|City of Reykjavík|
Hallgrímskirkja and Kjarvalsstaðir from Miklatún park. The Hallgrímskirkja (literally the church of Hallgrímur) is a Lutheran parish church in Reykjavík, Iceland.
Location in Iceland
City of Reykjavík
|- Mayor (Borgarstjóri)||Ólafur F. Magnússon|
|- City||274. Iceland, officially the Republic of Iceland ( ( Ísland or Lýðveldið Ísland ( Iceland is divided into 6 constituencies for the purpose of selecting representatives to the Alþingi (parliament Ólafur F Magnússon (born August 3, 1952) was the mayor of Reykjavík, Iceland from January 24 2008 to August 21 2008 Area is a Quantity expressing the two- Dimensional size of a defined part of a Surface, typically a region bounded by a closed Curve. 5 km² (106 sq mi)|
|- Metro||777 km² (300 sq mi)|
|Population (April 1, 2008)|
|- Density||428/km² (1,108. Square Kilometre ( US spelling square kilometer) symbol km2, is a decimal multiple of the SI unit of The square mile is an imperial and US unit of Area equal the area of a square of one statute mile. Events 527 - Byzantine Emperor Justin I names his nephew Justinian I as co-ruler and successor to the throne 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Population density (in agriculture standing stock and Standing crop) is a measurement of Population per unit area or unit volume 5/sq mi)|
|- Metro Density||187. A metropolitan area is a large population center consisting of a large Metropolis and its adjacent zone of influence or of more than one closely adjoining neighboring central 4/km² (485. 4/sq mi)|
|Postal Codes: 101-155|
[ˈreiːcaˌviːk]) is the capital and largest city of Iceland. Iceland, officially the Republic of Iceland ( ( Ísland or Lýðveldið Ísland ( Its latitude at 64°08' N makes it the world's most northern national capital. Latitude, usually denoted symbolically by the Greek letter phi ( Φ) gives the location of a place on Earth (or other planetary body north or south of the This is a list of various different northernmost things on earth It is located in southwestern Iceland, on the southern shore of Faxaflói Bay. Faxaflói is a bay in Southwest- Iceland between the peninsulas of Snæfellsnes and Reykjanes. With a population of 119,000, it is the heart of Iceland's economic and governmental activity. An economy is the realized social system of production exchange distribution and consumption of goods and services of a country or other area For the government of parliamentary systems see Executive (government.(IPA:
Reykjavík is believed to be the location of the first permanent settlement in Iceland, which Ingólfur Arnarson is said to have established around 870. Until the 18th century, there was no urban development in the city location. The city was founded in 1786 as an official trading town and grew steadily over the next decades, as it transformed into a regional and later national center of commerce, population and governmental activities. The article is about the geographic sense of the term For other uses including Regions and Regional, see Region (disambiguation. In Political geography and International politics, a country is a Political division of a geographical entity Commerce is a division of trade or production which deals with the exchange of goods and services from producer to final consumer In Biology a population is the collection of inter-breeding organisms of a particular Species; in Sociology For the government of parliamentary systems see Executive (government.
Today, Reykjavík is the centre of the Greater Reykjavík Area which, with a population of 200,000, is the only metropolitan area in Iceland. The Greater Reykjavík area ( Icelandic: Höfuðborgarsvæðið meaning "the capital district" is the Metropolitan area of the Icelandic A metropolitan area is a large population center consisting of a large Metropolis and its adjacent zone of influence or of more than one closely adjoining neighboring central As a highly modernized capital of one of the most developed countries in the world, its inhabitants enjoy a first-class welfare system and city infrastructure. "Social welfare" redirects here For other uses see Welfare A social welfare provision refers to any program which seeks to provide Critical infrastructure is a term used by Governments to describe Assets that are essential for the functioning of a society and economy Its location, only slightly south of the Arctic Circle, receives only four hours of daylight on the shortest day in the depth of winter; during the summer the nights are almost as bright as the days. The Arctic Circle is one of the five major circles of latitude that mark maps of the Earth. Daylight or the light of day is the combination of all direct and indirect Sunlight outdoors during the daytime (and perhaps Twilight) It has continued to see population growth in past years as well as growth in areas of commerce and industry. For other uses of this term see Industry (disambiguation An industry (from Latin industrius, "diligent industrious"
Reykjavík is located in southwest Iceland. Iceland, officially the Republic of Iceland ( ( Ísland or Lýðveldið Ísland ( The Reykjavík area coastline is characterized by peninsulas, coves, straits, and islands.
During the Ice Age (until 10,000 years ago), a large glacier covered parts of the city area, reaching as far out as Álftanes. An ice age is a period of long-term reduction in the Temperature of the Earth 's surface and atmosphere resulting in an expansion of continental Ice sheets Álftanes is a low-lying Peninsula which extrudes from the eastern part of Reykjanes, located in Iceland 's Greater Reykjavík Other parts of the city area were covered by sea water. In the warm periods and at the end of the Ice Age, some hills like Öskjuhlíð were islands. The former sea-level is characterised by sediments (with clams) reaching (at Öskjuhlíð, for example) as far up as 43 m above the current sea-level. The hills Öskjuhlíð and Skólavörðuholt seem to be the remains of former shield volcanoes which were active during the warm periods of the Ice Age. A shield volcano is a large Volcano with shallow-sloping sides
After the Ice Age, the land rose as the heavy load of the glaciers fell away, and began to look as it does today.
But the capital city area was still shaped by earthquakes and volcanic eruptions, like the one 4500 years ago in the mountain range Bláfjöll, when the lava coming down the Elliðaárvalley reached the sea at the bay Elliðavogur. An earthquake is the result of a sudden release of energy in the Earth 's crust that creates Seismic waves Earthquakes are recorded with a Seismometer Plate tectonics and hotspots Divergent plate boundaries At the
The largest river to run through Reykjavík is the Elliðaá River, which is not navigable by ships, but one of the best salmon fishing rivers in the country. The river Elliðaá is situated in the Reykjavík area in the south-west of Iceland. Salmon is the common name for several species of Fish of the family Salmonidae. Mt. Esja, at 914 m, is the highest mountain in the vicinity of Reykjavík. The mountain Esja ( most often called Esjan (literally meaning "the Esja" is situated in the south-west of Iceland, about 10 km to the north
The city of Reykjavík is mostly located on the Seltjarnarnes peninsula, but the suburbs reach far out to the south and east from it. Reykjavík is a spread-out city; most of its urban area is in the form of low-density suburbs and houses are usually widely spaced. The outer residential neighbourhoods are as well widely spaced from each other; in between them run the main traffic arteries and a lot of empty spaces.
Despite its extreme north Atlantic location, Reykjavík is much warmer than most locations at a similar latitude. The average mid-winter temperatures are no lower than those in New York City, with average temperature in January of 0°C but temperatures very rarely drop below -10 C°(14 F°) in the winter. The City of New York This is because the Icelandic coastal weather in winter is moderated by the warm waters of the Gulf Stream. The Gulf Stream, together with its northern extension towards Europe the North Atlantic Drift, is a powerful warm and swift Atlantic Ocean current that The climate is subpolar oceanic, and the city is on the northern edge of the temperate zone. The city's coastal location does make it prone to wind, however, and gales are common in winter. Summers are cool, with temperature fluctuating between 10 - 15 C°, sometimes exceeding 20 C° (68 F°). Reykjavík is not a particularly wet city, but it nevertheless averages 213 days with measurable precipitation every year. Spring tends to be the sunniest season. Annual sunshine hours in Reykjavik are around 1300, which is comparable with other places in Northern and North-Eastern Europe. The highest ever recorded temperature in Reykjavik was 24,8 C° (75 F°), recorded on 11th of August 2004, while the lowest ever recorded temperature was -24,5 C° (-12 F°), recorded on 21st of January 1918 Places in the world with similar climate: Thorshavn, Faroe Islands; Dutch Harbor, Alaska; Ushuaia, Argentina; Stanley, Falkland Islands. "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " Year 1918 ( MCMXVIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Tórshavn (ˈtʰɔuʂhaun is the Capital of the Faroe Islands. The Faroe Islands or Faeroe Islands or simply Faroe(s or Faeroes (Føroyar meaning " Sheep Islands" Færøerne Old Norse Unalaska ( Iluulux̂ in Aleut) is a small city in the Aleutians West Census Area of the Unorganized Borough of the U Alaska ( Аляска Alyaska) is a state in the United States of America, in the northwest of the North American continent Ushuaia (u'swaia is the capital of the Argentine province of Tierra del Fuego and is sometimes considered to be the southernmost city in the world For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Argentina topics. "Port Stanley" redirects here For the town in Canada see Port Stanley Ontario.
|Average high||2°C (36°F)||2. 5°C (37°F)||4°C (39°F)||6°C (43°F)||10°C (50°F)||12°C (54°F)||14°C (57°F)||14°C (57°F)||11°C (52°F)||7°C (45°F)||4°C (45°F)||2°C (36°F)||7. 4°C (45°F)|
|Average low||-2°C (28°F)||-2°C (28°F)||-1°C (30°F)||1°C (34°F)||4°C (39°F)||7°C (45°F)||10°C (50°F)||8°C (46°F)||6°C (43°F)||3°C (37°F)||0°C (32°F)||-1°C (30°F)||2. 7°C (36. 9°F)|
|Total rainfall||89mm (3. 5")||64mm (2. 5")||62mm (2. 4")||56mm (2. 2")||42mm (1. 7")||42mm (1. 7")||50mm (2. 0")||56mm (2. 2")||67mm (2. 6")||94mm (3. 7")||78mm (3. 1")||79mm (3. 1")||779mm (30. 7")|
The first permanent settlement in Iceland by Nordic people is believed to have been established in Reykjavík by Ingólfur Arnarson around AD 870; this is described in Landnámabók, or the Book of Settlement. The Nordic countries make up a region in Northern Europe called the Nordic region, consisting of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Events By Place Europe Prague Castle is founded The Great Summer Army invades England and conquers Landnámabók (meaning "The Book of Settlement" often shortened to Landnáma) is a medieval Icelandic manuscript describing in considerable detail the Ingólfur Arnarson is said to have decided the location of his settlement using a traditional Viking method; by dumping his high seat pillars, Öndvegissúlur, in the ocean when he saw the coastline and then settled where the pillars came to shore. Öndvegissúlur, or "high-seat pillars" were a pair of wooden poles placed on each side of the seat of a Viking chieftain Steam from hot springs in the region is supposed to have inspired Reykjavík's name, as Reykjavík translates to "Bay of Smokes".
Reykjavík is not mentioned in any medieval sources except as a regular farm land but the 18th century was the beginning of urban concentration there. The 18th century lasted from 1701 to 1800 in the Gregorian calendar, in accordance with the Anno Domini / Common Era numbering system The Danish rulers of Iceland backed ideas of a domestic industry in Iceland that would help generate some much-needed progress on the island. The Kingdom of Denmark ( ˈd̥ænmɑɡ̊ (archaic ˈd̥anmɑːɡ̊ commonly known as Denmark, is a country in the Scandinavian region of northern Europe In 1752, the King of Denmark donated the estate of Reykjavík to the Innréttingar Corporation; the name comes from Danish "indretninger," meaning enterprise. This is a list of Danish Monarchs, that is the Kings and Queens regnant of Denmark. Danish ( d̥ænsɡ̊ is one of the North Germanic languages (also called Scandinavian languages a sub-group of the Germanic branch of the The leading person in this movement was Skúli Magnússon. In the 1750s several houses were constructed to house the wool industry that was to be Reykjavík's most important employer for a few decades and the original reason for its existence. Wool is the fiber derived from the specialized skin cells called follicles of animals in the Caprinae family principally sheep, but the hair of certain species Other crafts were also practiced by the Innréttingar such as fisheries, sulphur mining, agriculture, and ship building. For the computer security term see Phishing. Fishing is the activity of catching Fish. Sulfur or sulphur (ˈsʌlfɚ see spelling below) is the Chemical element that has the Atomic number 16 Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture A ship /ʃɪp/ is a large vessel that floats on water Ships are generally distinguished from Boats based on size
The Danish Crown abolished monopoly trading in 1786 and granted six communities around the country an exclusive trading charter, Reykjavík was one of them and the only one to hold on to the charter permanently. In Economics, a monopoly (from Greek monos, alone or single + polein, to sell exists when a specific individual or enterprise has sufficient 1786 is regarded as the date of the city's founding, celebrating its 200th anniversary in 1986. Trading rights were still limited to the subjects of the Danish Crown however, and Danish traders continued to dominate trade in Iceland. Over the next decades, their business in Iceland expanded. After 1880, free trade was expanded to all nationalities and the influence of Icelandic merchants started to grow. Free trade is a system in which the trade of goods and services between or within countries flows unhindered by government-imposed restrictions Nationality is a relationship between a Person and their State of Origin, Culture, association Affiliation and/or Loyalty
Nationalist sentiment gained influence in the 19th century and ideas about Icelandic independence became widespread. The Hallgrímskirkja (literally the church of Hallgrímur) is a Lutheran parish church in Reykjavík, Iceland. The term nationalism can refer to an Ideology, a sentiment, a form of Culture, or a Social movement that focuses on the Nation The 19th century of the Common Era began on January 1, 1801 and ended on December 31, 1900, according to the Gregorian calendar Reykjavík, as Iceland's only city, was the melting pot of such ideas in the country. Advocates of an independent Iceland realized that a strong Reykjavík was fundamental for that objective. All the important years in the history of the independence struggle are important for Reykjavík as well. In 1845, Alþingi, or the general assembly that Icelanders formed in 930, was re-established in Reykjavík; it had been suspended a few decades earlier when it was located at Þingvellir. The Alþingi, Anglicized variously as Althing or Althingi, is the national Parliament —literally “(the all- thing ”—of is '''''Þingvellir''''' ( Þing: 'parliament' is ''vellir'' 'meadows'(sometimes transliterated Thingvellir) is a place in Bláskógarbyggð in southwestern At the time it only functioned as an advisory assembly that was supposed to advise the King about the matters of Iceland. The placement of Alþingi in Reykjavík effectively established the city as the capital of Iceland. In 1874 Iceland was given a constitution and with it, Alþingi gained some limited legislative powers and in essence became the institution that it is today. A constitution is a system for government often Codified as a written document that establishes the rules and principles of an autonomous political entity A legislature is a type of representative Deliberative assembly with the power to create amend and change Laws The law created by a legislature is called Legislation The next step was to move most of the executive power to Iceland and that was done by the Home Rule in 1904 when the office of minister for Iceland was established in Reykjavík. In Political science and Constitutional law, the executive is the branch of government responsible for the day-to-day management of the State. The Prime Minister of Iceland (Forsætisráðherra Íslands is Iceland 's Head of government. The biggest step towards an independent Iceland was taken December 1, 1918 when Iceland became a sovereign country under the Crown of Denmark, the Kingdom of Iceland. Events 800 - Charlemagne judges the accusations against Pope Leo III in the Vatican Year 1918 ( MCMXVIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common This is a list of Danish Monarchs, that is the Kings and Queens regnant of Denmark. The Kingdom of Iceland was a Constitutional monarchy lasting from 1st December 1918 until 17th June 1944, when it became
In the 1920s and 1930s most of the growing Icelandic fishing trawler fleet sailed from Reykjavík and salt-cod production was the main industry but the Great Depression hit Reykjavík hard with unemployment and labour union struggles that sometimes became violent.
In the morning of May 10, 1940, following the German occupation of Denmark on April 9, four warships approached Reykjavík and anchored in the harbour. Events 1291 - Scottish Nobles recognize the authority of Edward I of England. Year 1940 ( MCMXL) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Events 193 - Septimius Severus is proclaimed Roman Emperor by the army in Illyricum (in the Balkans) Many citizens were relieved to find out that those were British rather than German. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. In a few hours, the allied occupation of Reykjavík was complete. The Allies of World War II were the countries officially opposed to the Axis powers during the Second World War. There was no armed resistance and taxi and truck drivers even assisted the invasion force which had no motor vehicles initially. The Icelandic government had received many requests from the British government about allowing the occupation but they always declined on the basis of the Neutrality Policy. For other uses of Neutral and Neutrality see Neutral A neutral country takes no side in a War between other parties For the remaining years of World War II, British and later American soldiers built bases in Reykjavík; the number of foreign soldiers in Reykjavík became about the same as the local population of the city. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including The United States of America —commonly referred to as the
The economic effects of the occupation were quite positive for Reykjavík: the unemployment of the depression years vanished and a lot of construction work was done. The British built Reykjavík Airport, which is still in service today, mostly serving domestic flights; the Americans built Keflavík Airport that later became Iceland's primary international airport, situated 50 km from Reykjavík. Keflavík (pronounced /ˈkɛplɑˌviːk/) is a town in the Reykjanes region in southwest Iceland. In 1944 the Republic of Iceland was founded and a president elected in popular elections replaced the King; the office of the president was placed in Reykjavík. The President of Iceland (forseti Íslands is Iceland 's elected Head of state.
In the post-war years, the growth of Reykjavík accelerated. A mass exodus from the rural countryside began, largely due to improved technology in agriculture that reduced the need for workforce in that sector and because of the population boom following better living conditions in the country. Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture Young people in the prime of their lives were the most populous group that moved to the capital to live the "Reykjavík Dream", and the city became a city of children. A once primitive village was rapidly transformed into a modern city. Private cars became common and modern apartment complexes rose in the expanding suburbs. Much of Reykjavík lost its village feel. In 1972, Reykjavík hosted the world chess championship between Bobby Fischer and Boris Spassky. The World Chess Championship 1972 match between challenger Bobby Fischer and defending champion Boris Spassky in Laugardalshöll, Reykjavík Robert James "Bobby" Fischer ( March 9 1943 – January 17 2008) was an American -born Chess Grandmaster Boris Vasilievich Spassky (also Spasskij (Бори́с Васи́льевич Спа́сский (born January 30, 1937) is a Russian French
Reykjavík has in the last two decades become a significant player in the global community. The 1986 Reykjavík Summit between Ronald Reagan and Mikhail Gorbachev underlined Reykjavík's new-found international status. The Reykjavik Summit was a summit meeting between US president Ronald Reagan and Soviet premier Mikhail Gorbachev, held in the famous house of Höfði Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev ( Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachyov;; born 2 March 1931 in Privolnoye Stavropol Krai) is a Russian politician Deregulation in the financial sector and the computer revolution of the 1990s have transformed Reykjavík yet again. Deregulation, a term which gained widespread currency in the period 1970-2000 can be seen as a process by which governments remove reduce or simplify Restrictions on Business The financial sector and information technology are now significant employers in the city. Information technology ( IT) as defined by the Information Technology Association of America (ITAA is "the study design development implementation support The city has fostered some world famous talents in recent years, such as singer Björk, the band Múm and Sigur Rós. Björk Guðmundsdóttir (born 21 November 1965 is an Icelandic Singer-songwriter, Composer, actress and music producer. múm (pronounced [muːm], "moom" are an experimental Icelandic musical group whose music is Sigur Rós ( are an Icelandic Post-rock band with melodic classical and minimalist elements
Reykjavík is governed by the city council, directly elected by anyone aged over 18 and registered with domicile in the city. The council has 15 members that are elected for 4 year terms. The Independence Party had an overall control of the city council from the party's establishment in 1929 and until 1978 when they narrowly lost the election to NOC (no overall control). From 1978 to 1982 the People's Alliance, the Social Democratic Party and the Progressive Party formed the majority of the council. The Independence Party won an overall control in the 1982 elections, and held it until 1994. Then, its opponents had formed an alliance, called Reykjavíkurlistinn, or R-listinn. That alliance had an overall control until 2006. In the May 2006 elections the electorates could choose between five different Parties; three of them had former formed R-listinn. The Independence Party failed to gain an overall control (received 7 members of the council), but together with the Progressive Party, and its one council member, they were able to form a new majority in the council which took over in June 2006. In October 2007 a new majority was formed in the council that consisted of members of the Progressive Party (1), the Social Democratic Alliance (4), the Left-Greens (2) and the F-list (1) (liberals and independents), after turmoil regarding REI, a subsidiary of OR, the city's energy company. However, three months later the leader of the F-list formed a new majority with the Independence Party. Ólafur F. Magnússon, the leader of the F-list, was elected mayor 24 January 2008, but in March 2009 the Independence Party will appoint a new mayor.
The city council governs the city of Reykjavík according to law number 45/1998 . The city council selects people on the boards and each board controls a different field under the city council's authority. The most important board is the city board that wields the executive rights along with the city mayor. The city mayor is the uppermost public official in the city and also the director of city operations. Other public official then control different institutions under the mayor's authority.
Therefore the administration consists of two different parts. The political power that the city council wields and other boards in its authority and the official system where public official under the authority of the city mayor take care of administering the policy and the management.
The mayor is appointed by the city council, usually one of the council members is chosen but they may also hire a mayor that is not member of the council.
The office of mayor was introduced from 1907 and in 1908 applications for that position were requested. Two applications were received, one from Páll Einarsson sheriff and town mayor of Hafnarfjörður and another one from Knud Zimsem town councillor in Reykjavík. For water inlet see Fjord. Hafnarfjörður or Hafnarfjordur is a port town located on the south-west Páll was employed on 7 May and was the mayor for six years. Events 558 - In Constantinople, the dome of the Hagia Sophia collapses The city mayor received, at that time, a salary of 4500IKR annually and 1500IKR for office costs.
In 1976 the winter friendship games were hosted in Reykjavík. These are in substitution of the Winter Olympics which were also hosted that year.
The population of Reykjavík in April 2008 was 118,861, the combined population of the Greater Reykjavík Area being about 198,782. Ólafur F Magnússon (born August 3, 1952) was the mayor of Reykjavík, Iceland from January 24 2008 to August 21 2008 Events 41 - Gaius Caesar (Caligula, known for his eccentricity and cruel Despotism, is Assassinated by his disgruntled 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Dagur Bergþóruson Eggertsson (born June 19, 1972) is an Icelandic Politician who became the Mayor of Reykjavík in Events 456 - Magister militum Ricimer defeats the Emperor Avitus at Piacenza and becomes master of the western Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 41 - Gaius Caesar (Caligula, known for his eccentricity and cruel Despotism, is Assassinated by his disgruntled 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Vilhjálmur Þ Vilhjálmsson was mayor of Reykjavík 2006-2007 and is currently the chairman of the executive committee of the City Council of Reykjavik Events 1525 - Martin Luther marries Katharina von Bora, against the Celibacy rule decreed by the Roman Catholic Church for Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Events 456 - Magister militum Ricimer defeats the Emperor Avitus at Piacenza and becomes master of the western Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Steinunn Valdís Óskarsdóttir (born 7 April 1965) was the Mayor of Reykjavík. Events 1700 - Battle of Narva — A Swedish army of 8500 men under Charles XII defeats Events 1525 - Martin Luther marries Katharina von Bora, against the Celibacy rule decreed by the Roman Catholic Church for Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Þórólfur Árnason took over as the mayor of Reykjavík on February 1, 2003 after the Left Greens and the Progressive Party had demanded that Ingibjörg Events 1327 - Teenaged Edward III is crowned King of England, but the country is ruled by his mother Queen Year 2003 ( MMIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. Events 1700 - Battle of Narva — A Swedish army of 8500 men under Charles XII defeats "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " Early life Ingibjörg Sólrún Gísladóttir is born in Reykjavik on December 31 1954, the daughter of Salesman Gísli Gíslason (born Events 1525 - Martin Luther marries Katharina von Bora, against the Celibacy rule decreed by the Roman Catholic Church for Year 1994 ( MCMXCIV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar) Events 1327 - Teenaged Edward III is crowned King of England, but the country is ruled by his mother Queen Year 2003 ( MMIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. Árni Sigfússon is the former Mayor of Reykjavík, Iceland 's capital and is the current Mayor of the town of Reykjanesbær, Events 45 BC - In his last victory Julius Caesar defeats the Pompeian forces of Titus Labienus and Pompey the Younger Year 1994 ( MCMXCIV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar) Events 1525 - Martin Luther marries Katharina von Bora, against the Celibacy rule decreed by the Roman Catholic Church for Year 1994 ( MCMXCIV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar) Markús Örn Antonsson (born 25 May 1943 in Reykjavík, Iceland) was the Mayor of Reykjavík from 1991 to 1994 Events 622 - The beginning of the Islamic calendar. 1054 - Three Roman legates fractured relations between the Western and Year 1991 ( MCMXCI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar. Events 45 BC - In his last victory Julius Caesar defeats the Pompeian forces of Titus Labienus and Pompey the Younger Year 1994 ( MCMXCIV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar) Davíð Oddsson (IPA ˈɔtsɔn (born 17 January 1948 in Reykjavík) is an Icelandic politician and the longest-serving Prime Minister Events 927 - Simeon the Great, Tsar of Bulgaria, dies 1120 - Richard III of Capua is anointed Year 1982 ( MCMLXXXII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar) Events 622 - The beginning of the Islamic calendar. 1054 - Three Roman legates fractured relations between the Western and Year 1991 ( MCMXCI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar. Events 778 - The Battle of Roncevaux Pass, at which Roland is killed Year 1978 ( MCMLXXVIII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar) Events 927 - Simeon the Great, Tsar of Bulgaria, dies 1120 - Richard III of Capua is anointed Year 1982 ( MCMLXXXII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar) Events 800 - Charlemagne judges the accusations against Pope Leo III in the Vatican Year 1972 ( MCMLXXII) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Events 778 - The Battle of Roncevaux Pass, at which Roland is killed Year 1978 ( MCMLXXVIII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar) Geir Hallgrímsson ( December 16 1925 &ndash September 1 1990) was the 16th Prime Minister of Iceland for the Independence Events 105 BC - Battle of Arausio: The Cimbri inflict the heaviest defeat on the Roman army of Gnaeus Mallius Maximus Year 1960 ( MCMLX) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Events 800 - Charlemagne judges the accusations against Pope Leo III in the Vatican Year 1972 ( MCMLXXII) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Geir Hallgrímsson ( December 16 1925 &ndash September 1 1990) was the 16th Prime Minister of Iceland for the Independence Events 1095 - The Council of Clermont, called by Pope Urban II to discuss sending the First Crusade to the Holy Land The year 1959 ( MCMLIX) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Events 105 BC - Battle of Arausio: The Cimbri inflict the heaviest defeat on the Roman army of Gnaeus Mallius Maximus Year 1960 ( MCMLX) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Gunnar Thoroddsen (ˈkʏnar ˈtʰouːrɔtˌsɛn ( December 29 1910 &ndash September 27 1983) was Prime Minister of Iceland Events 211 - Roman Emperor Septimius Severus dies leaving the Roman Empire in the hands of his two quarrelsome sons Year 1947 ( MCMXLVII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Events 105 BC - Battle of Arausio: The Cimbri inflict the heaviest defeat on the Roman army of Gnaeus Mallius Maximus Year 1960 ( MCMLX) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Bjarni Benediktsson ( April 30 1908 – July 10 1970) was Prime Minister of Iceland from 14 November 1963 Events 314 - Roman Emperor Licinius is defeated by his colleague Constantine I at the Battle of Cibalae, and loses Year 1940 ( MCMXL) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Events 211 - Roman Emperor Septimius Severus dies leaving the Roman Empire in the hands of his two quarrelsome sons Year 1947 ( MCMXLVII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Jón Þorláksson ( 3 March 1877 &ndash 20 March 1935) was Prime Minister of Iceland from 8 July, 1926 The Greater Reykjavík area ( Icelandic: Höfuðborgarsvæðið meaning "the capital district" is the Metropolitan area of the Icelandic There are six other municipalities in the capital city area, those are as listed below:
Borgartún is the financial center of Reykjavík, hosting a large number of companies and three investment banks. Borgartún is a street in Reykjavík, Iceland that has in the recent years become the city's financial district
Per capita Car ownership in Iceland is among the highest in the world, though Reykjavík is not severely affected by congestion. Síminn, previously named Landssíminn, is an Icelandic telecommunications company Baugur Group ( in Icelandic, otherwise often) is an Icelandic Investment company. Eimskip is an Icelandic sea transportation FRISK Software International ( FSI) is an Icelandic software company that develops F-Prot antivirus and F-Prot AVES antivirus and antispam HB Grandi is an Icelandic Fishing industry company one of the largest in the country based in Reykjavík. Glitnir ( is one of the three major Commercial banks of Iceland. deCODE genetics Inc ( Íslensk erfðagreining in Icelandic is a biopharmaceutical company based in Reykjavík, Iceland. Kaupthing Bank (Kaupþing banki ( OMX Stockholm KAUP SEK is an Icelandic bank headquartered in Reykjavík, Iceland. Landsbanki, officially is Landsbanki Íslands ( also commonly known as Landsbankinn in Iceland, is an Icelandic bank Vodafone Iceland is an Icelandic Telecommunications company and is part of the Icelandic IT company Teymi. Orkuveita Reykjavíkur (Reykjavik Energy is an Icelandic utility company that provides electricity geothermal water for heating, and cold water for consumption Icebank (former Sparisjóðabanki Íslands) is a commercial bank focusing on wholesale and Investment banking services to savings banks Icelandic Icelandair Group is an Icelandic travel industry corporation the owner of the airline Icelandair and numerous other travel industry companies CCP hf (or C rowd C ontrol P roductions is a Video game developer. Wide multi-lane highways run all over the city connecting the different neighbourhoods and suburbs. Parking spaces are also plentiful in most areas. Public transportation only exists in the form of a bus system (called 'Strætó bs) and is not very popular in this car-friendly city. Strætó bs is a Public transport company which operates city buses in the Icelandic capital Reykjavík and surrounding satellite towns Route 1 (the Ring Road) runs by the city outskirts and connects it to the rest of Iceland. Route 1 or the Ring Road ( Icelandic: Þjóðvegur 1 or Hringvegur is a main Road in Iceland that runs around the island and connects all
Reykjavík Airport, the second largest airport in the country (after Keflavík International Airport), is positioned inside the city, just south of the city centre. Reykjavík Airport ( Icelandic: Reykjavíkurflugvöllur, is the chiefly domestic airport serving Reykjavík, Iceland. An airport is a location where Aircraft such as airplanes, Helicopters and blimps take off and land Keflavík International Airport (Keflavíkurflugvöllur is the largest Airport in Iceland and the country’s main hub for international transportation It is mainly used for domestic flights as well as flights to Greenland and the Faroe Islands. Greenland (Kalaallit Nunaat meaning "Land of the Greenlanders" Grønland is a self-governing Danish Province located between the The Faroe Islands or Faeroe Islands or simply Faroe(s or Faeroes (Føroyar meaning " Sheep Islands" Færøerne Old Norse It was built there by the British occupation force during World War II on the outskirts of, then much smaller, Reykjavík. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including In later years there has been some controversy regarding the location of the airport since it takes up a lot of valuable space in central Reykjavík.
Reykjavík has two seaports, the old harbour near the city centre which is mainly used by fishermen and Cruise ships and Sundahöfn in the east city which is the largest cargo port in the country. ||-||-|-||-||-||-||-||-||-|} A port is a facility for receiving Ships and transferring cargo For the fishing industry and the practice of fishing see Fishing. A cruise ship or cruise liner is a Passenger ship used for pleasure voyages where the voyage itself and the ship's amenities are part of the experience Cargo (or freight) refers to goods or produce transported generally for Commercial gain by ship, aircraft, train,
Abundant water and volcanic activity in Iceland have provided Reykjavík with a unique opportunity. Because of the special geological situation in Iceland, the high concentration of Volcanoes and Geothermal energy are very often used for Heating and Iceland, officially the Republic of Iceland ( ( Ísland or Lýðveldið Ísland ( Most houses in Reykjavík use the geothermal heating system. Geothermal heating has been used since the time of the Roman Empire as a way of heating Buildings and Spas by utilizing sources of hot Water It is the largest system of this kind in the world.
Reykjavík is often dubbed "the nightlife capital of the north" . It is famous for its nightlife during the weekends. NightLife with Tony Delroy is a popular late night talkback show across ABC Local Radio, Broadcasting from the 702 ABC Sydney studios in Ultimo Icelanders tend to go out late so bars that look rather quiet can fill up suddenly - usually around midnight on a weekend. A bar (also called a Pub or Tavern) is a business that serves drinks especially Alcoholic beverages such as beer liquor and mixed drinks for consumption
One of the main causes for this is that alcohol is relatively expensive at bars, so people tend to drink at home before going out. Beer was banned in Iceland until 1 March 1989, but has since become popular among many Icelanders as their alcoholic drink of choice. Beer is the world's oldest and most widely consumed Alcoholic beverage and the third most popular drink overall after water and tea Prohibition of alcohol, often referred to simply as prohibition, also known as Noble Experiment, refers to a Sumptuary law which prohibits Alcohol Events 86 BC - Lucius Cornelius Sulla, at the head of a Roman Republic army enters in Athens, removing the Tyrant Year 1989 ( MCMLXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar)  However, like other alcoholic beverages, it is still quite expensive in Iceland, compared to many other countries; a pint (actually a half litre) of beer in an Icelandic bar can cost between 500 and 800 krónur, or from 5 to 8 euro. The pint is an English unit of Volume or capacity in the imperial system and United States customary units. The litre or liter (see spelling differences) is a unit of Volume. The króna (plural krónur) ( sign: kr; code: ISK) is the Currency of Iceland. Please update other articles as well to avoid contradiction within Wikipedia e Consequently, some people show up late and are already drunk when they arrive at the bars downtown. Drunkenness or inebriation is the state of being intoxicated by consumption of Alcoholic beverages to a degree that mental and physical faculties are noticeably
There are over 100 different bars and clubs in Reykjavík; most of them are located on Laugavegur and its side streets. Laugavegur is one of the oldest shopping streets of central Reykjavík, Iceland. It is very common for an establishment that is a café before dinner to turn into a bar in the evening. Closing time is usually around 6AM on weekends and 1AM during the week.
The arrival of the new year is a particular cause for celebration to the people of Reykjavík. Icelandic law states that anyone may purchase and use fireworks during a certain period around New Year's Eve. Most places that sell fireworks in Iceland make their own rules about age of buyers; usually it is around 16. The people of Reykjavík spend enormous sums of money on fireworks, most of which are fired as midnight approaches on December 31. Events 406 – Vandals, Alans and Suebians cross the Rhine, beginning an invasion of Gallia. As a result, every New Year's Eve the city is lit up with fireworks displays. A firework is classified as a low explosive pyrotechnic device used primarily for aesthetic and entertainment purposes
Reykjavík is twinned with the following:
Hermannsdóttir, Edda (3. Kringlan is one of the largest shopping malls in Reykjavík with over 170 shops restaurants and services The Alþingi, Anglicized variously as Althing or Althingi, is the national Parliament —literally “(the all- thing ”—of Menningarnótt or "cultural night" is a yearly event held in Reykjavík, the capital of Iceland, usually on the third Saturday of August Iceland does not have a public Railway system and though there have been three small railways none has formed a part of the public transport network 7. 2006). "Consumption of alcoholic beverages 2005". Prices and consumption, Reykjavík: Hagstofa Íslands. Retrieved on 1. 2. 2007.