chinese palaeoethnobotanist, hypothesizes that people of the Late Pleistocene began to collect wild Oryza rice. Paleoethnobotany, also known as archaeobotany in European (particularly British academic circles is the archaeological sub-field that studies Plant remains from The Late Pleistocene (also known as Upper Pleistocene or the Tarantian) is a stage of the Pleistocene Epoch. Zhao explains that the collection of wild rice from an early date eventually led to its domestication and then the exclusive use of domesticated rice strains by circa 6400 BC at the latest.  Stone tool evidence from the Yunchanyan site in Hunan province suggests the possibility that Early Neolithic groups cultivated rice as early as circa 9000 BC. ( is a province of China, located in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River and south of Lake Dongting (hence the name Hunan, meaning The Neolithic (from Greek νεολιθικός — neolithikos from νέος neos, "new" + λίθος lithos  Crawford and Shen point out that calibrated radiocarbon dates show that direct evidence of the earliest cultivated rice is no older than 7000 BC. Jared Diamond, a biologist and popular science author, summarizes some of the research done by archaeologists and estimates that the earliest attested domestication of rice took place in China by 7500 BC. TemplateInfobox writer --> Jared Mason Diamond (b 10 September, 1937) is an American Evolutionary biologist 
An early archaeological site from which rice was excavated is Pengtoushan in the Hupei basin. The Kingdom of Cambodia ( formerly known as Kampuchea (, transliterated: Preăh Réachéanachâkr Kâmpŭchea) is a country in South East The Pengtoushan culture (彭頭山文化 (7500-6100 BC) was a Neolithic culture centered primarily around the central Yangtze River region in northwestern Hunan ( Postal map spelling: Hupeh) is a central province of the People's Republic of China. This archaeological site was dated by AMS radiocarbon techniques to 6400–5800 BC (Zohary and Hopf 2000), but most of the Neolithic sites in China with finds of charred rice and radiocarbon dates are from 5000 BC or later.  This evidence leads most archaeologists to say that large-scale dry-land rice farming began between 5000 and 4500 BC in the area of Yangtze Delta (for example Hemudu culture, discovered in 1970s), and the wet-rice cultivation began at approximately 2500 BC in the same area (Liangzhu culture). The Yangtze River Delta or Yangtze Delta, also called Chang Jiang Delta, or the Golden Triangle of the Yangtze ( Hanyu Pinyin:) generally The Hemudu culture (河姆渡文化 (5000 BC to 4500 BC was a Neolithic culture that flourished just south of the Hangzhou Bay in Jiangnan in modern The Liangzhu culture ( ( 3400 - 2250 BC) was the last Neolithic Jade culture in the Yangtze River Delta of China. It is now commonly thought that some areas such as the alluvial plains in Shaoxing and Ningbo in Zhejiang province are the cradle-lands of East Asian rice cultivation. Administration The Prefecture-level city of Shaoxing administers 1 district, 3 county-level cities and 2 counties. Ningbo ( literally "Tranquil Waves" is a Seaport with sub-provincial administrative status. Zhejiang ( is an eastern coastal province of the People's Republic of China.  Finally, ancient textual evidence of the cultivation of rice in China dates to 3000 years ago.
Bruce Smith of the Smithsonian Institution advises caution on the Chinese rice hypothesis. The Smithsonian Institution (smɪθsoʊnɪən is an educational and research institute and associated Museum complex administered and funded by the Government of  No morphological studies have been done to determine whether the grain was domesticated.  According to Smith such a rice would have larger seeds compared to the wild varieties, and would have a strong rachis or spine for holding grain. 
In 2003, Korean archaeologists alleged that they discovered burnt grains (domesticated rice) in Soro-ri, Korea, that predate the oldest grains in China. This find potentially challenges the mainstream explanation that domesticated rice originated in China.  The media reports of the Soro-ri charred grains are brief and lack sufficient detail for archaeologists and scientists in related fields to properly evaluate the true meaning of this unusual find.
Reliable, mainstream archaeological evidence derived from palaeoethnobotanical investigations indicate that dry-land rice was introduced to Korea and Japan some time between 3500 and 1200 BC. Korea is a geographic area composed of two sovereign countries a civilization and a former state situated on the Korean Peninsula in East Asia. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. The cultivation of rice in Korea and Japan during that time occurred on a small-scale, fields were impermanent plots, and evidence shows that in some cases domesticated and wild grains were planted together. The technological, subsistence, and social impact of rice and grain cultivation is not evident in archaeological data until after 1500 BC. For example, intensive wet-paddy rice agriculture was introduced into Korea shortly before or during the Middle Mumun Pottery Period (c. A paddy field is a flooded parcel of Arable land used for growing Rice and other semiaquatic crops. The Mumun pottery period is an Archaeological era in Korean prehistory that dates to approximately 1500-300 BC 850–550 BC) and reached Japan by the Final Jōmon or Initial Yayoi circa 300 BC. The is an era in the history of Japan from about 500 BC to 300 AD. 
Rice is the staple for all classes in contemporary South East Asia, from Myanmar to Indonesia. Burma, officially the Union of Myanmar ( pjìdàunzṵ mjàmmà nàinŋàndɔ̀ is the largest country by geographical area in mainland Southeast Asia. The Republic of Indonesia ( (Republik Indonesia is a Country in Southeast Asia. In Indonesia, evidence of wild Oryza rice on the island of Sulawesi dates from 3000 BCE. Sulawesi (formerly known as Celebes, ˈsɛlɛbiz is one of the four larger Sunda Islands of Indonesia and is situated between Borneo and the The evidence for the earliest cultivation, however, comes from eighth century stone inscriptions from Java, which show kings levied taxes in rice. Java (Jawa is an Island of Indonesia and the site of its Capital city Jakarta. Divisions of labour between men, women, and animals that are still in place in Indonesian rice cultivation, can be seen carved into the ninth-century Prambanan temples in Central Java. Prambanan is the largest Hindu temple compound in Central Java in Indonesia, located approximately 18 km east of Yogyakarta. Central Java ( Provinsi Jawa Tengah) is a province of Indonesia. In the sixteenth century, Europeans visiting the Indonesian islands saw rice as a new prestige food served to the aristocracy during ceremonies and feasts. Rice production in Indonesian history is linked to the development of iron tools and the domestication of water buffalo for cultivation of fields and manure for fertilizer. Manure is Organic matter used as Organic fertilizer in Agriculture. Once covered in dense forest, much of the Indonesian landscape has been gradually cleared for permanent fields and settlements as rice cultivation developed over the last fifteen hundred years. 
Evidence of wet rice cultivation as early as 2200 BC has been discovered at both Ban Chiang and Ban Prasat in Thailand.
By the 19th Century, encroaching European expansionism in the area increased rice production in much of South East Asia, and Thailand, then known as Siam. British Burma (now Myanmar) became the world's largest exporter of rice, from the turn of the 20th century up till the 1970s, when neighbouring Thailand exceeded Myanmar.
African rice has been cultivated for 3500 years. Madagascar, or Republic of Madagascar (older name Malagasy Republic) is an Island nation in the Indian Ocean off the southeastern Between 1500 and 800 BC, O. glaberrima propagated from its original centre, the Niger River delta, and extended to Senegal. The Niger River (ˈnaɪdʒɚ NYE-jer) is the principal River of western Africa, extending about 4180 km (2600 miles A delta is a Landform where the mouth of a River flows into an Ocean, Sea, Estuary, Lake or another river Senegal (le Sénégal officially the Republic of Senegal, is a country south of the Sénégal River in western Africa. However, it never developed far from its original region. Its cultivation even declined in favour of the Asian species, possibly brought to the African continent by Arabs coming from the east coast between the 7th and 11th centuries CE. A continent is one of several large Landmasses on Earth. They are generally identified by Convention rather than any strict criteria with seven regions
In parts of Africa under Islam, rice was chiefly grown in southern Morocco. During the tenth century rice was also brought to east Africa by Muslim traders. East Africa is the Easternmost Region of the African Continent. Although, the diffusion of rice in much sub-Saharan Africa remains uncertain, Muslims brought it to the region stretching from Lake Chad to the White Nile. Lake Chad (in French Lac Tchad) is a historically large shallow lake in Africa, whose size has varied greatly over the centuries The White Nile ( Arabic: النيل الأبيض transliterated: an-Nīl al-Ābyadˤ) is a River of Africa, one of the two main 
According to Zohary and Hopf (2000, p. 91), O. sativa was introduced to the Middle East in Hellenistic times, and was familiar to both Greek and Roman writers. The Middle East is a Subcontinent with no clear boundaries often used as a synonym to Near East, in opposition to Far East. The Hellenistic period of European history was the period between the death of Alexander the Great (Alexander III of Macedon in 323 BC and the annexation They report that a large sample of rice grains was recovered from a grave at Susa in Iran (dated to the first century AD) at one end of the ancient world, while at the same time rice was grown in the Po valley in Italy. Susa ( Biblical שושן ( Shushan) also Greek: Σοῦσα Transliterated as Sousa; Latin Susa) For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. The Po ( Latin: Padus, Po Ligurian: Bo, Greek: Eridanus) is a river that flows 652 km(405 miles (682 km by considering However, Pliny the Elder writes that rice (oryza) is grown only in "Egypt, Syria, Cilicia, Asia Minor and Greece" (N.H. 18. Gaius or Caius Plinius Secundus, ( AD 23 – August 25, AD 79 better known as Pliny the Elder, was an ancient Author Naturalis Historia ( Latin for "Natural History" is an Encyclopedia written Circa AD 77 by Pliny the Elder. 19).
After the rise of Islam, rice was grown anywhere there was enough water to irrigate it. Thus, desert oases, river valleys, and swamp lands were all important sources of rice during the Muslim Agricultural Revolution. The Islamic Golden Age from the 8th century to the 13th century witnessed a fundamental transformation in Agriculture known as the Arab Agricultural 
In Iraq rice was grown in some areas of southern Iraq. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iraq topics. With the rise of Islam it moved north to Nisibin, the southern shores of the Caspian Sea and then beyond the Muslim world into the valley of Volga. Nusaybin ancient Nisibis, Nisibia Nisibin is a city in Mardin Province, southeastern Turkey populated by Turks, Aramean-Syriacs The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed body of water on Earth by area variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged Sea. In Israel, rice came to be grown in the Jordan valley. Rice is also grown in Yemen. 
The Muslims (later known as Moors) brought Asiatic rice to the Iberian Peninsula in the tenth century. The description Moors has referred to several historic and modern populations of Muslim (and earlier non-Muslim people of Berber and Arab descent The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra Records indicate it was grown in Valencia and Majorca. Majorca ( Spanish and Mallorca is the largest island of Spain. In the case of Majorca, the rice cultivation stopped after the Christian conquest, although historians aren't certain. The Reconquista (a Spanish and Portuguese word for "Reconquest" Arabic: الاسترداد, "Recapturing" was a period 
After the middle of the 15th century, rice spread throughout Italy and then France, later propagating to all the continents during the age of European exploration. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics.
In 1694, rice arrived in South Carolina, probably originating from Madagascar. South Carolina ( is a state in the southern region ( Deep South) of the United States of America. Madagascar, or Republic of Madagascar (older name Malagasy Republic) is an Island nation in the Indian Ocean off the southeastern The Spanish brought rice to South America at the beginning of the 17th century. South America is a Continent of the Americas, situated entirely in the Western Hemisphere and mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a
In the United States, colonial South Carolina and Georgia grew and amassed great wealth from the slave labour obtained from the Senegambia area of West Africa and from coastal Sierra Leone. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The State of Georgia ( is a state in the United States and was one of the original Thirteen Colonies that revolted against British rule Wealth derives from the old English word "weal" which means "well-being As a social-economic system slavery is a legal institution under which a Person (called "a slave" is compelled to work for another The Senegambia Confederation was a loose Confederation between the West African countries of Senegal and its neighbour The Gambia, which is almost West Africa or Western Africa is the Westernmost Region of the African Continent. At the port of Charleston, through which 40% of all American slave imports passed, slaves from this region of Africa brought the highest prices, in recognition of their prior knowledge of rice culture, which was put to use on the many rice plantations around Georgetown, Charleston, and Savannah. ||-||-|-||-||-||-||-||-||-|} A port is a facility for receiving Ships and transferring cargo Fundamentally a plantation is usually a large Farm or estate, especially in a tropical or semitropical country on which Cotton, Tobacco Georgetown is the third oldest city in the US state of South Carolina and the County seat of Georgetown County. Charleston is a city in Charleston county in the US state of South Carolina. Savannah is a city located in the state of Georgia, United States. From the slaves, plantation owners learned how to dyke the marshes and periodically flood the fields. In Geography, a marsh, or morass, is a type of Wetland which is subject At first the rice was milled by hand with wooden paddles, then winnowed in sweetgrass baskets (the making of which was another skill brought by the slaves). Wood is hard fibrous lignified structural tissue produced as secondary Xylem in the stems of Woody plants notably trees but also shrubs Sweet grass ( Anthoxanthum nitens) also known as Sweetgrass Holy grass buffalo grass Vanilla grass Manna grass Seneca grass Mary's grass A basket is a container which is traditionally constructed from stiff fibres often made of Willow. The invention of the rice mill increased profitability of the crop, and the addition of water power for the mills in 1787 by millwright Jonathan Lucas was another step forward. A huller (or sometimes called a rice husker) is a kind of Agricultural machinery to hull Rice. The trade of millwright is concerned with the construction and maintenance of machinery Rice culture in the southeastern U. S. became less profitable with the loss of slave labour after the American Civil War, and it finally died out just after the turn of the 20th century. Causes of the war See also Origins of the American Civil War, Timeline of events leading to the American Civil War The coexistence of a slave-owning South The predominant strain of rice in the Carolinas was from Africa and was known as "Carolina Gold. " The cultivar has been preserved and there are current attempts to reintroduce it as a commercially grown crop. A cultivar is a cultivated Plant that has been selected and given a unique name because of its decorative or useful characteristics it is usually distinct from similar 
In the southern United States, rice has been grown in southern Arkansas, Louisana, and east Texas since the mid 1800s. Arkansas ( is a state located in the southern region of the United States. The State of Louisiana ( or, État de Louisiane, pronounced) is a state located in the southern region of the United States of America Texas ( is a state geographically located in the South Central United States and is also known as the Lone Star State. Many Cajun farmers grew rice in wet marshes and low lying prairies. Cajuns ('keʒən les Cadiens are an Ethnic group mainly living in Louisiana, consisting of the descendants of Acadian exiles and peoples of other In recent years rice production has risen in North America, especially in the Mississippi River Delta areas in the states of Arkansas and Mississippi. The Mississippi River Delta is the modern area of land (the River delta) built up by Alluvium deposited by the Mississippi River as it slows Arkansas ( is a state located in the southern region of the United States. Mississippi ( is a state located in the Deep South of the United States
Rice cultivation began in California during the California Gold Rush, when an estimated 40,000 Chinese laborers immigrated to the state and grew small amounts of the grain for their own consumption. California ( is a US state on the West Coast of the United States, along the Pacific Ocean. The California Gold Rush (1848&ndash1855 began on January 24 1848 when Gold was discovered by James Marshall at Sutter's Mill in Coloma, California However, commercial production began only in 1912 in the town of Richvale in Butte County. Richvale is a small Farming community (estimated population 250 in Butte County, California, USA, south of Chico and west of Butte County is a County located in the Central Valley of the U  By 2006, California produced the second largest rice crop in the United States, after Arkansas, with production concentrated in six counties north of Sacramento.  Unlike the Mississippi Delta region, California's production is dominated by short- and medium-grain japonica varieties, including cultivars developed for the local climate such as Calrose, which makes up as much as eighty five percent of the state's crop. Japanese rice, or japonica, is a short-grain variety of Rice ( Oryza sativa var Calrose rice is a radiation-bred variety of ''japonica'' medium-grain Rice developed in California in the early 1970s 
References to wild rice in the Americas are to the unrelated Zizania palustris
More than 100 varieties of rice are commercially produced primarily in six states (Arkansas, Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, and California) in the U. Wild rice is any of the four species of plants that make up the genus Zizania (common names Canada rice, Indian rice, and water oats S.  According to estimates for the 2006 crop year, rice production in the U. S. is valued at $1. 88 billion, approximately half of which is expected to be exported. International trade is exchange of Capital, Goods, and Services across International borders or Territories. The U. S. provides about 12% of world rice trade.  The majority of domestic utilization of U. S. rice is direct food use (58%), while 16 percent is used in processed foods and beer respectively. Beer is the world's oldest and most widely consumed Alcoholic beverage and the third most popular drink overall after water and tea The remaining 10 percent is found in pet food. 
Although attempts to grow rice in the well-watered north of Australia have been made for many years, they have consistently failed because of inherent iron and manganese toxicities in the soils and destruction by pests. Iron (ˈаɪɚn is a Chemical element with the symbol Fe (ferrum and Atomic number 26 Manganese (ˈmæŋgəniːz is a Chemical element, designated by the symbol Mn. A pest is an organism which has characteristics that are regarded by Humans as injurious or unwanted
In the 1920s it was seen as a possible irrigation crop on soils within the Murray-Darling Basin that were too heavy for the cultivation of fruit and too infertile for wheat. Irrigation in Australia is a widespread practice to supplement low Rainfall levels in Australia with water from other sources to assist in the production of crops The Murray-Darling Basin is 3375km long drains one-seventh of the Australian land mass and is currently by far the most significant agricultural area in Australia Wheat ( Triticum spp is a worldwide cultivated grass from the Levant area of the Middle East. 
Because irrigation water, despite the extremely low runoff of temperate Australia, was (and remains) very cheap, the growing of rice was taken up by agricultural groups over the following decades. Californian varieties of rice were found suitable for the climate in the Riverina, and the first mill opened at Leeton in 1951. The Riverina is an agricultural region of south-western New South Wales (NSW Australia Leeton is a town and Local Government Area in the Riverina region of New South Wales, Australia.
Even before this Australia's rice production greatly exceeded local needs, and rice exports to Japan have become a major source of foreign currency. Above-average rainfall from the 1950s to the middle 1990s encouraged the expansion of the Riverina rice industry, but its prodigious water use in a practically waterless region began to attract the attention of environmental scientists. These became severely concerned with declining flow in the Snowy River and the lower Murray River. The Snowy River is also the name of a river in the South Island of New Zealand. The Murray River, or River Murray and sometimes informally referred to as the "Mighty Murray" is Australia 's largest River.
Although rice growing in Australia is exceedingly efficient and highly profitable due to the cheapness of land, several recent years of severe drought have led many to call for its elimination because of its effects on extremely fragile aquatic ecosystems. Politicians, however, have not made any plan to reduce rice growing in southern Australia.
The High Yielding Varieties are a group of crops created intentionally during the Green Revolution to increase global food production. High-yielding varieties (HYVs are any of a group of genetically enhanced Cultivars of crops such as Rice, Maize and Wheat that have an increased The Green Revolution refers to the transformation of Agriculture that began in 1945 at the request of the Mexican government to establish an agricultural research station to Rice, like corn and wheat, was genetically manipulated to increase its yield. This project enabled labor markets in Asia to shift away from agriculture, and into industrial sectors. The first ‘modern rice’, IR8 was produced in 1966 at the International Rice Research Institute. The International Rice Research Institute (IRRI is an autonomous Non-profit, Agricultural Research and training organization with offices in more IR8 was created through a cross between an Indonesian variety named “Peta” and a Chinese variety named “Dee Geo Woo Gen. ”
With advances in molecular genetics, the mutant genes responsible for reduced height(rht), gibberellin insensitive (gai1) and slender rice (slr1) in Arabidopsis and rice were identified as cellular signaling components of gibberellic acid (a phytohormone involved in regulating stem growth via its effect on cell division) and subsequently cloned. Gibberellins (GAs are Plant hormones that regulate growth and influence various developmental processes, including "stem elongation Secondary growth Arabidopsis ( A-ra-bi-dóp-sis, rockcress) is a genus in the family Brassicaceae. Stem growth in the mutant background is significantly reduced leading to the dwarf phenotype. Photosynthetic investment in the stem is reduced dramatically as the shorter plants are inherently more stable mechanically. Assimilates become redirected to grain production, amplifying in particular the effect of chemical fertilizers on commercial yield. In the presence of nitrogen fertilizers, and intensive crop management, these varieties increase their yield 2 to 3 times.
As the UN Millennium Development project seeks to spread global economic development to Africa, the ‘Green Revolution’ is cited as the model for economic development. With the intent of replicating the successful Asian boom in agronomic productivity, groups like the Earth Institute are doing research on African agricultural systems, hoping to increase productivity. The Earth Institute was established at Columbia University in 1995. An important way this can happen is the production of ‘New Rices for Africa’ (NERICA). New Rice for Africa ("NERICA" is an Interspecific cultivar of Rice developed by the West Africa Rice Development Association (WARDA to improve These rices, selected to tolerate the low input and harsh growing conditions of African agriculture are produced by the African Rice Center, and billed as technology from Africa, for Africa. The NERICA have appeared in The New York Times (October 10, 2007) and International Herald Tribune (October 9, 2007), trumpeted as miracle crops that will dramatically increase rice yield in Africa and enable an economic resurgence. Events 680 - Battle of Karbala: Shia Imam Husayn bin Ali, the grandson of the Prophet Muhammad, is decapitated Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 768 - Carloman I and Charlemagne are crowned Kings of The Franks. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century.
German and Swiss researchers have engineered rice to produce Beta-carotene, with the intent that it might someday be used to treat vitamin A deficiency. Golden rice is a variety of Rice ( Oryza sativa) produced through Genetic engineering to biosynthesize Beta-carotene, a precursor of Genetic engineering, Recombinant DNA technology, genetic modification/manipulation (GM and gene splicing are terms that apply to the direct Beta-carotene is an Organic compound - a Terpenoid, a red-orange pigment abundant in plants and fruits Vitamin A deficiency is common in developing countries but rarely seen in developed countries Additional efforts are being made to improve the quantity and quality of other nutrients in golden rice. 
Ventria Bioscience has genetically modified rice to express lactoferrin, lysozyme, and human serum albumin which are proteins usually found in breast milk. Ventria Bioscience is a Biotech company with a focus on human nutrition and human therapeutics Genetic engineering, Recombinant DNA technology, genetic modification/manipulation (GM and gene splicing are terms that apply to the direct Gene expression is the process by which inheritable information from a Gene, such as the DNA sequence, is made into a functional Gene product, such Lactoferrin (LF also known as lactotransferrin (LTF Lysozyme is a family of Enzymes ( which damage bacterial cell walls by catalyzing Hydrolysis of 14-beta-linkages between N-acetylmuramic acid and Human serum albumin is the most abundant Protein in Human Blood plasma. Proteins are large Organic compounds made of Amino acids arranged in a linear chain and joined together by Peptide bonds between the Carboxyl Breast milk refers to the Milk produced by a mother to feed her baby These proteins have antiviral, antibacterial, and antifungal effects. Antiseptics (from Greek αντί - anti, '"against" + σηπτικός - septikos, "putrefactive" are antimicrobial An antifungal drug is Medication used to treat fungal Infections such as Athlete's foot, Ringworm, Candidiasis (thrush 
Rice containing these added proteins can be used as a component in oral rehydration solutions which are used to treat diarrheal diseases, thereby shortening their duration and reducing recurrence. Oral rehydration therapy, (also called ORT, oral rehydration salts or solutions (ORS, oral electrolyte) is a simple cheap and effective In Medicine, diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea (see spelling differences) is frequent loose or liquid Bowel movements Acute diarrhea Such supplements may also help reverse anemia. Anemia ( AmE) or anæmia/anaemia ( BrE) (from the Ancient Greek grc-Latn anaîmia, meaning “without blood” is defined as a qualitative  As a result, the carotene turns the rice gold.
|Top paddy rice producers–2005|
(million metric ton)
UN Food & Agriculture Organisation (FAO)
World production of rice has risen steadily from about 200 million tons of paddy rice in 1960 to 600 million tons in 2004. Milled rice is about 68% of paddy rice by weight. In the year 2004, the top three producers were China (26% of world production), India (20%), and Indonesia (9%).
World trade figures are very different, as only about 5–6% of rice produced is traded internationally. The largest three exporting countries are Thailand (26% of world exports), Vietnam (15%), and the United States (11%), while the largest three importers are Indonesia (14%), Bangladesh (4%), and Brazil (3%). The Kingdom of Thailand (ˈtaɪlænd ราชอาณาจักรไทย, râːtɕʰa-ʔaːnaːtɕɑ̀k-tʰɑj Vietnam (ˌviːɛtˈnɑːm Việt Nam) officially The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Although China and India are the top two largest producers of rice in the world, both of countries consume the majority of the rice produced domestically leaving little to be traded internationally.
In the Spring of 2008, the price of rice rose greatly due to a rice shortage. 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common In late April 2008, rice prices hit 24 cents a pound, twice the price that it was seven months earlier. 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common The United States one-cent coin is a unit of Currency equaling one one-hundredth of a United States dollar. The pound or pound-mass (abbreviation lb, lbm, or sometimes in the United States #) is a unit of Mass 
On the 30th of April, 2008, Thailand announced the project of the creation of the Organisation of Rice Exporting Countries (OREC) with the potential to develop into a price-fixing cartel for rice. 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common The Kingdom of Thailand (ˈtaɪlænd ราชอาณาจักรไทย, râːtɕʰa-ʔaːnaːtɕɑ̀k-tʰɑj The denomination Organisation of Rice Exporting Countries ( OREC) describes a project of a small group of South-East Asian countries to create a homonymous A cartel is a formal (explicit agreement among firms Cartels usually occur in an oligopolistic industry, where there is a small number of sellers and usually involve 
|Consumption of rice by country—2003/2004|
(million metric ton)
|Philippines||9. Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country The Republic of Indonesia ( (Republik Indonesia is a Country in Southeast Asia. ( Bengali: বাংলাদেশ inc-Latn Bangladesh) officially Vietnam (ˌviːɛtˈnɑːm Việt Nam) officially The Kingdom of Thailand (ˈtaɪlænd ราชอาณาจักรไทย, râːtɕʰa-ʔaːnaːtɕɑ̀k-tʰɑj Burma, officially the Union of Myanmar ( pjìdàunzṵ mjàmmà nàinŋàndɔ̀ is the largest country by geographical area in mainland Southeast Asia. The Philippines ( Filipino: Pilipinas, officially known as the Republic of the Philippines (fil ''Republika ng Pilipinas'' RP 7|
|Japan||8. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. 7|
|Brazil||8. |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld 1|
|South Korea||5. South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea and often referred to as Korea ( Korean: 대한민국 tɛː 0|
|United States||3. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the 9|
United States Department of Agriculture
Between 1961 and 2002, per capita consumption of rice increased by 40%. Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head with Per meaning 'through' or 'by' Rice consumption is highest in Asia, where average per capita consumption is higher than 80 kg/person per year. In the subtropics such as South America, Africa, and the Middle East, per capita consumption averages between 30 and 60 kg/person per year. South America is a Continent of the Americas, situated entirely in the Western Hemisphere and mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a The Middle East is a Subcontinent with no clear boundaries often used as a synonym to Near East, in opposition to Far East. People in the developed West, including Europe and the United States, consume less than 10 kg/person per year. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the  
Rice is the most important crop in Asia. In Cambodia, for example, 90% of the total agricultural area is used for rice production. See The Burning of the Rice by Don Puckridge for the story of rice production in Cambodia .
U. S. rice consumption has risen sharply over the past 25 years, fueled in part by commercial applications such as beer production. Beer is the world's oldest and most widely consumed Alcoholic beverage and the third most popular drink overall after water and tea  Almost one in five adult Americans now report eating at least half a serving of white or brown rice per day. 
In many countries where rice is the main cereal crop, rice cultivation is responsible for most of the methane emissions.  Farmers in some of the arid regions try to cultivate rice using groundwater bored through pumps, thus increasing the chances of famine in the long run. Groundwater is Water located beneath the Ground surface in Soil pore spaces and in the Fractures of lithologic formations A famine is a widespread shortage of food that may apply to any Faunal species which phenomenon is usually accompanied by regional Malnutrition, Starvation Rice also requires much more water to produce than other grains. 
Rice pests are any organisms or microbes with the potential to reduce the yield or value of the rice crop (or of rice seeds) (Jahn et al 2007). This article is a list of diseases of Rice ( Oryza sativa) Bacterial diseases Fungal diseases Pyricularia A microorganism (also spelled micro organism or micro-organism and also called a microbe) is an Organism that is Microscopic (usually Rice pests include weeds, pathogens, insects, rodents, and birds. WEED (1390 AM) is a Radio station broadcasting a Spanish format A pathogen (from Greek πάθος pathos "suffering passion" and γἰγνομαι (γεν- gignomai (gen- "I give birth to" infectious Insects ( Class Insecta) are a major group of Arthropods and the most diverse group of Animals on the Earth with over a million described Rodentia is an order of Mammals also known as rodents, characterised by two continuously-growing incisors in the upper and lower jaws which must Birds ( class Aves) are bipedal endothermic ( Warm-blooded) Vertebrate animals that lay eggs. A variety of factors can contribute to pest outbreaks, including the overuse of pesticides and high rates of nitrogen fertilizer application (e. A pesticide is a substance or mixture of substances used to kill a pest. Fertilizers ( also spelt fertiliser are chemical compounds given to Plants to promote growth they are usually applied either through the soil for uptake by plant g. Jahn et al. 2005) . Weather conditions also contribute to pest outbreaks. For example, rice gall midge and army worm outbreaks tend to follow high rainfall early in the wet season, while thrips outbreaks are associated with drought (Douangboupha et al. 2006).
One of the challenges facing crop protection specialists is to develop rice pest management techniques which are sustainable. Sustainable agriculture integrates three main goals environmental Stewardship, Farm Profitability and prosperous Farming communities In other words, to manage crop pests in such a manner that future crop production is not threatened (Jahn et al. 2001). Rice pests are managed by cultural techniques, pest-resistant rice varieties, and pesticides (which include insecticide). A pesticide is a substance or mixture of substances used to kill a pest. An insecticide is a Pesticide used against Insects in all developmental forms Increasingly, there is evidence that farmers' pesticide applications are often unnecessary (Jahn et al. 1996, 2004a,b)   . By reducing the populations of natural enemies of rice pests (Jahn 1992), misuse of insecticides can actually lead to pest outbreaks (Cohen et al. 1994). Botanicals, so-called “natural pesticides”, are used by some farmers in an attempt to control rice pests, but in general the practice is not common. Upland rice is grown without standing water in the field. Some upland rice farmers in Cambodia spread chopped leaves of the bitter bush (Chromolaena odorata (L. )) over the surface of fields after planting. The practice probably helps the soil retain moisture and thereby facilitates seed germination. Farmers also claim the leaves are a natural fertilizer and helps suppress weed and insect infestations (Jahn et al. 1999).
Among rice cultivars there are differences in the responses to, and recovery from, pest damage (Jahn et al. 2004c, Khiev et al. 2000). Therefore, particular cultivars are recommended for areas prone to certain pest problems. The genetically based ability of a rice variety to withstand pest attacks is called resistance. Three main types of plant resistance to pests are recognized (Painter 1951, Smith 2005): as nonpreference, antibiosis, and tolerance. Nonpreference (or antixenosis) (Kogan and Ortman 1978) describes host plants which insects prefer to avoid; antibiosis is where insect survival is reduced after the ingestion of host tissue; and tolerance is the capacity of a plant to produce high yield or retain high quality despite insect infestation. Over time, the use of pest resistant rice varieties selects for pests that are able to overcome these mechanisms of resistance. When a rice variety is no longer able to resist pest infestations, resistance is said to have broken down. Rice varieties that can be widely grown for many years in the presence of pests, and retain their ability to withstand the pests are said to have durable resistance. Mutants of popular rice varieties are regularly screened by plant breeders to discover new sources of durable resistance (e. g. Liu et al. 2005, Sangha et al. 2008).
Major rice pests include the brown planthopper (Preap et al. 2006), armyworms, the green leafhopper, the rice gall midge (Jahn and Khiev 2004), the rice bug (Jahn et al. 2004c), hispa (Murphy et al. 2006), the rice leaffolder, stemborer, rats (Leung et al 2002), and the weed Echinochloa crusgali (Pheng et al. 2001). Rice Beevils are also known to be a threat to rice crop. Taiwan is the only known country in which Rice Beevils are inhabitants. Though rare, these small insects can prove devastating to annual rice crop yield.
Major rice diseases include Rice Ragged Stunt, Sheath Blight and Tungro. Rice blast, caused by the fungus Magnaporthe grisea, is the most significant disease affecting rice cultivation. Magnaporthe grisea, also known as rice blast fungus, rice rotten neck, rice seedling blight, blast of rice, oval leaf spot A fungus (ˈfʌŋgəs is a eukaryotic Organism that is a member of the kingdom Fungi (ˈfʌndʒaɪ
While most breeding of rice is carried out for crop quality and productivity, there are varieties selected for other reasons. The following is a list of varieties of Rice. African varieties African rice New Rice for Africa Cultivars exist that are adapted to deep flooding, and these are generally called 'floating rice' .
The largest collection of rice cultivars is at the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), with over 100,000 rice accessions  held in the International Rice Genebank . The International Rice Research Institute (IRRI is an autonomous Non-profit, Agricultural Research and training organization with offices in more Rice cultivars are often classified by their grain shapes and texture. A cultivar is a cultivated Plant that has been selected and given a unique name because of its decorative or useful characteristics it is usually distinct from similar For example, Thai Jasmine rice is long-grain and relatively less sticky, as long-grain rice contains less amylopectin than short-grain cultivars. Jasmine rice ( ข้าวหอมมะลิ; kao hom mali) sometimes known as Thai fragrant rice, is a long-grain variety of Rice that has Amylopectin ( CAS # 9037-22-3 is a highly branched Polymer of Glucose found in plants Chinese restaurants usually serve long-grain as plain unseasoned steamed rice. Japanese mochi rice and Chinese sticky rice are short-grain. Glutinous rice ( Oryza sativa var glutinosa or Oryza glutinosa; also called sticky rice, sweet rice, waxy rice Glutinous rice ( Oryza sativa var glutinosa or Oryza glutinosa; also called sticky rice, sweet rice, waxy rice Chinese people use sticky rice which is properly known as "glutinous rice" (note: glutinous refer to the glue-like characteristic of rice; does not refer to "gluten") to make zongzi. Zong, or zongzi is a traditional Chinese food, made of Glutinous rice stuffed with different fillings and wrapped in Bamboo The Japanese table rice is a sticky, short-grain rice. Japanese rice, or japonica, is a short-grain variety of Rice ( Oryza sativa var Japanese sake rice is another kind as well.
Indian rice cultivars include long-grained and aromatic Basmati (grown in the North), long and medium-grained Patna rice and short-grained Masoori. Basmati (बासमती باسمتی is a variety of long grain Rice, famous for its Fragrance and delicate flavour. Patna rice, a variety of the species Oryza sativa, and one of the varieties of long-grain white Rice, is extensively cultivated in the Indo-gangetic plains In South India the most prized cultivar is 'ponni' which is primarily grown in the delta regions of Kaveri River. The Kaveri River ( Kannada: ಕಾವೇರಿ ನದಿ Tamil: காவிரி ஆறு also spelled Cauvery in English Kaveri is also referred to as ponni in the South and the name reflects the geographic region where it is grown. The Kaveri River ( Kannada: ಕಾವೇರಿ ನದಿ Tamil: காவிரி ஆறு also spelled Cauvery in English In the Western Indian state of Maharashtra, a short grain variety called Ambemohar is very popular. Maharashtra ( Marathi: mahārāṣṭra, IPA) is a state located on the western coast of India. Ambemohar is a kind of Rice known from the state of Maharashtra in India. this rice has a characteristic fragrance of Mango blossom.
Aromatic rices have definite aromas and flavours; the most noted cultivars are Thai fragrant rice, Basmati, Patna rice, and a hybrid cultivar from America sold under the trade name, Texmati. In Biology, hybrid has two meanings The first meaning is the result of interbreeding between two animals or plants of different taxa. Both Basmati and Texmati have a mild popcorn-like aroma and flavour. Popcorn or popping corn is a type of corn which explodes from the kernel and puffs up when heated In Indonesia there are also red and black cultivars.
High-yield cultivars of rice suitable for cultivation in Africa and other dry ecosystems called the new rice for Africa (NERICA) cultivars have been developed. An ecosystem is a natural unit consisting of all plants animals and micro-organisms( Biotic factors in an area functioning together with all of the non-living physical ( New Rice for Africa ("NERICA" is an Interspecific cultivar of Rice developed by the West Africa Rice Development Association (WARDA to improve It is hoped that their cultivation will improve food security in West Africa. Food security refers to the availability of food and one's access to it West Africa or Western Africa is the Westernmost Region of the African Continent.
Draft genomes for the two most common rice cultivars, indica and japonica, were published in April 2002. In classical genetics the genome of a Diploid Organism including Eukarya refers to a full set of chromosomes or genes in a Gamete, thereby Rice was chosen as a model organism for the biology of grasses because of its relatively small genome (~430 megabase pairs). A model organism is a Species that is extensively studied to understand particular biological Phenomena, with the expectation that discoveries made In Molecular biology, two Nucleotides on opposite complementary DNA or RNA strands that are connected via Hydrogen bonds are called Rice was the first crop with a complete genome sequence.  Basmati rice is the oldest, common progenitor for most types. An ancestor is a Parent or ( recursively) the parent of an ancestor (i
On December 16, 2002, the UN General Assembly declared the year 2004 the International Year of Rice. Events 755 - An Lushan revolts against Chancellor Yang Guozhong at Fanyang, initiating the An Shi Rebellion See also 2002 (disambiguation Year 2002 ( MMII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. Membership For two articles dealing with membership in the General Assembly see General Assembly members The declaration was sponsored by more than 40 countries.