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History of Zimbabwe
Rhodesia was the name adopted when the formerly British colony of Southern Rhodesia declared itself independent (Unilateral Declaration of Indepence) on 11th November 1965. The Rozwi Empire or Rozvi Empire (1684 - 1834 was established on the Zimbabwean Plateau by the famous Changamire Dombo The territory of 'Southern Rhodesia' was originally referred to as 'South Zambezia' but the name 'Rhodesia' came into use in 1895 The history of Rhodesia extends from Prime Minister Ian Smith 's unilateral declaration of independence in 1965 to the transition to majority rule in 1979 The history of Zimbabwe began with the end of the Bush War and the transition to Majority rule in 1980 The British Empire was the largest empire in history and for over a century was the foremost global power. Southern Rhodesia was the name of the British Colony situated north of the Limpopo River and the Union of South Africa, and known today as Zimbabwe The Unilateral Declaration of Independence ( UDI) of Rhodesia from the United Kingdom was signed on November 11, 1965 by the administration The name was also used with the establishment of Zimbabwe-Rhodesia in 1979. Zimbabwe Rhodesia (zɪmˈbɑːbweɪ rəʊˈdiːʒə officially the Republic of Zimbabwe Rhodesia, was an unrecognized state that existed from June 1, After a brief return to colonial status as Southern Rhodesia from 1979 to 1980, the country became the independent nation of Zimbabwe in April 1980. See also Great Zimbabwe National Monument. For information about the March and June 2008 presidential elections see Zimbabwean presidential election The country is landlocked and located in southern Africa. A landlocked country is commonly defined as one enclosed or nearly enclosed by land Southern Africa is the Southernmost Region of the African Continent, variably defined by Geography or Geopolitics. Predominantly white Settler Governments governed the country until 1979, initially as a self governing colony then, after the Unilateral Declaration of Independence as a self-proclaimed sovereign Dominion and latterly a Republic. A dominant minority, also known as alien elites if they are recent immigrants is a group that has overwhelming political, economic or Cultural The Unilateral Declaration of Independence ( UDI) of Rhodesia from the United Kingdom was signed on November 11, 1965 by the administration A dominion, often Dominion, refers to one of a group of autonomous polities under sovereign authority within the British Empire and The colony was named after Cecil John Rhodes, whose British South Africa Company acquired the land in the nineteenth century. Cecil John Rhodes, PC DCL (5 July 1853 &ndash 26 March 1902 was an English -born Businessman mining Magnate, and Politician The British South Africa Company (BSAC was established by Cecil Rhodes through the amalgamation of the Central Search Association and the Exploring Company Ltd The colony gained international recognition of its independence in 1980 as the Republic of Zimbabwe. See also Great Zimbabwe National Monument. For information about the March and June 2008 presidential elections see Zimbabwean presidential election Before 1964 the name "Rhodesia" referred to the territory of modern Zambia and Zimbabwe. The Republic of Zambia (ˈzæmbɪə is a Landlocked country in Southern Africa.
The British government adopted a policy of No Independence Before Majority African Rule (NIBMAR), dictating that colonies with a substantial population of white settlers would not receive independence except under conditions of universal suffrage and majority rule. The history of Rhodesia extends from Prime Minister Ian Smith 's unilateral declaration of independence in 1965 to the transition to majority rule in 1979 No Independence Before Majority African Rule ( NIBMAR) was a policy adopted by the British Empire requiring the implementation of Majority rule in a colony Universal suffrage (also universal adult suffrage, general suffrage or common suffrage) consists of the extension of the right to vote to Majority rule is a decision rule that makes one of two alternatives the "winner" based on which has more than half the votes The European minority Rhodesian Front (RF) government, led by Ian Smith, opposed the policy. The Rhodesian Front ( RF) was a Political party in Southern Rhodesia when the country was under White minority rule. Ian Douglas Smith GCLM ID ( 8 April 1919 &ndash 20 November 2007) served as the Prime Minister of the British The British Empire ruled over the self-governing colony of Southern Rhodesia until negotiations between Smith's government and the UK government broke down in 1965. The British Empire was the largest empire in history and for over a century was the foremost global power. Southern Rhodesia was the name of the British Colony situated north of the Limpopo River and the Union of South Africa, and known today as Zimbabwe
Smith's government declared the country independent from British rule on 11 November 1965 in what became known as UDI (Unilateral Declaration of Independence). Events 308 - The Congress of Carnuntum: Attempting to keep peace within the Roman Empire, the leaders of the Tetrarchy declare Year 1965 ( MCMLXV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. The Unilateral Declaration of Independence ( UDI) of Rhodesia from the United Kingdom was signed on November 11, 1965 by the administration Smith sent a telegram notifying British Prime Minister Harold Wilson at precisely 1 p. James Harold Wilson Baron Wilson of Rievaulx, KG, OBE, FRS, PC (11 March 1916 &ndash 24 May 1995 was one of the most prominent British politicians m. local time (11 a. m. in London) on 11 November, at the precise moment that the UK started its traditional two minutes of silence to mark the end of World War I and honour its war dead. Events 308 - The Congress of Carnuntum: Attempting to keep peace within the Roman Empire, the leaders of the Tetrarchy declare World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All The not-so-hidden message to "kith and kin," as Smith put it, recalled Southern Rhodesia's assistance and allegiance to the UK in its time of need in World War I and II. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including British High Commissioner John Baines Johnston, who disliked Smith, cleaned out the High Commission building of all official documents and left Rhodesia. High Commissioner is the title of various high-ranking special executive positions held by a commission of appointment Sir John Baines Johnston, GCMG, KCVO (1918 - 2005 was a British Diplomat. Smith gave strict instructions to his government not to harm the High Commission building in any way, much to Johnston's surprise.
The international community condemned UDI. The United Nations Security Council authorised the first use of sanctions, targeting Rhodesia at the behest of Britain, beginning in 1965 and lasting until the restoration of British rule in December 1979. International sanctions are actions taken by Countries against others for political reasons either Unilaterally or Multilaterally. The terms of these sanctions forbade most forms of trade or financial exchange with Rhodesia. However, not all members of the international community adhered to the sanctions. South Africa, Portugal, Israel, Iran and some Arab nations helped Rhodesia in various ways. The Republic of South Africa (also known by other official names) is a country located at the southern tip of the continent of Africa Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. In the case of the U. S. , the 1971 Byrd Amendment allowed the importation of chrome, ferrochrome and nickel from Rhodesia.  Rhodesia evaded sanctions in the short term but few outsiders invested in Rhodesia after the sanctions. 
The Rhodesian government struggled to obtain international recognition and the lifting of sanctions. Events 308 - The Congress of Carnuntum: Attempting to keep peace within the Roman Empire, the leaders of the Tetrarchy declare Year 1965 ( MCMLXV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. No significant state ever granted recognition to Rhodesia and in 1970 the U. S. government categorically stated that "under no circumstances" would it recognise Rhodesian independence. 
Initially, the state maintained its loyalty to Queen Elizabeth II as "Queen of Rhodesia" (a title to which she never consented) but not to her representative, the Governor Sir Humphrey Gibbs, whose constitutional duties were exercised by an "Officer Administering the Government," Clifford Dupont. For the ship see RMS Queen Elizabeth 2 Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Context States headed by Elizabeth II Sir Humphrey Vicary Gibbs, GCVO, KCMG, ( November 22, 1902 &ndash 1990 was the penultimate An Administrator ( Administrator of the Government, Officer Administering the Government) in the constitutional practice of some countries in the Commonwealth Clifford Walter Dupont ( December 6 1905 &ndash June 28 1978) served in the internationally unrecognized positions as Officer Administrating On 2 March 1970, Rhodesia's government formally severed links with the British Crown, declaring Rhodesia a republic with Dupont as President. Events 986 - Louis V becomes King of the Franks. 1127 - Assassination of Charles the Good Year 1970 ( MCMLXX) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. A republic is a State or Country that is not led by a hereditary Monarch, but in which the people (or at least a part of its people have impact on its Dupont, a London solicitor, had emigrated to Rhodesia in 1953. The Rhodesians hoped that the declaration of a Republic would finally prompt sympathetic states to grant recognition. The UK government pressured Secretary of State William P. Rogers into closing the U. The United States Secretary of State (commonly abbreviated as SecState) is the head of the United States Department of State, concerned with Foreign affairs William Pierce Rogers ( June 23, 1913 &ndash January 2, 2001) was an American politician who served as a Cabinet officer S. consulate in Salisbury. Harare (həˈrɑreɪ or /həˈrɑri/ formerly Salisbury) is the Capital of Zimbabwe.
In 2005 the 40th anniversary of UDI prompted memorial events of various kinds. Many individuals directly affected by, or who participated in, UDI still lived. The British Academy funded a two day conference on UDI ('UDI: 40 Years On') at the London School of Economics in January 2006. The conference portrayed UDI as a joint product of racial conflict and the Cold War. Cold War is the state of conflict tension and competition that existed between the United States and the Soviet Union (USSR and their respective allies from the  UDI had an international dimension. Domestic events in Rhodesia alone did not produce Smith's declaration.
Critics of UDI sought to maintain that Smith intended only to defend the privileges of a small white elite at the expense of the black majority. In this view UDI created a vacuum which the Mugabe regime eventually filled.  Alternatively, many Rhodesians sought to justify UDI on the ground that the British government had delayed independence by 15 years. A small number of people of European ethnic origin ( Whites) first came as settlers to the African country now known as Zimbabwe during the late nineteenth century They said the delay contained the spread of communism in Africa and enabled Zimbabwe to avoid some of the economic and political problems suffered by many other newly independent African nations.
Tobacco generated more than half of Rhodesia's foreign currency throughout the UDI era and a highly-organised cartel smuggled it out to world markets disguised as South African or Portuguese product. However, sanctions that followed UDI affected tobacco production badly. The volume sold quickly declined from 150m kg (US$75m) in 1964 to around 60m kg (US$30m) per year.
|“||From the industry's point of view, UDI was the worst setback it ever faced. Zimbabwe would be producing 400m kg of tobacco a year (double actual 1990 output) if it were not for UDI||”|
During UDI, white tobacco farmers switched to the production of maize and beef for sale on the domestic market. This provided severe competition to black farmers, whose share of marketed home food production declined from 65% to 30% during the UDI period. The black peasant farming sector never recovered. At the same time, sanctions provided an artificial protection for domestic manufacturing, which allowed the development of industries. These businesses later faltered when exposed to international competition in 1980.
A lengthy armed campaign by ZANLA, the military wing of the Zimbabwe African National Union (ZANU), and ZIPRA, the military wing of the Zimbabwe African People's Union (ZAPU), against the Rhodesian government followed UDI. The Rhodesian Bush War, also known as the Second Chimurenga or the Zimbabwe Liberation Struggle, was a war which lasted from July 1964 to 1979 and Zimbabwe African National Liberation Army ( ZANLA) was the militant wing of the Zimbabwe African National Union, a militant Communist organization and participated The Zimbabwe African National Union was a militant organization that fought against White minority rule in Rhodesia, formed as a split from the Zimbabwe African Zimbabwe People's Revolutionary Army ( ZIPRA) was the armed wing of the Zimbabwe African People's Union, a militant Communist organization in Rhodesia Zimbabwe African People's Union is a defunct militant Communist organization and political party that fought for the National liberation of Zimbabwe from This became known as the "Bush War" by White Rhodesians and as the "Second Chimurenga" (or rebellion in Shona) by supporters of the guerrillas. Shona (or chiShona is a Bantu language, native to the Shona people of Zimbabwe and southern Zambia; the term is also used to identify peoples  The war is generally considered to have started in 1972 with scattered attacks on isolated white-owned farms.
Robert Mugabe, latterly based in Mozambique, led ZANU with support from the People's Republic of China. Mozambique, officially the Republic of Mozambique (Moçambique or República de Moçambique, ʁɛ'publikɐ d musɐ̃'bik is a country in southeastern Africa Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES Joshua Nkomo, based in Zambia and supported by the Soviet Union, led ZAPU. Joshua Mqabuko Nyongolo Nkomo ( June 19, 1917 &ndash July 1, 1999) was the leader and founder of the Zimbabwe African People's Union The Republic of Zambia (ˈzæmbɪə is a Landlocked country in Southern Africa. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991  ZANU and ZAPU together formed 'the Patriotic Front'. Broadly, ZANU represented the 80% of the Black population who spoke Shona and ZAPU represented the 20% who spoke Ndebele. 
An impression quickly took root during the war that the Rhodesians were going to lose. Even the South Africans considered sustaining white minority rule in a nation in which blacks outnumbered whites by 22:1 as untenable.  In 1978 there were 260,000 Rhodesians of European descent and more than six million of African descent.  International business groups involved in the country (e. g. Lonrho) transferred their support from the Rhodesian government to black nationalist parties. Lonmin plc () formerly Lonrho plc, is a producer of Platinum group metals operating in the Bushveld Complex of South Africa. Business leaders and politicians feted Nkomo on his visits to Europe, funding his ZAPU party and associated ZIPRA military operations. This funding allowed ZIPRA to purchase sophisticated weaponry on the international arms market, which ultimately helped lead to the demise of the Rhodesian state. ZANU also attracted business supporters who saw the course that future events were likely to take. 
Initially, the Rhodesian government's overwhelming superiority in manpower, fire-power and mobility led the government to several victories. Containing the insurgency required little more than a police action. But the situation changed dramatically after the end of Portuguese colonial rule in Mozambique in 1975. Mozambique, officially the Republic of Mozambique (Moçambique or República de Moçambique, ʁɛ'publikɐ d musɐ̃'bik is a country in southeastern Africa Rhodesia now found itself almost entirely surrounded by hostile states and even South Africa, its only real ally, pressed for a settlement.
The Rhodesian government and the black nationalists met at Victoria Falls in August 1975 for negotiations brokered by South Africa and Zambia, but the talks never got beyond the procedural phase.  Rhodesian representatives made it clear they were prepared to fight an all out war to prevent majority rule. 
|“||Having let slip one chance after another of reaching an accommodation with more moderate black leaders, Rhodesia's whites seem to have made the tragic choice of facing black nationalism over the barrel of a gun rather than the conference table. The downhill road toward a race war in Rhodesia is becoming increasingly slippery with blood.||”|
At this point, ZANU's alliance with FRELIMO and the porous border between Mozambique and eastern Rhodesia enabled large-scale training and infiltration of ZANU/ZANLA guerrillas. The Rand Daily Mail was a Johannesburg daily newspaper with an anti-apartheid bias that broke the news about the apartheid state's disinformation funding scandal in The Liberation Front of Mozambique, better known by the acronym FRELIMO, from the Portuguese Frente de Libertação de Moçambique (IPA /fɾeˈlimo/ The governments of Zambia and Botswana were also emboldened sufficiently to allow guerrilla bases to be set up in their territories. Guerrillas began to launch operations deep inside Rhodesia, attacking roads, railways, economic targets and isolated security force positions, in 1976. 
The government adopted a 'strategic hamlets' policy of the kind used in Malaya and Vietnam to restrict the influence of insurgents over the population of rural areas. The Browning Hi-Power is a single-action, 9 mm semi-automatic Pistol. The 9x19mm Parabellum is a pistol cartridge introduced in 1902 by the German weapons manufacturer Deutsche Waffen und Munitionsfabriken (DWM for their The Malayan Emergency was a State of emergency declared by the British colonial government of Malaya in 1948 and lifted in 1960 as well as an insurrection and The Vietnam War, also known as the Second Indochina War, or the Vietnam Conflict, occurred in Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia Local people were forced to relocate to protected villages (PVs) which were strictly controlled and guarded by the government. The protected villages were compared by some observers to concentration camps. Internment is the imprisonment or confinement of people commonly in large groups without trial Contemporary accounts indicate that this interference in the lives of local residents induced many of them who had previously been neutral to support the insurgents.  The war degenerated into rounds of increasing brutality from all three parties involved (Rhodesian army, ZANU and ZAPU). Mike Subritzky, a former NZ Army ceasefire monitor in Rhodesia, in 1980 described the war as "both bloody and brutal and brought out the very worst in the opposing combatants on all three sides. "
The Rhodesian government faced a serious economic struggle during the 1970s as a result of sanctions, emigration, and the strain imposed on the economic system by conscription of all white men. Conscription (also known as the draft, the call-up or national service) is a general term for involuntary labor demanded by some established authority At this time volunteers were recruited from overseas to help in the fight. One particular source of volunteers, Vietnam War veterans mostly from the USA and Australia, who had found it difficult to adjust to civilian life in their home countries. The Vietnam War, also known as the Second Indochina War, or the Vietnam Conflict, occurred in Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia Rhodesians began to take serious casualties in 1977, leaving few white families untouched. 
Rhodesia began to lose vital economic and military support from South Africa, which, while sympathetic to the white minority government, never accorded it diplomatic recognition. The Republic of South Africa (also known by other official names) is a country located at the southern tip of the continent of Africa The South Africans placed limits on the fuel and munitions they supplied to the Rhodesian military. They also withdrew the personnel and equipment that they had previously provided to aid the war effort. In 1976 the South African and United States governments worked together to place pressure on Smith to agree to a form of majority rule. The federal government of the United States is the central United States Governmental body established by the United States Constitution. The Rhodesians now offered more concessions, but those concessions were insufficient to end the war.
At the time, some Rhodesians said the still embittered history between the British-dominated Rhodesia and the Afrikaner-dominated South Africa partly led South Africa to withdraw its aid to Rhodesia. The term Afrikaner people refers to white Afrikaans -speaking people who have been established in Southern Africa since the 17th century and are mainly of northwestern Ian Smith said in his memoirs that even though many white South Africans supported Rhodesia, South African Prime Minister John Vorster's policy of détente with the Black African states ended up with Rhodesia being offered as the "sacrificial lamb" in order to buy more time for South Africa. Balthazar Johannes Vorster (13 December 1915 - 10 September 1983 better known as John Vorster ("FOUR-stir" served as the Prime Minister of South Africa Détente is a French term meaning a relaxing or easing the term has been used in international politics since the early 1970s Other observers perceive South Africa's distancing itself from Rhodesia as being an early move in the process that led to majority rule in South Africa itself. 
|“||In 1976 South Africa saw settlement of the Rhodesian question as vital on several fronts: to cauterize the wound of the psychological blow … caused by her defeat in the Angolan conflict; to pre-empt possible Cuban intervention in Rhodesia and the possibility of South Africa being sucked into another Cold War regional conflict without the support and endorsement of the western powers||”|
By early 1978 militant victories put the Rhodesian armed forces on the defensive. The government abandoned its early strategy of trying to defend the borders in favour of trying to defend key economic areas and lines of communication with South Africa, while the rest of the countryside became a patchwork of "no-go areas. The term no-go area has a Military origin and was first widely used in the context of the Bush War in Rhodesia. " Rhodesia's front-line forces never contained more than 25,000 troops, eight tanks (Polish build T-55LD tanks) and nine old Hawker Hunter jets. See also T-55 The T-54/T-55 Tank series is the most widely used tank in the world and it has seen service in over 50 countries WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout Those forces could still launch raids on enemy bases, but Rhodesia faced diplomatic isolation, economic collapse and military defeat. 
During the closing stages of the conflict, the Rhodesian government resorted to biological warfare. Watercourses at several sites close to the Mozambique border were deliberately contaminated with cholera and the toxin Sodium Coumadin, an anti-coagulant commonly used as the active ingredient in rat poison. Cholera, sometimes known as Asiatic cholera or epidemic cholera, is an infectious Gastroenteritis caused by the Bacterium Warfarin (also known under the brand names Coumadin, Jantoven, Marevan, and Waran) is an Anticoagulant. Food stocks in the area were contaminated with anthrax spores. Anthrax is an acute Disease in humans and animals caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis which is highly lethal in some forms These biological attacks had little impact on the fighting capability of ZANLA, but caused considerable distress to the local population. Over 10,000 people contracted anthrax in the period 1978 to 1980 of whom 200 died. The facts about this episode became known during the hearings of the South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission during the late 1990s. This is about the South African body For similar bodies in other countries see Truth commission. 
The work of journalists such as Lord Richard Cecil, son of the Marquess of Salisbury, stiffened the morale of Rhodesians and their overseas supporters. Lord Richard Valentine Gascoyne-Cecil ( 26 January, 1948 &ndash 20 April, 1978) was the son of Robert Gascoyne-Cecil 6th Marquess Robert Edward Peter Gascoyne-Cecil 6th Marquess of Salisbury ( October 24 1916 &ndash July 11 2003) was the son of Robert Gascoyne-Cecil  Lord Richard produced regular news reports such as the Thames TV 'Frontline Rhodesia' features. These reports typically contrasted the incompetent insurgents with the "superbly professional" government troops.  A group of ZANLA insurgents killed Lord Richard on 20 April 1978 when he parachuted into enemy territory with a Rhodesian airborne unit and landed in the middle of a group of ZANLA fighters. Events 1303 - The University of Rome La Sapienza is instituted by Pope Boniface VIII. Year 1978 ( MCMLXXVIII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar)
The shooting down on 3 September 1978 of the civilian Vickers Viscount airliner Hunyani, Air Rhodesia Flight RH825, in the Kariba area by ZIPRA insurgents using a surface-to-air missile, and the subsequent massacre of its survivors, is widely considered to be the event that finally destroyed the Rhodesians' will to continue the war. Events 36 BC - In the Battle of Naulochus, Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, Admiral of Octavian, defeats Sextus Pompeius Year 1978 ( MCMLXXVIII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar) WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout Kariba Zimbabwe Lake Kariba Kariba Dam Kariba Gorge Kariba (District A surface to air missile ( SAM) or ground-to-air missile ( GTAM) is a Missile designed to be launched from the ground to destroy Aircraft Although militarily insignificant, the loss of this aircraft (and a second Viscount, the Umniati, in 1979) demonstrated the reach of insurgents extended to Rhodesian civil society. Umniati is a village in Matabeleland North, Zimbabwe and is located about 32km north of Kwekwe on the main Harare - Bulawayo road 
The Rhodesians' means to continue the war were also eroding fast. In December 1978 a ZANLA unit penetrated the outskirts of Salisbury and fired a volley of rockets and incendiary device rounds into the main oil storage depot – the most heavily defended economic asset in the country. Incendiary devices or incendiary bombs are Bombs designed to start Fires or destroy sensitive equipment using materials such as Napalm, Thermite The storage tanks burned for five days giving off a column of smoke that could be seen 80 miles (130 km) away. Half a million barrels of petroleum product (comprising Rhodesia’s strategic oil reserve) were lost. At a stroke, the country’s annual budget deficit was increased by 20%. 
The government's defence spending increased from R$30m, 8. 5% of the national budget in 1971 to 1972, to R$400m in 1978 to 1979, 47% of the national budget. In 1980 the post-independence government of Zimbabwe inherited a US$500m national debt. 
The Rhodesian army continued its "mobile counter-offensive" strategy of holding key positions ("vital asset ground") while carrying out raids into the no-go areas and into neighbouring countries. These raids became increasingly costly and unproductive. For example, in April 1979 special forces carried out a raid on Joshua Nkomo's residence in Lusaka (Zambia) with the stated intention of assassinating him. Joshua Mqabuko Nyongolo Nkomo ( June 19, 1917 &ndash July 1, 1999) was the leader and founder of the Zimbabwe African People's Union Lusaka is the capital and largest city of Zambia. It is located in the southern part of the central plateau of the country at an elevation The Republic of Zambia (ˈzæmbɪə is a Landlocked country in Southern Africa.  Nkomo and his family left hastily a few hours before the raid – having clearly been warned that the raid was coming. Rumours of treachery circulated within Rhodesia. It was variously suggested that the army command had been penetrated by British MI6 or that people in the Rhodesian establishment were positioning themselves for life after independence. The Secret Intelligence Service ( SIS) colloquially known as MI6 is the United Kingdom 's external Intelligence agency. The loyalty of the country's Central Intelligence Organization became suspect. The Central Intelligence Organisation ( CIO) is the national Intelligence agency or " Secret police " of Zimbabwe.
In 1979, some special forces units were accused of using counter terrorist operations as cover for ivory poaching and smuggling. Colonel Reid-Daly (commander of the Selous Scouts) was court martialled and dismissed for insubordination. Lieutenant Colonel Ronald "Ron" Francis Reid-Daly (born in 1926 founded and commanded the elite Selous Scouts special forces unit that fought during the Rhodesian The Selous Scouts was a special forces regiment of the Rhodesian Army which operated from 1973 until the introduction of majority rule in 1980 Meanwhile, support for ZANU-PF was growing amongst the black soldiers who made up 70% of the Rhodesian army. 
By the end of 1978, the need to cut a deal was apparent to most Rhodesians, but not to all. Ian Smith had dismissed his intransigent Defence Minister, P. K. van der Byl as early as 1976. Pieter Kenyon Fleming-Voltelyn van der Byl, ID (11 November 1923 &ndash 15 November 1999 served as the Foreign Minister of Rhodesia from 1974 to  "PK" had been a hard-line opponent of any form of compromise with domestic opposition or the international community since before UDI.
|“||. . . it is better to fight to the last man and the last cartridge and die with some honour. Because, what is being presented to us here is a degree of humiliation. . .||”|
PK eventually retired to his country estate outside Cape Town, but there were elements in Rhodesia, mainly embittered former security force personnel, who forcibly opposed majority rule up to and well beyond independence. Cape Town (Kaapstad Xhosa: Ikapa) is the second most populous city in South Africa, forming part of the metropolitan municipality of the  New white immigrants continued to arrive in Rhodesia right up to the eve of independence. 
As the result of an "internal settlement" between the Rhodesian government and some fringe African nationalist parties, which were not in exile and not involved in the war, elections were held in April 1979. Pieter Kenyon Fleming-Voltelyn van der Byl, ID (11 November 1923 &ndash 15 November 1999 served as the Foreign Minister of Rhodesia from 1974 to The UANC (United African National Council) party won a majority in this election, and its leader, Abel Muzorewa (a United Methodist Church bishop), became the country's nominal prime minister on June 1, 1979. The United African National Council (UANC is a political party in Zimbabwe. Abel Tendekayi Muzorewa (born on 4 April 1925) served as Prime Minister of Zimbabwe Rhodesia from the Internal Settlement to the Lancaster The United Methodist Church is the largest Methodist denomination and the second largest Protestant denomination in the United States. Events 193 - Roman Emperor Didius Julianus is Assassinated 987 - Hugh Capet is elected Year 1979 ( MCMLXXIX) was a Common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1979 Gregorian calendar) The country's name was changed to Zimbabwe Rhodesia. Zimbabwe Rhodesia (zɪmˈbɑːbweɪ rəʊˈdiːʒə officially the Republic of Zimbabwe Rhodesia, was an unrecognized state that existed from June 1, The internal settlement left control of the country's police, security forces, civil service and judiciary in white hands. It assured whites of about one third of the seats in parliament. It was essentially a power-sharing arrangement which did not amount to majority rule.  However, the United States Senate voted to end economic sanctions against Zimbabwe Rhodesia on June 12. The United States Senate is the Upper house of the bicameral United States Congress, the Lower house being the House of Representatives Events 1381 - Peasants' Revolt: in England, rebels arrive at Blackheath. 
While the 1979 election was described by the Rhodesian government as non-racial and democratic, it did not include the main nationalist parties ZANU and ZAPU. The Zimbabwe African National Union was a militant organization that fought against White minority rule in Rhodesia, formed as a split from the Zimbabwe African Zimbabwe African People's Union is a defunct militant Communist organization and political party that fought for the National liberation of Zimbabwe from In spite of offers from Ian Smith, the latter parties declined to participate in an election leading to anything less than full and immediate majority rule. Ian Douglas Smith GCLM ID ( 8 April 1919 &ndash 20 November 2007) served as the Prime Minister of the British
Bishop Muzorewa's government did not receive international recognition. The Bush War continued unabated and sanctions were not lifted. The international community refused to accept the validity of any agreement which did not incorporate the main nationalist parties. The British Government (then led by the recently elected Margaret Thatcher) issued invitations to all parties to attend a peace conference at Lancaster House. Margaret Hilda Thatcher Baroness Thatcher LG, OM, PC, FRS (born 13 October 1925 Lancaster House is a Mansion in the St James's district in the West End of London. These negotiations took place in London in late 1979. The three-month-long conference almost failed to reach conclusion, due to disagreements on Land reform, but resulted in the Lancaster House Agreement. Land reform in Zimbabwe began after the signing of the Lancaster House Agreement in 1979 in an effort to more equitably distribute land between the historically disenfranchised The Lancaster House Agreement ended biracial rule in Zimbabwe Rhodesia following negotiations between representatives of the Patriotic Front (PF consisting of ZAPU UDI ended, and Rhodesia reverted to the status of a British colony ('The British Dependency of Southern Rhodesia').
The outcome was an internationally supervised general election in early 1980. ZANU (PF) led by Robert Mugabe won this election. The Zimbabwe African National Union – Patriotic Front (ZANU-PF is a Zimbabwean Political party that was the ruling government in Zimbabwe Elements in the Rhodesian armed forces toyed with the idea of mounting a coup ("Operation Quartz") to prevent ZANU taking over government of the country, but the coup was never realised. The Zimbabwe African National Union was a militant organization that fought against White minority rule in Rhodesia, formed as a split from the Zimbabwe African
Mugabe and the victorious black nationalists were rather less concerned by Operation Quartz than by the possibility that there might be a mass exodus of the white community of the kind that had caused chaos in Mozambique five years earlier. Mozambique, officially the Republic of Mozambique (Moçambique or República de Moçambique, ʁɛ'publikɐ d musɐ̃'bik is a country in southeastern Africa Such an exodus had been prepared for by the South African government. With the agreement of the British Governor of Rhodesia, South African troops had entered the country to secure the road approaches to the Beit Bridge border crossing point. Beitbridge is a border town in the province of Matabeleland South, Zimbabwe. Refugee camps had been prepared in the Transvaal. For the Russian theme park see Transvaal Park. The Transvaal (Afrikaans lit On the day the election results became known, most white families had prepared contingency plans for flight, including the packing of cars and suitcases.
However, after a meeting with Robert Mugabe and the central committee of ZANU (PF), Ian Smith was reassured that whites could, and should stay in the new Zimbabwe. The Zimbabwe African National Union – Patriotic Front (ZANU-PF is a Zimbabwean Political party that was the ruling government in Zimbabwe Mugabe promised that he would abide strictly by the terms of the Lancaster House Agreement and that changes in Zimbabwe would be made gradually and by proper legal process. The Lancaster House Agreement ended biracial rule in Zimbabwe Rhodesia following negotiations between representatives of the Patriotic Front (PF consisting of ZAPU
On April 18, 1980 the country became independent as the Republic of Zimbabwe, and its capital, Salisbury, was renamed Harare two years later. Events 1025 - Bolesław Chrobry is crowned in Gniezno, becoming the first King of Poland. Year 1980 ( MCMLXXX) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar) Harare (həˈrɑreɪ or /həˈrɑri/ formerly Salisbury) is the Capital of Zimbabwe.
Although Southern Rhodesia never gained full Dominion status within the old Commonwealth, Southern Rhodesians ruled themselves until 1923. This article relates to Southern Rhodesia up to 1964 and Rhodesia thereafter Its electoral register had property and education qualifications, unexceptional for the early twentieth century, which allowed white settlers to dominate the government. Over the years various electoral arrangements made at a national and municipal level allowed whites to remain dominant. For example, the franchise for the first Legislative Council election in 1899 contained the following requirement:
voters to be British subjects, male, 21 years of age and older, able to write their address and occupation, and then to fulfil the following financial requirements: (a) ownership of a registered mining claim in Southern Rhodesia, or (b) occupying immovable property worth £75, or (c) receiving wages or salary of £50 per annum in Southern Rhodesia. Six months' continuous residence was also required for qualifications (b) and (c).
Innocuous by the standards of the time, the requirement effectively excluded blacks from the electorate. Whites never comprised more than 5% of the country's total population, but up to 1979 they never had less than 95% of the total vote in national elections. Up until the 1950s, Southern Rhodesia had a vibrant political life with right and left wing parties (by white settler standards) competing for power. The Rhodesia Labour Party held seats in the Assembly and in municipal councils throughout the 1920s and 30s. From 1953 to 1958 the prime minister was Garfield Todd, a liberal who did much to promote the development of the Black community through investment in education, housing and healthcare. Sir Reginald Stephen Garfield Todd ( July 13, 1908 - October 13, 2002) was a reformist Prime Minister of Southern Rhodesia However, the government forced Todd from office when he attempted to widen the franchise in order to allow Blacks up to 20% of the total votes. See also: Elections in Rhodesia
From 1958 onwards, white settler politics consolidated and ossified around resistance to majority rule, setting the stage for UDI. Elections in Southern Rhodesia were used from 1899 to 1923 to elect part of the Legislative Council and from 1924 to elect the whole of the Legislative Assembly which governed the colony The 1961 Constitution governed Southern Rhodesia and independent Rhodesia up until 1969, using the Westminster Parliamentary System modified by a system of separate voter rolls with differing property and education qualifications. The system ensured that whites had the majority of Assembly seats.
The 1969 republican constitution established a bicameral Parliament consisting of an indirectly-elected Senate and a directly-elected House of Assembly, effectively reserving the majority of seats for whites. A republic is a State or Country that is not led by a hereditary Monarch, but in which the people (or at least a part of its people have impact on its In Government, bicameralism (bi + Latin la ''camera'' chamber is the practice of having two legislative or Parliamentary chambers Thus a bicameral A senate is a Deliberative body, often the Upper house or chamber of a Legislature or Parliament. House of Assembly is a name given to the Legislature or Lower house of a Bicameral legislature in some countries often at Subnational level The office of President had only ceremonial significance with the Prime Minister holding executive power. The position of President of Rhodesia only existed from 1970 to 1979
The Constitution of the short-lived Zimbabwe Rhodesia, which saw a black-led government elected for the first time, reserved 28 of the 100 parliamentary seats for whites. Zimbabwe Rhodesia (zɪmˈbɑːbweɪ rəʊˈdiːʒə officially the Republic of Zimbabwe Rhodesia, was an unrecognized state that existed from June 1, The independence constitution agreed at Lancaster House reserved 20 out of 100 seats for whites in the House of Assembly and 8 out of 40 seats in the Senate. The Lancaster House Agreement ended biracial rule in Zimbabwe Rhodesia following negotiations between representatives of the Patriotic Front (PF consisting of ZAPU The constitution prohibited Zimbabwe authorities from altering the Constitution for seven years without unanimous consent and required a three quarters vote in Parliament for a further three years. The government amended the Constitution in 1987 to abolish the seats reserved for whites, and replace the office of Prime Minister with an executive President. In 1990 the government abolished the Senate.
Throughout the period of its Unilateral Declaration of Independence (1965 to 1979), Rhodesia pursued a foreign policy of attempting to secure recognition as an independent country, and insisting that its political system would include 'gradual steps to majority rule. The Unilateral Declaration of Independence ( UDI) of Rhodesia from the United Kingdom was signed on November 11, 1965 by the administration ' Ardently anti-communist, Rhodesia tried to present itself to the West as a front-line state against communist expansion in Africa, to little avail. Rhodesia never received any international recognition during its existence; recognition only occurred after elections in 1980 and a transition to black African rule.
Rhodesia wished to retain its economic prosperity and also feared communist elements in the rebel forces, and thus felt their policy of white minority rule was justified. However, the international community refused to accept this rationale, believing that their policies were perpetuating racism. This attitude was part of the larger decolonisation context, during which Western powers such as United Kingdom, France, and Belgium hastened to grant independence to their colonies in Africa. Decolonization refers to the undoing of Colonialism, the establishment of governance or authority through the creation of settlements by another country or jurisdiction The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. The Kingdom of Belgium is a Country in northwest Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts its headquarters as well as those
Rhodesia was originally a British colony. The British Empire was the largest empire in history and for over a century was the foremost global power. Although decolonisation in Africa had commenced after World War II, it began accelerating in the early 1960s, causing Britain to rapidly negotiate independence with several of its colonies. Decolonization refers to the undoing of Colonialism, the establishment of governance or authority through the creation of settlements by another country or jurisdiction During this period, it adopted a foreign policy called NIBMAR, or No Independence Before Majority African Rule, mandating democratic reforms that placed governance in the hands of the majority black Africans. No Independence Before Majority African Rule ( NIBMAR) was a policy adopted by the British Empire requiring the implementation of Majority rule in a colony The governing white minority of Rhodesia, led by Ian Smith, opposed the policy and its implications. Ian Douglas Smith GCLM ID ( 8 April 1919 &ndash 20 November 2007) served as the Prime Minister of the British On 11 November 1965, Rhodesia's minority white government made a unilateral declaration of independence, or UDI, from the United Kingdom, as it became apparent that negotiations would not lead to independence under the white regime. Events 308 - The Congress of Carnuntum: Attempting to keep peace within the Roman Empire, the leaders of the Tetrarchy declare Year 1965 ( MCMLXV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. This article is about declarations of independence in general
Until late 1969, Rhodesia still recognised Queen Elizabeth II as head of state, even though it opposed the British government itself for hindering its goals of independence. For the ship see RMS Queen Elizabeth 2 Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Context States headed by Elizabeth II The Queen, however, refused to accept the title Queen of Rhodesia. Eventually, the Smith government abandoned attempts to remain loyal to the Crown, and in 1969, a majority of whites voted in referendum to declare Rhodesia a republic. A republic is a State or Country that is not led by a hereditary Monarch, but in which the people (or at least a part of its people have impact on its They hoped that this move would facilitate recognition as an independent state by the international community, but the issues of white minority control remained and hindered this effort, and like the UDI before it, the government lacked international recognition.
After the declaration of independence, and indeed for the entire duration of its existence, Rhodesia did not receive official recognition from any state, although it did maintain diplomatic relations with South Africa, another white minority regime, and Portugal, an authoritarian government which ceased relations with Rhodesia after its democratic Carnation Revolution in 1974. The Republic of South Africa (also known by other official names) is a country located at the southern tip of the continent of Africa Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. The Carnation Revolution (Revolução dos Cravos was an almost bloodless military-led pro-democratic Coup d'état, started on April 25, 1974, in Lisbon The day following the declaration of independence, the United Nations Security Council passed a resolution (S/RES/216) calling upon all states to not accord Rhodesia recognition, and to refrain from any assistance. United Nations Security Council Resolution 216 was adopted by the United Nations Security Council on 12 November 1965, the day after The Security Council also imposed selective mandatory economic sanctions, which were later made comprehensive.
Rhodesia campaigned for international acceptance and invoked the doctrine of non-intervention in internal affairs as justification for rebuking external criticism of its internal policies. Non-intervention is the norm in International relations that one State cannot interfere in the internal politics of another state based upon the principles However, the emerging doctrine of self-determination in colonial situations meant that most nations regarded Rhodesia as illegitimate. Self-determination is defined as free choice of one’s own acts without external compulsion and especially as the freedom of the people of a given Territory to determine their The undemocratic nature of the regime poured fuel on the fire.
Zambia, formerly Northern Rhodesia, took a pragmatic approach towards Rhodesia. The Republic of Zambia (ˈzæmbɪə is a Landlocked country in Southern Africa. Northern Rhodesia was a territory in south central Africa initially administered under charter by the British South Africa Company and formed by it in 1911 by Kenneth Kaunda, heavily dependent on access through Rhodesia for his nation's copper ore exports, fuel, and power imports unofficially worked with the Rhodesian government. Kenneth David Kaunda, commonly known as KK (born April 28, 1924) served as the first President of Zambia, from 1964 to 1991 Rhodesia still allowed Zambia to export and import its goods through its territory to Mozambique ports, despite the Zambian government's official policy of hostility and non-recognition of the post-UDI Smith Administration.
The United States, like all other Western nations, refused to recognise Rhodesia, but unlike others allowed its Consulate-General to function as a communications conduit between the American government in Washington, DC, and the Rhodesian government in Salisbury. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D When Rhodesia set up an information office in Washington, DC, OAU nations loudly protested. The Organisation of African Unity ( OAU) or Organisation de l'Unité Africaine ( OUA) was established on 25 May 1963. the U. S. government responded by saying the Rhodesian mission and its staff had no official diplomatic status and violated no U. S. laws.
Portugal pursued a middle path with Rhodesia. While not officially recognising Rhodesia under Ian Smith, the government of Antonio Salazar did permit Rhodesia to establish a diplomatic mission in Lisbon, and permitted Rhodesian exports and imports through their colony of Mozambique. António de Oliveira Salazar, GColIH, GCTE, GCSE, pron. ɐ̃'tɔniu dɨ oli'vɐiɾɐ sɐlɐ'zaɾ Lisbon (Lisboa liʒˈboɐ is the Capital and largest city of Portugal. Mozambique, officially the Republic of Mozambique (Moçambique or República de Moçambique, ʁɛ'publikɐ d musɐ̃'bik is a country in southeastern Africa The Portuguese government in power at that time, authoritarian and ardently anti-communist, gave active behind-the-scenes support in Rhodesia's fight against the guerrilla groups.
South Africa, itself under international pressure as a white minority regime, pursued a policy of détente with the black African states at the time. Détente is a French term meaning a relaxing or easing the term has been used in international politics since the early 1970s These states wanted South Africa to pressure Ian Smith to accept a faster transition to majority rule in Rhodesia, in return for pledges of non-interference in South Africa's internal affairs. Prime Minister John Vorster, believing majority rule in Rhodesia would lead to international acceptance for South Africa, used a number of tactics to pressure Smith. The Prime Minister of South Africa was the Head of government in South Africa between 1910 and 1984 Balthazar Johannes Vorster (13 December 1915 - 10 September 1983 better known as John Vorster ("FOUR-stir" served as the Prime Minister of South Africa The South African government held up shipments of fuel and ammunition and pulled out friendly South African forces from Rhodesia. The combined loss of Mozambique and the loss of support from South Africa dealt critical blows to the Rhodesian government.
After the UDI, Rhodesia House in London (the Rhodesian High Commission) simply became a representative office with no official diplomatic status. Zimbabwe House at 429 Strand in central London is the Zimbabwean Embassy building in the United Kingdom, previously the country's High Commissioner is the title of various high-ranking special executive positions held by a commission of appointment Other locations which had Rhodesian representative offices were:
The most important representative offices for Rhodesia were Lisbon and Pretoria. Maputo, formerly Lourenço Marques, is the Capital and largest city of Mozambique. Mozambique, officially the Republic of Mozambique (Moçambique or República de Moçambique, ʁɛ'publikɐ d musɐ̃'bik is a country in southeastern Africa Lisbon (Lisboa liʒˈboɐ is the Capital and largest city of Portugal. Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. Pretoria is a city located in the northern part of Gauteng Province, South Africa. The Republic of South Africa (also known by other official names) is a country located at the southern tip of the continent of Africa Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Bonn is the 19th largest city in Germany. Located about 20 kilometres south of Cologne on the river Rhine in the Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia West Germany ( Inf German: Westdeutschland or West-Deutschland) was the common English name for the Federal Republic of Germany ( officially, is one of the 47 prefectures of Japan and located on the eastern side of the main island Honshū. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics.
Continuing civil war and a lack of international support eventually led the Rhodesian government to submit to an agreement with the UK in 1979. This led to internationally supervised elections, won by ZANU-PF and Robert Mugabe, establishing the internationally-recognised Zimbabwe. The Zimbabwe African National Union – Patriotic Front (ZANU-PF is a Zimbabwean Political party that was the ruling government in Zimbabwe See also Great Zimbabwe National Monument. For information about the March and June 2008 presidential elections see Zimbabwean presidential election
After independence in April 1980, the history of Rhodesians became that of the whites in Zimbabwe. A small number of people of European ethnic origin ( Whites) first came as settlers to the African country now known as Zimbabwe during the late nineteenth century However, many of the issues associated with UDI and the Bush War were not resolved immediately. In the early 1980s, South Africa sought to secure its position in the region by various means including the destabilisation of neighbouring states through support for dissident groups such as UNITA (in Angola) and Renamo (in Mozambique). The National Union for the Total Independence of Angola ( União Nacional para a Independência Total de Angola) is the second-largest Political party in Angola. The Mozambican National Resistance ( RENAMO; Portuguese: Resistência Nacional Moçambicana) is a conservative Political party in Mozambique  In Zimbabwe, the South African intelligence service promoted ZIPRA dissidents in what became known as the super-ZAPU insurgency in Matabeleland. 
During the Bush War of the 1970s some white farmers were able to carry on operations due to the tolerance of guerrilla commanders (who did not want to damage vital economic assets) and/or by paying protection money to those commanders.  The super-ZAPU insurgency of the early 1980s was much less manageable. Super-ZAPU targeted white farmers, missionaries and tourists on the grounds that their murders would make "international headlines. "
|“||. . . then the super-ZAPU element came in and this really unseated us – South Africa targeting white farmers. I mean it changed a few perspectives, I can tell you. . .||”|
The insurgency was equipped and coordinated by South African intelligence, working through white former members of the Rhodesian security services.  The super-ZAPU insurgency was eventually resolved at a military level by the Zimbabwe army Fifth Brigade's sweep through Matabeleland in 1983 (operation "Gukurahundi") and at a political level by the Unity Accord of 1987. The Gukurahundi ( Shona: "the early rain which washes away the Chaff before the spring rains" refers to an armed conflict between the Zimbabwe Government  Operation Gukurahundi was associated with the massacre of between four and ten thousand civilians. The Gukurahundi ( Shona: "the early rain which washes away the Chaff before the spring rains" refers to an armed conflict between the Zimbabwe Government Those last figures are estimated by sources ranging from the Catholic Commission for Justice and Peace to Parade magazine. 
The Matabeleland police reserve, still a largely white force in 1983, provided a degree of support to operation Gukurahundi. White police officers manning roadblocks and checkpoints were a commonly observed feature in Matabeleland at the time of the operation. 
In the ten years after independence, around 60% of the white population of Zimbabwe emigrated. Most emigrated to white, English speaking countries where they formed expatriate communities. Many expatriates and some of the whites who stayed in Zimbabwe became deeply nostalgic for Rhodesia. These individuals are known as "Rhodies. Rhodie is a Colloquial and occasionally derogatory term It is typically applied to a white Zimbabwean or expatriate Rhodesian who is nostalgic for the " Native whites who are more accepting of the new order are known as "Zimbos. "