- The term "revisionism" is also used to refer to other concepts. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 Alexey Nikolayevich Kosygin (Алексе́й Никола́евич Косы́гин Aleksej Nikolajevič Kosygin; February 20 1904 - December See the article revisionism.
Within the Marxist movement, the word revisionism is used to refer to various ideas, principles and theories that are based on a significant revision of fundamental Marxist premises. Marxism is the political philosophy and practice derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.  The term is most often used by those Marxists who believe that such revisions are unwarranted and represent a "watering down" or abandonment of Marxism. As such, revisionism often carries pejorative connotations. Words and phrases are pejorative if they imply disapproval or contempt Few Marxists label themselves as revisionists. The opposing term and concept, even used among Marxists, is Marxist dogmatism.
The term "revisionism" has been used in a number of different contexts to refer to a number of different revisions (or claimed revisions) of Marxist theory:
- In the late 19th century, revisionism was used to describe democratic socialist writers such as Eduard Bernstein and Jean Jaurès, who sought to revise Karl Marx's ideas about the transition to socialism and claimed that a revolution through force was not necessary to achieve a socialist society. The 19th century of the Common Era began on January 1, 1801 and ended on December 31, 1900, according to the Gregorian calendar Democratic socialism is a description used by various socialist movements tendencies and organizations to emphasize the democratic character of their political orientation Eduard Bernstein ( January 6 1850 December 18 1932) was a German social democratic theoretician and Jean Léon Jaurès (full name Auguste Marie Joseph Jean Léon Jaurès; 3 September 1859 31 July 1914) was a French The views of Bernstein and Jaurès gave rise to reformist theory, which asserts that socialism can be achieved through gradual peaceful reforms from within a capitalist system. Socialist Reformism is the belief that gradual democratic changes in a Society can ultimately change a society's fundamental economic relations and political structures 
- In the 1940s and 1950s within the international communist movement, revisionism was a term used by Stalinists to describe communists who focused on consumer goods production instead of heavy industry, accepted national differences and encouraged democratic reforms. Social democracy is a Political ideology of the left and centre-left The Age of Enlightenment or The Enlightenment is a term used to describe a phase in Western philosophy and cultural life centered upon the eighteenth century Utopian socialism is a term used to define the first currents of modern socialist thought A trade union or labour union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages hours and working conditions forming The European Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Spring of Nations or the Year of Revolution, were a series of political upheavals throughout the European Orthodox Marxism is the term used to describe the version of Marxism which emerged after the death of Karl Marx and acted as the official philosophy of the Socialist Reformism is the belief that gradual democratic changes in a Society can ultimately change a society's fundamental economic relations and political structures The Third Way is a term that has been used to describe a variety of political philosophies of governance that embracing a mix of market and interventionist philosophies Representative democracy is a form of government founded on the principles of the people's representatives Labor rights or workers' rights are a group of Legal rights and claimed Human rights having to do with Labor relations between Workers thumb| |Broken Liberty Istanbul Archaeology Museum Civil liberties are freedoms that protect the Individual from the Government. This article refers specifically to the Welfare state of the United Kingdom. A mixed economy is an Economic system that incorporates aspects of more than one economic system Secularism is generally the assertion that governmental practices or institutions should exist separately from Religion or religious beliefs Fair trade is an organized Social movement and market-based approach to empowering developing country producers and promoting sustainability Environmentalism is a broad philosophy and Social movement centered on a concern for the conservation and improvement of the environment. This is a list of parties in the world that consider themselves to be upholding the principles and values of Social democracy. Socialist International is a worldwide organization of socialist ( social democratic and labour) political parties The Party of European Socialists (PES is a European political party comprising of thirty-three socialist, social democratic and labour Inaugural Congress The founding and first congress of the ITUC was held November 1 - 3 2006 in Vienna Eduard Bernstein ( January 6 1850 December 18 1932) was a German social democratic theoretician and ( 23 November 1860 – 24 February 1925) was a Swedish politician Friedrich Ebert ( February 4, 1871 February 28, 1925) was a German Politician ( SPD) who served as Jean Léon Jaurès (full name Auguste Marie Joseph Jean Léon Jaurès; 3 September 1859 31 July 1914) was a French André Léon Blum (9 April 1872 30 March 1950 was a French politician usually identified with the moderate left and three times the Prime Minister of France. Karl Kautsky ( October 16 1854 - October 17 1938) was a leading theoretician of Social democracy. James Ramsay MacDonald ( 12 October 1866 &ndash 9 November 1937) was a British politician and twice Prime Minister of the United Clement Richard Attlee 1st Earl Attlee, KG, OM, CH, PC ( 3 January 1883 &ndash 8 October 1967 Thomas Clement "Tommy" Douglas, PC, CC, SOM ( October 20, 1904 – February 24, 1986) was a The 1940s decade ran from 1940 to 1949 Events and trends The 1940s was a period between the radical 1930s and the conservative 1950s which also leads the period to be The 1950s Decade refers to the years of 1950 to 1959 inclusive Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based Stalinism is the political regime named after Joseph Stalin, leader of the Soviet Union from 1929–1953 Revisionism was one of the charges leveled at Titoists in a series of purges beginning in 1949 in Eastern Europe. Year 1949 ( MCMXLIX) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Eastern Europe is a general term that refers to the Geopolitical region encompassing the easternmost part of the European continent. After Stalin's death revisionism became briefly acceptable in Hungary during Imre Nagy's government (1953-1955) and in Poland during Władysław Gomułka's government, although neither Nagy nor Gomułka described themselves as revisionists. Hungary (Magyarország 'mɔɟɔrorsaːg) officially in English the Republic of Hungary ( Magyar Köztársaság, literally Magyar (Hungarian Republic Imre Nagy ( June 7, 1896 – June 16 1958) was a Hungarian politician appointed Prime Minister of Hungary on two occasions Year 1953 ( MCMLIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Year 1955 ( MCMLV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar) Władysław Gomułka ( February 6, 1905, Krosno - September 1, 1982) was a Polish Communist leader
- Following the Soviet repression of the Hungarian Revolution in 1956, many people, particularly intellectuals, resigned from western Communist parties in protest. The Hungarian Revolution of 1956 ( Hungarian: 1956-os forradalom) was a spontaneous nationwide Revolt against the Stalinist government of Year 1956 ( MCMLVI) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. They were sometimes accused of revisionism by "loyalist" Communists. E. P. Thompson's New Reasoner was an example of this revisionism. Edward Palmer Thompson ( February 3, 1924, Oxford &ndash August 28, 1993, Worcester) was an English historian During the crisis of the 1950s within the Communist Party of Great Britain (CPGB John Saville and E This movement eventually became known as the New Left. The New Left were the Left-wing movements in different countries in the 1960s and 1970s that unlike the earlier leftist focus on union activism instead adopted a
- In the early 1960s, Mao Zedong and the Communist Party of China revived the term revisionism to attack Nikita Khrushchev and the Soviet Union over various ideological and political issues, as part of the Sino-Soviet split. The 1960s decade refers to the years from the beginning of 1960 to the end of 1969 Mao Zedong ( 26 December 1893 – 9 September 1976) was a Chinese Military and political leader who led The Communist Party of China ( CPC) ( also known as the Chinese Communist Party ( CCP) is the founding and ruling political party of the Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (April 17 1894 – September 11 1971 served as First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964 following The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 The Sino-Soviet split was a gradual divergence of diplomatic ties between the People's Republic of China (PRC and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR The Chinese routinely described the Soviets as "modern revisionists" through the 1960s. The 1960s decade refers to the years from the beginning of 1960 to the end of 1969 This usage was copied by the various Maoist groups that split off from Communist parties around the world. Maoism, variably and officially known as Mao Zedong Thought ( is a variant of Marxism derived from the teachings of the late Chinese leader
Events 1192 - Assassination of Conrad of Montferrat (Conrad I King of Jerusalem, in Tyre, two days after his title 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common
- ^ Oxford English Dictionary Revisionism 1. The Oxford English Dictionary ( OED) published by the Oxford University Press (OUP is a comprehensive Dictionary of the English "A policy first put forward in the 1890s by Edward Bernstein (1850-1932) advocating the introduction of socialism through evolution rather than revolution, in opposition to the orthodox view of Marxists; hence a term of abuse used within the communist world for an interpretation of Marxism which is felt to threaten the canonical policy. " with the first use in English "1903 Social-Democrat VII. 84 (heading) Revisionism in Germany. "
- ^ Philip P. Wiener (ed). Dictionary of the History of Ideas, Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, in 1973-74. R. K. Kindersley Marxist revisionism: From Bernstein to modern forms, website of the University of Virginia Library. The University of Virginia (also called UVa, UVA, Mr Jefferson's University, or The University) is a highly selective public research Accessed 28 April 2008
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