|Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia|
(Spanish) Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia
|Participant in Colombian armed conflict|
flag and logo of the FARC-EP
|Headquarters||“Mountains of Colombia”|
|concentrated in southern and eastern Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela. The Colombian armed conflict or Colombian Civil War are terms that are employed to refer to the current asymmetric low-intensity armed conflict in Marxism-Leninism is a Communist ideological stream that emerged as the mainstream tendency amongst the Communist parties in the 1920s as it was adopted Guillermo León Sáenz, known by his ''nom de guerre'' Alfonso Cano, is the main leader of the FARC -EP ("Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia Víctor Julio Suárez Rojas aka " Jorge Briceño Suárez " ( Nom de guerre: Mono Jojoy) is a high-ranking member of the Revolutionary Armed Luciano Marín Arango, aka " Ivan Marquez " (born 1955 in Florencia, Caqueta) is Colombian guerrilla leader member of the Revolutionary Milton de Jesús Toncel Redondo aka Joaquín Gómez, aka Usuriaga. Rodrigo Londoño-Echeverry aka " Timoleón Jiménez " or " Timochenko " (born January 22, 1959 in Calarcá, Colombia (kəˈlʌmbɪə officially the Republic of Colombia () is a country in northwestern South America. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Ecuador topics. Venezuela (ˌvɛnəˈzweɪlə) officially the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (Spanish República Bolivariana de Venezuela) is a country on the Incursions in Peru, Brazil, Panama. Peru (Perú Piruw Piruw officially the Republic of Peru ( reˈpuβlika del peˈɾu is a country in western South America. |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld Panama, officially the Republic of Panama (República de Panamá) is the southernmost country of Central America. Sporadic presence in other countries of Latin America, predominantly Mexico, Paraguay, Argentina, Chile, Bolivia and Costa Rica. The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America. Paraguay, officially the Republic of Paraguay ( Spanish: República del Paraguay; Guaraní: Tetã Paraguái) is one of the only For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Argentina topics. Chile, officially the Republic of Chile ( Spanish:) is a country in South America occupying a long and narrow Coastal strip wedged between the The Republic of Bolivia (República de Bolivia) named after Simón Bolívar, is a Landlocked country in central South America. Costa Rica, officially the Republic of Costa Rica ( Spanish: Costa Rica or República de Costa Rica,) is a Country in|
|Allies||Foro de São Paulo|
|Opponents||Government of Colombia|
Government of Canada
Government of the United States
Colombian paramilitary groups
The Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia – People’s Army (Spanish: Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia – Ejército del Pueblo), also known by the acronym of FARC or FARC-EP, is a self-proclaimed Marxist-Leninist revolutionary guerrilla organization. Foro de São Paulo ( FSP, São Paulo Forum is a conference of Left-wing and nationalist Political parties and social movements in Latin America The Government of Colombia is according to the Colombian Constitution of 1991 within the framework of a presidential Welfare state and Unitary republic The Canadian Government, formally Her Majesty's Government in Canada, is the Federal government of Canada. The federal government of the United States is the central United States Governmental body established by the United States Constitution. The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in Paramilitarism in Colombia refers to the origin and development of Paramilitary groups in Colombia during the 20th century Marxism-Leninism is a Communist ideological stream that emerged as the mainstream tendency amongst the Communist parties in the 1920s as it was adopted A revolutionary when used as a noun is a person who either actively engages in some kind of Revolution, or advocates the revolution with recognition from some government or Guerrilla warfare is the unconventional warfare and combat with which a small group of combatants use mobile tactics (ambushes raids etc
The FARC is described as a terrorist group by the Colombian government, the United States Department of State, Canada and the European Union. Terrorism is the systematic use of terror especially as a means of coercion Colombia (kəˈlʌmbɪə officially the Republic of Colombia () is a country in northwestern South America. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in  Cuba and Venezuela instead refer to the leftist rebels as insurgents. The Republic of Cuba (ˈkjuːbə or) consists of the island of Cuba (the largest and second-most populous island of the Greater Antilles) Isla de la Venezuela (ˌvɛnəˈzweɪlə) officially the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (Spanish República Bolivariana de Venezuela) is a country on the An insurgency is a violent internal uprising against a sovereign government that lacks the organization of a revolution Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez, for example, publicly rejected this classification in January 2008 and called on the Colombian and other governments to recognize the guerrillas as a “belligerent force”, arguing that this would then oblige them to renounce kidnappings and terror acts in order to respect the Geneva Conventions. Hugo Rafael Chávez Frías (ˈuɰo rafaˈel ˈtʃaβ̞es ˈfɾias (born July 28 1954 is the current President of Venezuela. PortalCurrent events International holidays January 1 - New Year's Day January 1 - Independence Diplomatic recognition in international law is a unilateral political act with domestic and international legal consequences whereby a state acknowledges an act A belligerent is an individual group country or other entity which acts in a hostile manner such as engaging in Combat. The Geneva Conventions consist of four Treaties formulated in Geneva, Switzerland, that set the standards for International law for humanitarian 
The FARC was established in the 1960s as the military wing of the Colombian Communist Party. A military is an Organization authorized by its Nation to use force usually including use of Weapons in defending its Country (or by attacking The Colombian Communist Party (in Spanish: Partido Comunista Colombiano) or PCC is the legal Communist party of Colombia The FARC originated as a guerrilla movement. Guerrilla warfare is the unconventional warfare and combat with which a small group of combatants use mobile tactics (ambushes raids etc The group later became involved with the cocaine trade during the 1980s for the purposes of fundraising, which caused an official separation from the Communist Party and the formation of a political structure it calls the Clandestine Colombian Communist Party. The Clandestine Colombian Communist Party (in Spanish: Partido Comunista Colombiano Clandestino) is an underground Communist party in Colombia
According to the Colombian government, FARC has an estimated 6,000-8,000 members in 2008, down from 16,000 in 2001, making it the largest as well as the oldest insurgent group in the Americas. 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Year 2001 ( MMI) was a Common year starting on Monday according to the Gregorian calendar. The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the Continents of North America and South America  Other available estimates are higher, including up to 18,000 guerrillas. 
The FARC-EP is present in 15-20 percent of Colombia’s territory, most strongly in the southeastern jungles and in the plains at the base of the Andes mountains. Jungle usually refers to a dense Forest in a hot climate such as a Tropical rainforest. The Andes form the world's longest exposed Mountain range. They lie as a continuous chain of highland along the western coast of South America. 
The FARC-EP is governed by a secretariat which has been led by Alfonso Cano and five others, including senior military commander Jorge Briceño, also known as “Mono Jojoy”, after the death of Manuel Marulanda (Pedro Antonio Marín), also known as “Tirofijo”, or Sureshot. The military structure of the Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia – Ejército del Pueblo (" Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia – People's Army" Guillermo León Sáenz, known by his ''nom de guerre'' Alfonso Cano, is the main leader of the FARC -EP ("Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia Víctor Julio Suárez Rojas aka " Jorge Briceño Suárez " ( Nom de guerre: Mono Jojoy) is a high-ranking member of the Revolutionary Armed Pedro Antonio Marín Marín ( May 13 1930 - March 26, 2008) known by his " Nom de guerre," Manuel Marulanda The “international face” of the organization was represented by another member of the secretariat, “Raul Reyes”, who was killed in a Colombian army raid against a guerrilla camp in Ecuador on March 1, 2008. Luis Edgar Devia Silva ( September 30, 1948 – March 1, 2008) better known by his Nom de guerre Raúl Reyes, was For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Ecuador topics. Events 86 BC - Lucius Cornelius Sulla, at the head of a Roman Republic army enters in Athens, removing the Tyrant 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common 
FARC is organized along military lines and includes several urban fronts or militia cells. The group added “-EP” (Ejército del Pueblo) to its official name during its Seventh Guerrilla Conference in 1982 as an expression of expected progression from guerrilla warfare to conventional military action outlined on that occasion. Guerrilla warfare is the unconventional warfare and combat with which a small group of combatants use mobile tactics (ambushes raids etc
The FARC-EP has proclaimed itself as a politico-military Marxist-Leninist organization of Bolivarian inspiration. Marxism-Leninism is a Communist ideological stream that emerged as the mainstream tendency amongst the Communist parties in the 1920s as it was adopted Bolivarianism is a set of political doctrines that enjoys currency in parts of South America, especially Venezuela.  It claims to represent the rural poor in a struggle against Colombia’s wealthier classes and opposes the United States' influence in Colombia (particularly Plan Colombia). The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The term Plan Colombia is most often used to refer to controversial U Other prominent areas of focus for the FARC-EP include fighting against privatization of natural resources, multinational corporations, and paramilitary violence. Privatization is the incidence or process of transferring ownership of business from the Public sector (government to the Private sector (business Multinational corporation ( MNC) or transnational corporation ( TNC) is a Corporation or enterprise that manages Production or delivers A paramilitary is a force whose function and organization are similar to those of a professional military force but which are not regarded as having the same status The FARC-EP says these objectives motivate the group’s efforts to seize power in Colombia through an armed revolution. It funds itself principally through extortion, kidnapping and participation in the illegal drug trade. The illegal drug trade or drug trafficking is a global Black market consisting of the cultivation manufacture distribution and sale of illegal Drugs 
The FARC-EP says it remains open to a negotiated solution to the nation’s conflict, through a dialogue with a flexible government that agrees to certain conditions, such as the demilitarization of locations and the release of all jailed (and extradited) FARC rebels. At the same time, it claims that until these conditions surface, the armed revolutionary struggle will remain necessary to implement the group’s policy objectives. The FARC-EP says it will continue armed struggle because it perceives the actual Colombian government as unfriendly and because of historical politically motivated violence against its members and supporters. Activists of the Patriotic Union were also among those who suffered from political violence. The Patriotic Union or UP (In Spanish Unión Patriótica) was a leftist Colombian political party founded by the FARC in 1985 as part of the 
National and international critics characterize the FARC-EP as terrorist. Critics of the FARC-EP say that the group’s methods have discredited its original goals and ideology. The FARC attacks civilians not involved in the conflict  , plants land-mines, recruits underage boys and girls, maintains hostages for ransom and political leverage, some of them for as long as 10 years, and is responsible for the displacement of civilians through conflict. FARC spokesman Raul Reyes has claimed that FARC always avoids civilian casualties, does not conscript civilians, and does not accept soldiers under the age of 15, although he fails to acknowledge that the use of mines and mortars is inherently dangerous to civilians. 
The FARC also frequently recruits teens as soldiers and informants. Human Rights Watch estimates that the FARC has the majority of child combatants in Colombia, estimating that approximately 20 to 30% of the guerrillas are children under 18 years of age. CHILD syndrome (or congenital hemidysplasia with ichthyosiform erythroderma and limb defects) is a genetic disorder Children who try to escape the ranks of the guerrillas can be punished with torture and death by firing squad.  Regarding female members, Human Rights Watch states one of the reasons they join FARC is to escape sexual abuse. Female FARC members "had roughly the same duties and possibilities of promotion as males. Yet girls in the guerrilla forces still face gender-related pressures. Although rape and overt sexual harassment are not tolerated, many male commanders use their power to form sexual liaisons with under-age girls. Girls as young as twelve are required to use contraception, and must have abortions if they get pregnant. "
The period that followed the murder of Jorge Eliécer Gaitán in 1948 saw the loss of more than 200,000 lives and became known as La Violencia ("The Violence”). The history of Communism in Colombia goes back as far as the 1920s and has its roots in the idealism of the Russian October Revolution Jorge Eliécer Gaitán ( January 23, 1898 &ndash April 9, 1948) was a politician a leader of a Populist movement in Colombia La Violencia (literally " The Violence " in Spanish) is a term that refers to an era of civil conflict in various areas of the Colombian countryside By 1953, the Colombian Conservative Party government of Laureano Gómez (elected 1950 in an election boycotted by the Colombian Liberal Party), unable to cope with the situation, became increasingly unpopular in the eyes of both public opinion and other political figures of both parties. The Colombian Conservative Party (Partido Conservador Colombiano is a conservative, Right wing / Center right, Colombian political party Laureano Eleuterio Gómez Castro (1889 – 1965 was President of Colombia from 1950 to 1953 and long time leader of the Colombian Conservative Party. In what was seen as a successful effort that sought to reestablish order, the military, under the figure of General Gustavo Rojas, seized control of the country in 1953. Gustavo Rojas Pinilla (born in the city of Tunja, Boyacá on March 12, 1900 died in Melgar, Tolima on January
The new military government offered amnesty to insurgents who surrendered their weapons, leading to the demobilization of thousands of former fighters. However, some radical Liberal and Communist guerrilla groups refused to surrender their arms. They retreated to isolated areas of the country where they continued to operate and organize their own communities. In other areas, such as Villarrica, Tolima, former guerrillas suffered attacks. Jacobo Arenas, who would later become the ideological leader of the FARC, was sent by the Colombian Communist Party as a political activist in order to help organize existing self-defense and guerrilla units in a rural enclave during “La Violencia” (1948–1955). Jacobo Arenas " Nom de guerre " of Luis Morantes (1917 or 1918 died August 10, 1990) was a Colombian guerrilla founder The Colombian Communist Party (in Spanish: Partido Comunista Colombiano) or PCC is the legal Communist party of Colombia
Jacobo Arenas later wrote a book called “Diario de la resistencia de Marquetalia” ("Diary of the Marquetalian resistance”). Jacobo Arenas " Nom de guerre " of Luis Morantes (1917 or 1918 died August 10, 1990) was a Colombian guerrilla founder The book includes a chronicle of the events of the fight between the guerrilla fighters and the soldiers of the Colombian army brigade.
Civilian rule was restored in 1958 after moderate Conservatives and Liberals, with the support of dissident sectors of the military, agreed to unite under a bipartisan coalition known as the National Front. National Front (Frente Nacional 1958-1974 was a period in the history of Colombia in which the two main Political parties; Liberal Party Political alternation within the coalition eventually resulted in the controversial election of Misael Pastrana in 1970 as president. Armed self-defense groups of communists had by then established their own local government in a remote region of the country, Marquetalia. " Marquetalia Republic " was a term used to unofficially refer to one of the enclaves in rural Colombia which Communist peasant guerrillas held during the aftermath
According to 1958 US embassy and military records on file at the US National Archives, one of the largest Liberal guerrilla bands that came into existence during “La Violencia” had been known as “Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia” (FARC), This group had been organized some time in the early 1950s by Dumar Aljure, an associate of Guadalupe Salcedo. The United States National Archives and Records Administration ( NARA) is an independent agency of the United States federal government charged La Violencia (literally " The Violence " in Spanish) is a term that refers to an era of civil conflict in various areas of the Colombian countryside In the following years, Aljure’s power and that of this early guerrilla organization declined until his own death in 1968, when he still had a degree of control and influence over Puerto Lleras.
Separately, the Colombian government had initially ignored the growing influence of several communist enclaves in and around Sumapaz until 1964 when, under pressure by Conservatives who considered the autonomous communities, which were labeled as “independent republics” by senator Álvaro Gómez Hurtado, to be a threat, the Colombian National Army was ordered to take full control of the area. Álvaro Gómez Hurtado (born on May 8, 1919 in Bogotá - †died November 2, 1995 in Bogotá) was a Colombian
Following the attack the communists dispersed, only to later reorganize as the “Southern Bloc” ("Bloque Sur”). The Southern Bloc of the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia was the first bloc to exist and is where the roots of the guerrilla movement lie In 1964, the Bloque Sur renamed itself the “Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia” (FARC). Jacobo Arenas and Manuel Marulanda were two of the founders of the new guerrilla group and became its two top leaders. Jacobo Arenas " Nom de guerre " of Luis Morantes (1917 or 1918 died August 10, 1990) was a Colombian guerrilla founder Pedro Antonio Marín Marín ( May 13 1930 - March 26, 2008) known by his " Nom de guerre," Manuel Marulanda
Whether the organization’s new name could have been derived from Dumar Aljure’s earlier Liberal guerrilla, or whether the new FARC may possibly have included among its initial members some of Aljure’s former followers, is not clear. The finer details of this part of the FARC’s early history are unclear, and most histories of the FARC, including those which reference the writings of Arenas and other FARC founders, omit any mention of Aljure’s guerrilla army entirely.
While the group officially came into existence in 1966, some of its leaders were former liberal and communist guerrillas.
FARC ideologue Jacobo Arenas was allegedly the main figure behind the FARC’s Seventh Guerrilla Conference in 1982, and a contemporary “Strategic Plan”, which would have outlined a series of goals and steps that would organize the FARC into an “Army of the People” (the initials “EP”, Ejército del Pueblo, were adopted during this Conference) capable of potentially seizing power sometime in the 1990s, explicitly combining both the illegal and legal forms of struggle (organically implementing a traditional Marxist and Communist strategy termed “the combination of all forms of struggle”), as well as the political and the military aspects of their group. The Seventh Guerrilla Conference was a conference held by the Colombian FARC in 1982 under the guidance of Jacobo Arenas and Manuel Marulanda
Under the guidance of Jacobo Arenas and Manuel Marulanda, the Seventh Guerrilla Conference was a turning point in the FARC’s struggle, as it provided them with the opportunity to finetune their policies and plans in order for them to build their desired socialist state in the future.
Many U. S. and other military experts argue that Manuel Marulanda, as a veteran guerrilla fighter and as an excellent commander for four decades, heads perhaps the most capable and dangerous Marxist guerrilla organization in the world. Marulanda is very often referred to as “Sureshot” ("Tirofijo”), because of a reputation for using firearms very accurately during his earlier years as an insurgent. For some of those analysts, an allegedly problematic aspect in Marulanda’s profile concerns the fact that he has limited educational background, due to the poor economic conditions that his family and many others had to face when growing up in rural Colombia. Jacobo Arenas, on the other hand, had political and ideological education as a communist intellectual, thus it is believed that he realized that FARC’s initial status was not up to the necessary standards needed to properly fight a Colombian Army that could count on the aid of the United States from time to time.
The role of Jacobo Arenas in FARC’s military reorganization was significant. After the Seventh Guerrilla Conference in 1982, Arenas started to work toward the goal of turning the FARC from a guerrilla organization to a rebel army (the “People’s Army”). According to his instructions, FARC added ranks and badges to many of its uniforms, as well as introducing a new inventory system for firearms and ammunition, in addition to providing new weapons and technology for FARC militants. In theory, a properly organized and trained guerrilla army would thus meet the international requirements for the recognition of a “state of belligerence”, contained within the Geneva Conventions of August 12, 1949 and its additional protocols. The Geneva Conventions consist of four Treaties formulated in Geneva, Switzerland, that set the standards for International law for humanitarian Events 1099 - First Crusade: Battle of Ascalon - Crusaders under the command of Godfrey of Bouillon defeat Fatimid Year 1949 ( MCMXLIX) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
Jacobo Arenas died in August 1990. Official FARC versions claimed he died of a sudden heart attack. Myocardial infarction ( MI or AMI for acute myocardial infarction) also known as a heart attack, occurs when the blood supply However, claims of foul play have not gone without notice. Different sources from within the guerrilla group state that he was murdered by a low ranking guerrilla officer sometime after Arenas himself had ordered the execution, for unknown reasons, of this officer’s brother.
On September 4, 1996 the FARC-EP attacked a military base in Guaviare, which started three weeks of guerrilla warfare that claimed the lives of at least 130 Colombians, soldiers and civilians included. The FARC-Government peace process (1999-2002 (Proceso de Paz entre las FARC y el gobierno Pastrana from January 7, 1999 to February 20, 2002 Events 476 - Romulus Augustus, last emperor of the Western Roman Empire, is deposed when Odoacer proclaims himself Year 1996 ( MCMXCVI) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar)
In hope of negotiating a peace settlement, on November 7, 1998, President Andrés Pastrana granted FARC a 42,000 km² (16,200 sq mi) safe haven meant to serve as a confidence building measure, centered around the San Vicente del Caguán settlement. Events 1492 - The Ensisheim Meteorite the oldest Meteorite with a known date of impact strikes the Earth around noon in a Wheat Year 1998 ( MCMXCVIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar) Andrés Pastrana Arango (born August 17, 1954) was the President of Colombia from 1998 to 2002 following in the footsteps of his father San Vicente del Caguán is a town and municipality in Caquetá Department, Colombia. The demilitarization of some of the included Colombian locations had previously been among the FARC-EPs conditions for beginning peace talks. The peace process with the government continued at a slow pace for three years during which the BBC and other news organizations reported that the FARC-EP also used the safe haven to import arms, export drugs, recruit minors, and build up their armed forces. After a series of high-profile guerrilla terrorist actions, including the hijacking of an airplane, the attack on several small towns and cities, leaving a trail of death on its path, the arrest of the Irish Colombia Three (see below) and of training FARC militants in bomb making, and the kidnapping of several political figures, Pastrana ended the peace talks on February 21, 2002 and ordered the armed forces to start retaking the FARC-controlled zone, beginning at midnight. The Colombia Three are three individuals &ndash Niall Connolly James Monaghan and Martin McCauley &ndash who are currently residing in the Republic of Ireland, having fled Events 362 - Athanasius returns to Alexandria. 1245 - Thomas, the first known Bishop of Finland See also 2002 (disambiguation Year 2002 ( MMII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. A 48-hour respite that had been previously agreed to with the rebel group was not applied at this time; the government argued that it had already been granted and almost used up during an earlier crisis in January, when most of the more prominent FARC commanders had apparently left the demilitarized zone.  Shortly after the end of talks, the FARC kidnapped green presidential candidate Ingrid Betancourt, who was traveling in guerrilla territory. Ingrid Betancourt Pulecio (born December 25 1961) is a Colombian French politician former senator and anti- corruption
The “Colombia Three” were three prominent Irish republicans – Niall Connolly, James Monaghan and Martin McCauley – arrested after being found to be travelling on false passports on 11 August 2001 while waiting for flights out of the country. The Colombia Three are three individuals &ndash Niall Connolly James Monaghan and Martin McCauley &ndash who are currently residing in the Republic of Ireland, having fled Events 2492 BC - Traditional date of the defeat of Bel by Hayk, progenitor and founder of the Armenian nation Year 2001 ( MMI) was a Common year starting on Monday according to the Gregorian calendar. They had spent five weeks in a demilitarized southern zone of Colombia, then under the control of the FARC. The men have been accused of being Provisional IRA guerrillas, and James Monaghan subsequently stated in his book about the incident that he “fought in the long war as an IRA volunteer”. The Provisional Irish Republican Army (Óglaigh na hÉireann ( IRA; also referred to as the PIRA, the Provos, or by some of its supporters as the 
On 15 February 2002 they were charged with training FARC rebels in bomb-making. Events 590 - Khosrau II is crowned as king of Persia 1637 - Ferdinand III becomes Holy Roman Emperor See also 2002 (disambiguation Year 2002 ( MMII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. The trial closed on 1 August 2003 with a verdict which found them guilty of travelling on false passports and they were given sentences of up to 44 months. Events 30 BC - Octavian (later known as Augustus enters Alexandria, Egypt, bringing it under the control of the Roman Year 2003 ( MMIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. They were found not guilty on the charges relating to training FARC rebels and were released in June 2004 upon payment of fines. An appeal court overturned the original trial verdict on 16 December 2004, and convicted the men of training the rebels, sentencing them to seventeen years. Events 755 - An Lushan revolts against Chancellor Yang Guozhong at Fanyang, initiating the An Shi Rebellion "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " However, by this time they had returned to Ireland.
According to RAND Corporation, beginning in early 2001 FARC sharply intensified its operations, killing more than 400 members of the Colombian armed forces in 18 months with car bombs and homemade mortars similar in design to those previously used by Irish Republicans. The RAND Corporation ( R esearch AN d D evelopment is a Nonprofit global policy Think tank first formed to offer research and analysis FARC then expanded its campaign into Colombian cities. The February 2003 bombing of the El Nogal club in Bogotá was attributed to the guerrilla group by authorities, investigators and prosecutors. The 2003 El Nogal Club bombing was a Terrorist attack that occurred in Bogotá, Colombia. FARC themselves denied any involvement. 
For most of the period between 2002 and 2005, the FARC-EP was believed to be in a strategic withdrawal due to the increasing military and police actions of new hardline president Álvaro Uribe, which led to the capture or desertion of many fighters and medium-level commanders. The Colombian National Police (Spanish Policía Nacional de Colombia) is the National police force of the Republic of Colombia. Álvaro Uribe Vélez ('alβ̞aɾo u'ɾiβ̞e 'β̞eles born July 4 1952 in Medellín) is a Colombian politician and lawyer who is currently the 39th President One of the most important combatants captured was Simón Trinidad (Juvenal Ovidio Palmera Pineda), in January 2004. Simón Trinidad (born July 30, 1950) is the Nom de guerre of Juvenal Ovidio Ricardo Palmera Pineda, a Colombian high-ranking He was a former banker turned rebel, who had participated as a high-profile negotiator in the recent Pastrana peace talks, and who was also part of the central command of the organization.
In June 2004, 34 coca farmers were found bound hand and foot and shot with automatic weapons. Not to be confused with Cocoa. Coca is a Plant in the family Erythroxylaceae, native to north-western South America An automatic firearm is a Firearm that automatically extracts and ejects the fired cartridge case and loads a new case usually through the energy of the fired Blame was placed on the FARC-EP by the government, and after several days of uncertainty the FARC-EP publicly claimed responsibility for the massacre, saying they had killed the farmers for being supporters of right-wing paramilitaries and accusing the government of shedding “crocodile tears” for their deaths. The United Nations condemned the massacre as a war crime. The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security War crimes are "violations of the laws or customs of war" including but not limited to "murder the ill-treatment or deportation of civilian residents of an occupied After the FARC’s communique was made public, other human rights organizations likewise denounced the event and called on the Colombian government to protect villagers from the guerrillas. 
Another incident occurred on July 10, 2004, when the FARC allegedly killed seven peasants (Francisco Giraldo, Carlos Torres, José Velásquez, Israel Velásquez, Mauricio Herrera, John Jairo Usuga and Pablo Usuga), in Samaná, near the municipality of San Carlos, Antioquia, according to the mayor of San Carlos, Colombian authorities and witnesses to the event. Events 48 BC - Battle of Dyrrhachium, Julius Caesar barely avoids a catastrophic defeat to Pompey in Macedonia. "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again "
The victims of the massacre were labourers who had returned to the zone after being forcefully displaced by the FARC earlier, presumably due to military or paramilitary activity in the area. They were apparently murdered because they had not received permission from the FARC to return yet, according to witnesses. The July 10 massacre provoked a further exodus of at least 80 persons from the surrounding rural area towards the urban locality of San Carlos. Events 48 BC - Battle of Dyrrhachium, Julius Caesar barely avoids a catastrophic defeat to Pompey in Macedonia.
On July 13, 2004, the office of the United Nations' High Commissioner for Human Rights publicly condemned this further act of violence and the ensuing displacement, accusing the FARC of violating article 17 of the additional Protocol II of the Geneva Convention and of international humanitarian law, expressing its solidarity towards the families of the victims. Events 1174 - William I of Scotland, a key rebel in the Revolt of 1173-1174, is captured at Alnwick by forces loyal to "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights ( OHCHR) is a United Nations agency that works to promote and protect the human The Geneva Conventions consist of four Treaties formulated in Geneva, Switzerland, that set the standards for International law for humanitarian
The office reminded the FARC, which in the past has publicly rejected the legal applicability of the Geneva Convention to its case (though it also claims to be following most of its directives anyway), that these principles must be followed by any person or group of persons, independent of their legal condition. 
According to the AP news agency, on August 18, 2004, a Colombian arms broker, Carlos Gamarra Murillo, arrested on April 1, 2004 in Tampa, Florida, USA, was charged with attempting to buy $4 million in rocket launchers, machine guns, and other heavy weapons and ammunition for the FARC, which would have been paid for with 2 tons of cocaine (worth 60% of the total amount, according to investigators) and cash. The Associated Press ( AP) is an American News agency. The AP is a Cooperative owned by its contributing Newspapers radio Events 293 BC - The oldest known Roman temple to Venus is founded starting the institution of Vinalia Rustica. "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " Events 527 - Byzantine Emperor Justin I names his nephew Justinian I as co-ruler and successor to the throne "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " Florida ( is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States, bordering Alabama to the northwest and Georgia to the The United States of America —commonly referred to as the
The weapons would then have been shipped through Venezuela, according to investigators. US Attorney General John Ashcroft stated that Gamarra “attempted to provide the fuel to feed a dangerous foreign terrorist organization”. In most Common law jurisdictions the Attorney General, or Attorney-General, is the main legal advisor to the government and in some jurisdictions may in addition John David Ashcroft (born May 9 1942) is an American Politician who was the 79th United States Attorney General. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) chief Michael Garcia signaled the indictment as “a significant achievement”.
Gamarra apparently made contact with an undercover informant in Colombia in March 2003, according to an ICE agent who testified in April. During the next year, it is alleged that he met and called the agents in order to arrange the weapons shipment and also inquired about buying surface-to-air missiles, presumably for use against Colombian military helicopters and other aircraft. A surface to air missile ( SAM) or ground-to-air missile ( GTAM) is a Missile designed to be launched from the ground to destroy Aircraft  Gamarra is currently held without bail.
On November 27, 2004, Colombian Defense Minister Jorge Alberto Uribe told reporters that apparently the FARC leadership had secretly commanded their followers to attempt to attack visiting U. Events 1095 - Pope Urban II declares the First Crusade at the Council of Clermont "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " A defence minister (or defense minister) is a Cabinet position which regulates the Armed forces in some sovereign nations Jorge Alberto Uribe Echavarría (born October 30, 1940 in Medellín) is a Colombian politician and businessman S. President George W. Bush during his visit to the city of Cartagena. George Walker Bush ( born July 6 1946 is the forty-third and current President of the United States. Cartagena de Indias (kaɾtaˈhena ð̞e ˈin̪d̪jas in Spanish; the usual English pronunciation is ˌkɑrtəˈheɪnə deɪ ˈɪndiəs is a large city It was mentioned that any such intentions were made impractical by the presence of about 15,000 members of the Colombian security forces in the area, in addition to U. S. security personnel. No specific evidence (such as the content of the intelligence reports) that FARC actually managed to organize such an attack has been publicly released.  Interior and Justice Minister Sabas Pretelt later downplayed the comments, stating that he had no specific details about any concrete assassination plots directed against President Bush and the FARC strongly denied the accusation, blaming it on US intelligence sources. 
In early February 2005, a series of small scale military actions by the FARC around the southwestern departments of Colombia, resulted in an estimated 40 casualties (dead and wounded). The FARC-EP, in response to government military operations in the south and in the southeast, would now be displacing its military center of gravity towards the Nariño, Putumayo and Cauca departments. The center of gravity (CoG is a concept developed by Carl von Clausewitz, a Prussian military theorist in his work On War. 
See also: List of FARC attacks in 2005
During 2005, the FARC launched a response to Álvaro Uribe’s security strategy and to Plan Patriota, apparently adopting a new style of operations, in particular near the southwest of Colombia. In early 2005, the Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia – Ejército del Pueblo (" Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia Plan Patriota (In english Patriot Plan) is military plan developed by the Government of Colombia with the financial support and approval of the Government of
The FARC would have previously implemented what was later called “Plan Resistencia” in order to endure Plan Patriota’s continuing effects, by withdrawing into the jungle and executing a temporary halt in its larger scale attacks. It is widely believed that their military capacity has been weakened enormously.
The FARC-EP have demanded a mechanism for prisoner exchange, which would involve the liberation of 45 political and military hostages (not those civilians held for extortion or ransom, which may number in the thousands) that the group currently holds, in exchange for the release of at least 500 jailed criminal rebels. The Humanitarian Exchange or Humanitarian Accord (Acuerdo Humanitario Intercambio Humanitario or Canje Humanitario refers to the possible accord to exchange During the duration of the DMZ negotiations, an exchange took place.
However the current demands of the group include a DMZ including two towns (Florida and Pradera) in the strategic region of Valle del Cauca, where much of the current military action against them has taken place, plus this region is also an important way of transporting drugs to the Pacific coast. This demand has been rejected by the Colombian government based on previous experience during the 2002 peace talks.
The Uribe administration initially ruled out any negotiation with FARC that did not include a cease-fire, and instead pushed for rescue operations, many of which have traditionally been successful when carried out by the police’s GAULA anti-kidnapping group in urban settings (as opposed to the mountains and jungles where the FARC keeps most hostages), according to official statistics.
However, relatives of most FARC kidnapping victims have come to strongly reject any potential rescue operations, in part due to the tragic death of the governor of Antioquia department, Guillermo Gaviria, his peace advisor and several soldiers, kidnapped by the FARC during a peace march (protected by the UN symbol) in 2003. Guillermo Gaviria Correa was the state governor of Antioquia and the leader of a major nonviolence movement The governor and the others were shot at close range by the FARC when the military made presence in the jungle nearby.
In August 2004, after several false starts and in the face of mounting pressure from relatives, former Liberal presidents Alfonso López Michelsen and Ernesto Samper and, as shown in recent Colombian polls the growing majority popular backing in favor of a humanitarian exchange (more than 60% would consider Colombia a “better country” if the exchange took place), the Uribe government seems to have gradually flexibilized its position, announcing that it has given the FARC a formal proposal on July 23, in which it offers to free 50 to 60 jailed rebels in exchange for the political and military hostages held by the FARC (not including ransom kidnapees as well, as the government had earlier demanded). The Colombian Liberal Party ( Spanish: Partido Liberal Colombiano PLC is a social liberal - social democratic party in Colombia. Alfonso López Michelsen ( June 30, 1913 in Bogotá – July 11, 2007 in Bogotá, DC) was a Colombian Ernesto Samper Pizano also known as "El elefante" (born August 3, 1950 in Bogotá) is a Colombian politician Events 1632 - Three hundred colonists bound for New France depart from Dieppe France. 
The government would make the first move, releasing insurgents charged or condemned for rebellion and either allowing them to leave the country or to stay and join the state’s reinsertion program, and then the FARC would release the hostages in its possession, including Íngrid Betancourt. Ingrid Betancourt Pulecio (born December 25 1961) is a Colombian French politician former senator and anti- corruption The proposal would have been carried out with the backing and support of the French and Swiss governments, which publicly supported it once it was revealed.
FARC released a communique, dated August 20 but apparently published publicly by August 22, in which they denied having received the proposal earlier through the mediation of Switzerland (as the government had stated) and, while making note of the fact that a proposal had been made by Uribe’s administration and that it hoped that common ground could eventually be reached, criticized it because they believe that any deal should allow them to decide how many of its jailed comrades should be freed and that they should be able to return to rebel ranks. Events 636 - Battle of Yarmouk: Arab forces led by Khalid ibn al-Walid take control of Syria and Palestine Events 392 - Arbogast has Eugenius elected Western Roman Emperor. 
On September 5, what has been considered as a sort of FARC counter proposal was revealed in the Colombian press. Events 1590 - Alexander Farnese 's army forces Henry IV of France to raise the siege of Paris. The FARC-EP is proposing that the government declare a “security” or “guarantee” zone for 72 hours in order for official insurgent and state negotiators to meet face to face and directly discuss a prisoner exchange. Government military forces would not have to leave the area but to concentrate in their available garrisons, in a similar move to that agreed by the Ernesto Samper administration (1994-1998) which allowed the rebel group to free some captured police and military. In addition, the Colombian government’s peace commissioner would have to make an official public pronouncement regarding this proposal.
If the zone was created, the first day would be used for travelling to the chosen location, the second to discuss the matter, and the third for the guerrillas to abandon the area. The government would be able to choose the location for the “security zone” among one of the municipalities of Peñas Coloradas, El Rosal or La Tuna, all in Caquetá department, where the FARC has clear rebel influence.
It is considered that this proposal is also seeking to reduce the pressure that recent military offensives may be exerting against the insurgents in Caquetá, Guaviare and Putumayo departments, and president Uribe stated that the “security zone” would demoralize the military, since they should free a region that has been fought fiercely. Also, the FARC has been known to change their mind easily and they seem to be using the kidnapped families' hopes of freedom to put the government under civilian pressure. Relatives of hostages currently in rebel hands have considered that both the FARC and government proposals may represent the biggest public advance in the last couple of years regarding their plight. 
On September 14, the FARC released an official communique in which they denied that the 72-hour proposal came from their organization, and instead asked for the demilitarization of San Vicente del Caguán and Cartagena del Chairá in Caquetá department in order to discuss the prisoner exchange, without any concrete time limit. Events 81 - Domitian becomes Emperor of the Roman Empire upon the death of his brother Titus. The document also mentions that several hostages had to be moved to other locations, due to increased military activity in the south. The FARC again stated that, while they are open to discuss a prisoner exchange with the current representatives of the government, they will only consider opening peace negotiations with a different administration. 
On December 2, the government announced the pardon of 23 FARC prisoners, to encourage a reciprocal move. Events 1409 - The University of Leipzig opens 1755 - The second Eddystone Lighthouse is destroyed by fire The FARC ignored the gesture, and the 23 rebels released were all of low rank and had promised not to rejoin the armed struggle. The government is hoping to win the release of dozens of hostages, including three US citizens. In November, the FARC rejected a proposal to hand over 60 (number at the time) of its captives in exchange for 50 guerrillas imprisoned by the government. 
In a communique dated November 28 but released publicly on December 3, the FARC-EP declared that they are no longer insisting on the demilitarization of San Vicente del Caguán and Cartagena del Chairá as a pre-condition for the negotiation of the prisoner exchange, but instead that of Florida and Pradera in the Valle department. For the town in Argentina, see 28 de Noviembre. Events Events 1800 - War of the Second Coalition: Battle of Hohenlinden, French  They state that this area would lie outside the “area of influence” of both their Southern and Eastern Blocks (the FARC’s strongest) and that of the military operations being carried out by the Uribe administration.
They request security guarantees both for the displacement of their negotiators and that of the guerrillas that would be freed, which are specifically stated to number as many as 500 or more, and ask the Catholic Church to coordinate the participation of the United Nations and other countries in the process.
The FARC-EP also mention in the communique that Simón Trinidad’s extradition, which has been approved by the Supreme Court but still lacks the president’s go-ahead, would be a serious obstacle to reaching a prisoner exchange agreement with the government. Simón Trinidad (born July 30, 1950) is the Nom de guerre of Juvenal Ovidio Ricardo Palmera Pineda, a Colombian high-ranking Extradition is the official process by which one nation or state requests and obtains from another nation or state the surrender of a suspected or convicted criminal 
On December 17, 2004, the Colombian government authorized Trinidad’s extradition to the United States, but stated that the measure could be revoked if the FARC released all 59 (number at the time) political and military hostages in its possession before December 30. Events 546 - Gothic War (535–554: The Ostrogoths of King Totila "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " Events 1460 - Wars of the Roses: Battle of Wakefield. 1816 - The Treaty of St The FARC rejected the demand.
On March 25, 2006, after a public announcement made weeks earlier, the FARC-EP released two captured policemen at La Dorada, Putumayo. Events 1199 - Richard I is wounded by a crossbow bolt while fighting France which leads to his death on April 6. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. The release took place some 335 miles (539 km) southwest of Bogotá, near the Ecuadorean border. The Red Cross said the two were released in good health. Military operations in the area and bad weather had prevented the release from occurring one week earlier. 
In a separate series of events, civilian hostage and German citizen Lothar Hintze was released by FARC on April 4, 2006, after five years in captivity. Events 1581 - Francis Drake completes a circumnavigation of the world and is knighted by Elizabeth I. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Hintze had been kidnapped for extortion purposes, and his wife had paid three ransom payments without any result.
One captive, Julian Ernesto Guevera Castro died of an unknown illness on January 28, 2006. Events 1077 - Walk to Canossa: The Excommunication of Henry IV Holy Roman Emperor is lifted Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. He was a police captain and was captured on November 1, 1998. Events 996 - Emperor Otto III issues a deed to Gottschalk Bishop of Freising which is the oldest known document using the name Ostarrîchi Year 1998 ( MCMXCVIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar)  As of January 2008, the FARC had not returned his body to his family. 
Another civilian hostage, Fernando Araújo, later named Minister of Foreign Relations and formerly Development Minister, escaped his captors on December 31, 2006. Fernando Araújo Perdomo (born c 1955 in Cartagena, Bolivar) is a Colombian politician Events 406 – Vandals, Alans and Suebians cross the Rhine, beginning an invasion of Gallia. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Araújo had to walk through the jungle for five days before being found by troops in the hamlet of San Agustin, 350 miles (560 km) north of Bogotá. He was kidnapped on December 5, 2000 while exercising in the Caribbean coastal city of Cartagena. Events 63 BC - Cicero reads the last of his Catiline Orations. 2000 ( MM) was a Leap year that started on Saturday of the Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. He was reunited with his family on January 5, 2007. Events 1477 - Battle of Nancy: Charles the Bold is killed and Burgundy becomes part of France. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. 
Another captive, Jhon Frank Pinchao a low ranking police officer, escaped his captors on April 28, 2007 after nine years in captivity. Jhon Frank Pinchao Blanco (born in 1970 is a Colombian policeman with the rank of sub-intendant who was kidnapped by the Revolutionary Armed Forces Events 1192 - Assassination of Conrad of Montferrat (Conrad I King of Jerusalem, in Tyre, two days after his title Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. He was reunited with his family on May 15, 2007. Events 1252 - Pope Innocent IV issues the Papal bull Ad exstirpanda, which authorizes but also limits the Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century.
On January 10, 2008, former vice presidential candidate Clara Rojas and former congresswoman Consuelo Gonzalez were freed after six years in captivity. Events 49 BC - Julius Caesar crosses the Rubicon, signaling the start of civil war. 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Clara Leticia Rojas González (born December 20, 1964, Bogotá) is a Colombian tax lawyer university lecturer and campaign manager for former 
On January 31, 2008, the FARC announced that they would release civilian hostages Luis Eladio Perez Bonilla, Gloria Polanco, and Orlando Beltran Cuellar to Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez as a humanitarian gesture. Events 1504 - France cedes Naples to Aragon. 1606 - Gunpowder Plot: Guy Fawkes 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Gloria Polanco is a former member of the Chamber of Representatives of Colombia. Hugo Rafael Chávez Frías (ˈuɰo rafaˈel ˈtʃaβ̞es ˈfɾias (born July 28 1954 is the current President of Venezuela. All of them were kidnapped in 2001. Year 2001 ( MMI) was a Common year starting on Monday according to the Gregorian calendar.  On February 27, 2008, the three hostages and Jorge Eduardo Gechem Turbay (who was added to the list due to his poor health) were released by FARC. Events 1560 - The Treaty of Berwick, which would expel the French from Scotland, is signed by England and the Congregation 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common With the authorization of the Colombian government and the participation of the International Red Cross, a Venezuelan helicopter transported them to Caracas from San Jose del Guaviare. The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement is an International humanitarian movement with approximately 97 million volunteers worldwide who stated Venezuela (ˌvɛnəˈzweɪlə) officially the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (Spanish República Bolivariana de Venezuela) is a country on the Caracas (kaˈɾakas is the Capital and largest city of Venezuela. San José del Guaviare is a town and municipality in Colombia, capital of the department of Guaviare by the Guaviare River. 
44 political captives are currently being held by the FARC.
On June 28, 2007, the FARC reported the death of 11 out of 12 provincial deputies from the Valle del Cauca Department whom the guerrillas had kidnapped in 2002. The Valle del Cauca Deputies hostage crisis (Secuestro de los diputados del Valle del Cauca refers to the kidnapping of 12 Deputies of the Valle del Cauca Department, Events 1098 - Fighters of the First Crusade defeat Kerbogha of Mosul. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. The guerrillas claimed that the deputies had been killed by crossfire during an attack by an “unidentified military group. ” The Colombian government has stated that government forces had not made any rescue attempts and that the FARC executed the hostages.
The guerrillas did not report any other casualties on either side and delayed months before permitting the Red Cross to recover the remains. According to the government, the guerrillas delayed turning over the corpses in order to let decomposition hide evidence of how they died. The Red Cross reported that the corpses had been washed and their clothing changed before burial, hiding evidence of how they were killed. The Red Cross also reported that the deputies had been killed by multiple close-range shots, many of them in the back of the victims, and even two by shots to the head. 
On March 1, 2008, the Colombian military attacked a FARC camp inside Ecuador’s territory, resulting in the death of over 20 people. Background Operation Emmanuel In 2007 Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez and Colombian Senator Piedad Córdoba acted as authorized mediators in Events 86 BC - Lucius Cornelius Sulla, at the head of a Roman Republic army enters in Athens, removing the Tyrant 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Ecuador topics.  Raúl Reyes was among the killed, along with at least 16 of his fellow guerrillas. Luis Edgar Devia Silva ( September 30, 1948 – March 1, 2008) better known by his Nom de guerre Raúl Reyes, was Raúl Reyes was FARC’s international spokesman and considered to be FARC’s second-in-command. Luis Edgar Devia Silva ( September 30, 1948 – March 1, 2008) better known by his Nom de guerre Raúl Reyes, was This incident led to a breakdown in diplomatic relations between Ecuador and Colombia, and between Venezuela and Colombia.  Ecuador condemned the attack.
This is considered the biggest blow against FARC in its more than four decades of existence.  This event was quickly followed by the death of Ivan Rios, another member of FARC's top leadership, less than a week later, by the hands of his own forces as a result of heavy Colombian military pressure. 
Manuel Marulanda Vélez died on March 26, 2008 after a heart attack. Events 1026 - Pope John XIX crowns Conrad II as Holy Roman Emperor. 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common His death would be kept a secret, until Colombian magazine, Revista Semana, published an interview with Colombian defense minister Juan Manuel Santos on May 24, 2008 in which Santos mentions the death of Manuel Marulanda Vélez. Revista Semana (Spanish for Week Magazine) is a Colombian based weekly magazine Juan Manuel Santos Calderón (b 10 August 1951, in Bogotá) is a Colombian politician currently serving as Minister of National Defense Events 1218 - The Fifth Crusade leaves Acre for Egypt. 1276 - Magnus Ladulås is crowned 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Pedro Antonio Marín Marín ( May 13 1930 - March 26, 2008) known by his " Nom de guerre," Manuel Marulanda The news was confirmed by FARC-commander 'Timochenko' on Venezuelan based television station Telesur on May 25, 2008. Rodrigo Londoño-Echeverry aka " Timoleón Jiménez " or " Timochenko " (born January 22, 1959 in Calarcá, La Nueva Televisora del Sur ( Spanish for "The New Television Station of the South" named teleSUR, is a pan- Latin American terrestrial Events 1085 - Alfonso VI of Castile takes Toledo Spain back from the Moors. 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common 'Timochenko' announced the new commander in chief is 'Alfonso Cano' After speculations in several national and international media about the 'softening up' of the FARC and the announcement of Colombian President Álvaro Uribe that several FARC-leaders were ready to surrender and liberate hostages, the secretariat of the FARC sent out a communique emphasizing the death of their founder would not change their approach towards the hostages or the humanitarian agreement. Guillermo León Sáenz, known by his ''nom de guerre'' Alfonso Cano, is the main leader of the FARC -EP ("Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia A message in its most general meaning is an object of Communication. 
On February 4, 2008, several rallies were held in Colombia and in other locations around the world, criticizing FARC and demanding the liberation of hundreds of hostages. Events 211 - Roman Emperor Septimius Severus dies leaving the Roman Empire in the hands of his two quarrelsome sons 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Colombia (kəˈlʌmbɪə officially the Republic of Colombia () is a country in northwestern South America. The protests were originally organized through the popular social networking site Facebook. Facebook is a social networking Website launched on February 4 2004 According to the Washington Post, millions of people in Colombia and thousands worldwide participated in the rallies. The Washington Post is the largest and most circulated Newspaper in Washington D 
FARC has financed itself through kidnapping ransoms, extortion, and drug trafficking which includes but it is not limited to coca plant harvesting, protection of their crops, processing of coca leaves to manufacture cocaine, and drug trade protection. The military history of the Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia – Ejército del Pueblo (" Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia – People's Army" or Kidnappings in Colombia referes to the practice of Kidnapping in the Republic of Colombia. Illegal drug trade in Colombia (Narcotráfico en Colombia refers to the practice of producing and distributing Illegal drugs with psychoactive effects in the In Criminal law, kidnapping is the taking away or Asportation of a person against the person's will usually to hold the person in False imprisonment Extortion, outwresting, or exaction is a criminal offense, which occurs when a person Unlawfully obtains either money property or services The illegal drug trade or drug trafficking is a global Black market consisting of the cultivation manufacture distribution and sale of illegal Drugs Not to be confused with Cocoa. Coca is a Plant in the family Erythroxylaceae, native to north-western South America Cocaine ( benzoylmethyl ecgonine) is a Crystalline Tropane Alkaloid that is obtained from the leaves of the Coca plant The illegal drug trade or drug trafficking is a global Black market consisting of the cultivation manufacture distribution and sale of illegal Drugs Businesses operating in rural areas, including agricultural, oil, and mining interests, were required to pay “vaccines” (monthly extortions) which “protected” them from subsequent attacks and kidnappings. Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture Petroleum ( L petroleum, from Greek πετρέλαιον, lit Mining is the extraction of valuable Minerals or other geological materials from the earth usually (but not always from an Ore body An additional, albeit less lucrative, source of revenue was highway blockades where guerrillas stopped motorists and buses in order to confiscate jewelry and money, which were especially prevalent during the presidencies of Ernesto Samper (1994-1998) and that of Andrés Pastrana (1998-2002). Ernesto Samper Pizano also known as "El elefante" (born August 3, 1950 in Bogotá) is a Colombian politician Andrés Pastrana Arango (born August 17, 1954) was the President of Colombia from 1998 to 2002 following in the footsteps of his father
Over time, fewer recruits joined the organization for ideological reasons, debatably as a means to escape poverty and unemployment. Poverty (also called penury) is deprivation of common necessities that determine the quality of life including food clothing shelter and safe Drinking water, and Unemployment occurs when a person is available to work and currently seeking work but the person is without work.
In 1991, a small group of guerrillas invaded the Brazilian side of the jungle, and attacked an army post near the Traira River, in the first and only confirmed clash with the Brazilian army to date. |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld The Brazilian Army is the land arm of the Brazilian Military. Three soldiers were killed and some weapons stolen. A few days later a Brazilian commando struck back, killing seven guerrillas. There has also been alleged FARC activity in Panama, Peru, Venezuela, and Ecuador where in 1993 they ambushed a group of military and police who were training with boats on the Putumayo river 11 Ecuadorian policemen died. Panama, officially the Republic of Panama (República de Panamá) is the southernmost country of Central America. Peru (Perú Piruw Piruw officially the Republic of Peru ( reˈpuβlika del peˈɾu is a country in western South America. Venezuela (ˌvɛnəˈzweɪlə) officially the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (Spanish República Bolivariana de Venezuela) is a country on the For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Ecuador topics.
By 1998, some studies showed that FARC’s ranks could have swelled to approximately some 15,000 guerrilla fighters, up from an estimated 7,500 in 1992, and effectively were in a position to control and freely operate through large rural areas of the country (the high-end estimates being about 40%-50%, according to some analysts). Other observers would dispute the current applicability of this assessment in the face of increased U. S. aid and training to the Colombia state and its military. The Military of Colombia, officially the Military Forces of Colombia (Fuerzas Militares de Colombia is the Armed forces of Colombia.
In 1999 NYSE Chairman Richard Grasso flew into a demilitarized region of Colombia’s southern jungle for his talks with a member of the general secretariat of the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia. The New York Stock Exchange ( NYSE) is a Stock exchange based in New York City. Richard A Grasso (born 1946 in Jackson Heights, Queens, New York City) usually known by the nickname 'Dick' was chairman and chief executive of the 
The FARC have ties to narcotics traffickers, principally through the provision of armed protection and a form of “taxation” over drugs crops and their profits. During the mid- to late-1990s, several drug war analysts have stated that the FARC would have become increasingly involved in the drug trade, controlling farming, production and exportation of cocaine in those areas of the country under their influence. This claim has been made by U. S. and Colombian authorities.
Brazilian druglord Luiz Fernando da Costa (aka Fernandinho Beira-Mar) was captured in Colombia on April 20, 2001 while in the company of FARC-EP guerrillas. Events 1303 - The University of Rome La Sapienza is instituted by Pope Boniface VIII. Year 2001 ( MMI) was a Common year starting on Monday according to the Gregorian calendar. Colombian and Brazilian authorities have claimed that this constitutes proof of further cooperation between the FARC-EP and the druglord based on the exchange of weapons for cocaine.  Fernandinho himself and the FARC-EP have denied this. FARC itself has claimed that in their areas of influence the growth of coca plants by farmers would be taxed on the same basis as any other crop, though there would be higher cash profits stemming from coca production and exportation.
In August 2006, Chilean authorities seized more than 108 kilograms of cocaine and captured twelve members of an international drug trafficking ring, which they described as being led by an unnamed Colombian in Panama who received and distributed the ring’s profits to finance FARC activities. Chile, officially the Republic of Chile ( Spanish:) is a country in South America occupying a long and narrow Coastal strip wedged between the Panama, officially the Republic of Panama (República de Panamá) is the southernmost country of Central America. 
The FARC-EP has employed vehicle bombings, gas cylinder bombs, assassinations, landmines, kidnapping, extortion, hijacking, as well as guerrilla and conventional military action against Colombian political, military, and economic targets, to attack those it considers a threat to its movement as well as civilian. A car bomb is an explosive device placed in a car or other Vehicle and then detonated. A land mine is an Explosive device designed to be placed on or in the ground to explode when triggered by an operator or the Proximity of a vehicle person Wiktionary (a Portmanteau of Wiki and Dictionary) is a multilingual, Web -based project to create a Free It has not been uncommon for civilians to die or suffer forced displacement, directly or indirectly, due to many of these actions. The FARC-EPs April 16 and April 18, 2005 gas cylinder attacks on the town of Toribió, Cauca led to the displacement of more than two thousand indigenous inhabitants and the destruction of two dozen civilian houses. Events 1178 BC - A Solar eclipse may have marked the return of Odysseus, legendary King of Ithaca, to his kingdom Events 1025 - Bolesław Chrobry is crowned in Gniezno, becoming the first King of Poland. Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Toribío is a town and municipality in Cauca Department, Colombia. A February 2005 report from the United Nations' High Commissioner for Human Rights mentioned that, during 2004, “FARC-EP continued to commit grave breaches [of human rights] such as murders of protected persons, torture and hostage-taking, which affected many civilians, including women, returnees, boys and girls, and ethnic groups. The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights ( OHCHR) is a United Nations agency that works to promote and protect the human "
The FARC’s tactic of employing a type of improvised mortars made from gas canisters (or cylinders) as explosives, a weapon it often uses when launching attacks at towns and sites in them that they consider as military objectives (such as police stations), has a high degree of inaccuracy. Barrack buster is the colloquial name given to several improvised mortars, developed in the 1990s by the engineering group of the Provisional Irish Republican Army A mortar is a muzzle-loading Indirect fire weapon that fires shells at low velocities short ranges and high-arcing ballistic trajectories The Colombian National Police (Spanish Policía Nacional de Colombia) is the National police force of the Republic of Colombia. Resulting targeting difficulties have caused these weapons to often level civilian houses and/or harm civilians, such as the case in Toribío on April 24, 2005, and the earlier 2002 attack on a church in Bojayá which killed 119 civilians. Toribío is a town and municipality in Cauca Department, Colombia. Events 1479 BC - Thutmose III ascends to the throne of Egypt, although power effectively shifts to Hatshepsut (according to Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Bojayá is a town in Chocó Department, Colombia. It is located at around.
Human Rights Watch considers that “the FARC-EPs continued use of gas cylinder mortars shows this armed group’s flagrant disregard for lives of civilians. Human Rights Watch is a United States -based international Non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on Human rights. . . gas cylinder bombs are impossible to aim with accuracy and, as a result, frequently strike civilian objects and cause avoidable civilian casualties. "
In March 1999, the FARC-EP killed three U. S. Native American rights activists, in Venezuelan territory after kidnapping them in Colombia. For indigenous peoples in the United States other than Hawaii and Alaska see also Native Americans in the United States. Venezuela (ˌvɛnəˈzweɪlə) officially the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (Spanish República Bolivariana de Venezuela) is a country on the After initial denials and claims that these U. S. citizens were CIA agents, the FARC-EP subsequently admitted that this action was a mistake, and claimed that it would internally punish those responsible. near as long as it used to be several months ago It has been actively summarized and split into sub-articles and there is a dynamic talk page discussion of all
Human Rights Watch has criticized FARC for not applying any serious punishment to those involved in the incident, questioning that "the two guerrillas who killed Americans Terence Freitas, Lahe'ena'e Gay, and Ingrid Washinawatok on March 5, 1999, were eventually sentenced to construct fifty meters of trench and clear land. Human Rights Watch is a United States -based international Non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on Human rights. "
The FARC-EP is responsible for most of the ransom kidnappings in Colombia. Ingrid Betancourt Pulecio (born December 25 1961) is a Colombian French politician former senator and anti- corruption Events 1455 - Traditional date for the publication of the Gutenberg Bible, the first Western Book printed from Movable See also 2002 (disambiguation Year 2002 ( MMII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. Kidnappings in Colombia referes to the practice of Kidnapping in the Republic of Colombia. The group’s kidnapping targets are usually those that it considers wealthy landowners and businessmen, as well as foreign tourists and entrepreneurs, and prominent international and domestic officials. Colombian and international NGOs have documented that in recent years the FARC has also resorted to kidnapping people from lower income sectors (that is, from the Colombian middle class downward), in particular when they are thought to be collaborators or relatives of the FARC’s enemies. It is argued that many of these kidnappings have taken place with little to no regard for the target’s age, gender or health conditions.
In February 2005, Juan José Martínez Vega, also known as “Gentil Alvis Patiño” or “El Chigüiro”, was arrested by Venezuelan authorities during a rescue operation that freed the mother of baseball player Ugueth Urbina. Ugueth Urtaín Urbina Villarreal (uˈgɛt urˈbinə (born ( February 15, 1974 in Caracas Venezuela) is a former Relief pitcher in Major According to authorities, Martínez Vega had some 600 to 650 kilograms of cocaine on location. Colombian authorities identified him as a member of FARC and accused him of exchanging cocaine for weapons in the black market. Martínez Vega had several false identity papers, including some which identified him as Gentil Albis Patiño, which delayed his initial identification. Eventually Venezuela confirmed him to be “El Chigüiro” and subsequently extradited him to Colombia. 
During the first quarter of 2005, joint intelligence and police operations by law enforcement authorities from Honduras and Colombia resulted in the seizure of a number of AK-47 and M16 assault rifles, M60 machineguns, rocket launchers and ammunition cartridges that were stated to be part of illegal weapons shipments from criminal gangs and black market dealers in Central America to the FARC in exchange for drugs, allegedly for two thousand kilos of cocaine. Honduras in Spanish, República de Honduras) is a democratic republic in Central America. Colombia (kəˈlʌmbɪə officially the Republic of Colombia () is a country in northwestern South America. The AK-47 (contraction of Russian Автомат Калашникова образца 1947 года; Avtomat Kalashnikova obraztsa 1947 goda; "Kalashnikov's M16 (more formally United States Rifle II Caliber 556 mm M16) is the U The M60 (formally the United States Machine Gun Caliber 762 mm M60) is a family of American General purpose machine guns firing 7 Ethalson Mejia Hoy, a Colombian who was illegally released from Honduran custody in July 2004 24 hours after his arrest, was named as one of the key figures in such an arms-for-drugs traffic. It was reported that “Police intelligence were monitoring communications between two 14th Front guerrillas when they heard 'the package' being discussed. In actuality the package consisted of sufficient weapons to arm a minimum of 180 combatants. " Arms dealers in the region were also accused of providing similar weapons to right wing paramilitaries in Colombia. 
It is believed that after the protests, they have about 2% of approval rating as of March 2008. 
The FARC's force is usually estimated to be at around 6,000 to 8,000 strong, organized in more than 80 fronts. The military structure of the Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia – Ejército del Pueblo (" Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia – People's Army" The Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia 's chain of command is divided as follows Commander in Chief of the FARC-EP ultimate decision maker
Roughly from 1949 to 1964, during the “La Violencia” period of Colombian history, the FARC’s precursor was a small Communist guerrilla band around Marquetalia. In May 1964 the Colombian Army retook Marquetalia. The rebels scattered, reorganized, and in 1966, the FARC was formally created as a slightly enlargened guerrilla entity (estimated at 350 members)
During the 1970s the FARC kept a low profile by staying inside its traditional heartland areas, but the Seventh Guerrilla Conference in 1982 represented a significant change in outlook, as the FARC changed its structure.
Manuel Marulanda is the organisation’s leader. Jacobo Arenas was the FARC’s main ideologue and academic (died August 10, 1990). From the early 1980s, the FARC added ranks and unit badges to uniforms, as well as introducing a new inventory system for firearms and ammunition, in addition to providing new weapons and technology for FARC militants. Jacobo Arenas was probably central to planning the FARC-EP which is used to this day.
These are the units the FARC uses:
The FARC believes that since the early 1980s it has met the requirements for the recognition of a “state of belligerence” contained within the Geneva Conventions of August 12, 1949 and additional protocols. Events 1099 - First Crusade: Battle of Ascalon - Crusaders under the command of Godfrey of Bouillon defeat Fatimid Year 1949 ( MCMXLIX) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Their opponents and the Colombian government claim that the practice of civilian kidnapping for ransom and the tax levied on coca crop buyers makes it an illegitimate army and also point to a wide rejection of the guerrilla policies in national surveys.
The FARC-EP is organized into seven main operational regions and “block” is the name given to each FARC military command inside one of the main operational regions. According to the FARC’s military operational strategies, which take into account factors such as the size of the area and its population, each block is composed of between 5 to 15 fronts.
In addition, there are various independent, elite or mobile fronts attached to some blocks normally under the direct control of the FARC’s high command. The FARC also maintains various “Military intelligence units”.
The FARC-EP maintains a Military Academy and a two-month basic military training program, mainly involving infantry tactics. After basic training, guerrilla fighters are further assessed and have evaluation and performance records. After some time, better candidates may do advanced training.
Ranks (in ascending order of seniority):
Equivalent to "other ranks":
Equivalent to officers:
Equivalent to general officers:
It should be remembered that a FARC company is a lower level of command (of approximately 50 men) than a company in traditional army organization. Other Ranks (ORs in the British Army, Royal Marines and Royal Air Force (and in the armies and air forces of many other Commonwealth countries Víctor Julio Suárez Rojas aka " Jorge Briceño Suárez " ( Nom de guerre: Mono Jojoy) is a high-ranking member of the Revolutionary Armed Guillermo León Sáenz, known by his ''nom de guerre'' Alfonso Cano, is the main leader of the FARC -EP ("Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia