Research is defined as human activity based on intellectual application in the investigation of matter. An intellectual (from the adjective meaning "involving thought and reason" is a person who tries to use his or her Intelligence and analytical thinking, Matter is commonly defined as being anything that has mass and that takes up space. The primary aim for applied research is discovering, interpreting, and the development of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge on a wide variety of scientific matters of our world and the universe. For the compulsory pre-trial disclosure of documents relevant to a case see Discovery (law Discovery Observations form acts of detecting In Logic an interpretation gives meaning to an artificial or Formal language or to a sentence of such a language by assigning a denotation (extension Knowledge is defined ( Oxford English Dictionary) variously as (i expertise and skills acquired by a person through experience or education the theoretical or practical understanding Research can use the scientific method, but need not do so. Scientific method refers to bodies of Techniques for investigating phenomena
Scientific research relies on the application of the scientific method, a harnessing of curiosity. Scientific method refers to bodies of Techniques for investigating phenomena This research provides scientific information and theories for the explanation of the nature and the properties of the world around us. Science (from the Latin scientia, meaning " Knowledge " or "knowing" is the effort to discover, and increase human understanding Nature, in the broadest sense is equivalent to the natural world, physical universe, material world or material universe. Property is any physical or virtual entity that is owned by an individual It makes practical applications possible. Scientific research is funded by public authorities, by charitable organisations and by private groups, including many companies. Scientific research can be subdivided into different classifications according to their academic and application disciplines.
Historical research is embodied in the historical method. The historical method comprises the techniques and guidelines by which Historians use Primary sources and other evidence to research and then to write history
The term research is also used to describe an entire collection of information about a particular subject. Information as a concept has a diversity of meanings from everyday usage to technical settings
Basic research (also called fundamental or pure research) has as its primary objective the advancement of knowledge and the theoretical understanding of the relations among variables (see statistics). Knowledge is defined ( Oxford English Dictionary) variously as (i expertise and skills acquired by a person through experience or education the theoretical or practical understanding Statistics is a mathematical science pertaining to the collection analysis interpretation or explanation and presentation of Data. It is exploratory and often driven by the researcher’s curiosity, interest, and intuition. It is conducted without any practical end in mind, although it may have unexpected results pointing to practical applications. The terms “basic” or “fundamental” indicate that, through theory generation, basic research provides the foundation for further, sometimes applied research. As there is no guarantee of short-term practical gain, researchers may find it difficult to obtain funding for basic research. Research is a subset of invention.
Examples of questions asked in basic research:
Traditionally, basic research was considered as an activity that preceded applied research, which in turn preceded development into practical applications. In Mathematics, a prime number (or a prime) is a Natural number which has exactly two distinct natural number Divisors 1 Recently, these distinctions have become much less clear-cut, and it is sometimes the case that all stages will intermix. This is particularly the case in fields such as biotechnology and electronics, where fundamental discoveries may be made alongside work intended to develop new products, and in areas where public and private sector partners collaborate in order to develop greater insight into key areas of interest. Biotechnology is Technology based on Biology, especially when used in Agriculture, Food science, and Medicine. Electronics refers to the flow of charge (moving Electrons through Nonmetal conductors (mainly Semiconductors, whereas electrical For this reason, some now prefer the term frontier research. . . .
Generally, research is understood to follow a certain structural process. Scientific method refers to bodies of Techniques for investigating phenomena In Science, a process is every sequence of changes of a real object/body which is observable using Scientific method. Though step order may vary depending on the subject matter and researcher, the following steps are usually part of most formal research, both basic and applied:
A common misunderstanding is that by this method a hypothesis can be proven. A hypothesis (from Greek) consists either of a suggested explanation for a phenomenon (an event that is observable or of a reasoned proposal suggesting a possible A conceptual definition is an element of the scientific Research process, in which a specific concept is defined as a measurable occurrence An operational definition is a demonstration of a process &mdash such as a Variable, term, or object &mdash relative in terms of the specific Process Debt AIDS Trade in Africa (or DATA) is a Multinational non-government organization founded in January 2002 in London by U2 's Generally a hypothesis is used to make predictions that can be tested by observing the outcome of an experiment. If the outcome is inconsistent with the hypothesis, then the hypothesis is rejected. However, if the outcome is consistent with the hypothesis, the experiment is said to support the hypothesis. This careful language is used because researchers recognize that alternative hypotheses may also be consistent with the observations. In this sense, a hypothesis can never be proven, but rather only supported by surviving rounds of scientific testing and, eventually, becoming widely thought of as true (or better, predictive), but this is not the same as it having been proven. A useful hypothesis allows prediction and within the accuracy of observation of the time, the prediction will be verified. A hypothesis (from Greek) consists either of a suggested explanation for a phenomenon (an event that is observable or of a reasoned proposal suggesting a possible As the accuracy of observation improves with time, the hypothesis may no longer provide an accurate prediction. A hypothesis (from Greek) consists either of a suggested explanation for a phenomenon (an event that is observable or of a reasoned proposal suggesting a possible In this case a new hypothesis will arise to challenge the old, and to the extent that the new hypothesis makes more accurate predictions than the old, the new will supplant it. A hypothesis (from Greek) consists either of a suggested explanation for a phenomenon (an event that is observable or of a reasoned proposal suggesting a possible
The historical method comprises the techniques and guidelines by which historians use historical sources and other evidence to research and then to write history. The historical method comprises the techniques and guidelines by which Historians use Primary sources and other evidence to research and then to write history The historical method comprises the techniques and guidelines by which Historians use Primary sources and other evidence to research and then to write history History is the study of the past particularly the written record Those who study history as a Profession are called Historians Etymology There are various history guidelines commonly used by historians in their work, under the headings of external criticism, internal criticism, and synthesis. This includes higher criticism and textual criticism. Historical criticism or higher criticism is a branch of literary analysis that investigates the origins of a text as applied in Biblical studies it naturally Textual criticism (or lower criticism) is a branch of Literary criticism that is concerned with the identification and removal of Transcription errors in Though items may vary depending on the subject matter and researcher, the following concepts are usually part of most formal historical research:
The goal of the research process is to produce new knowledge, which takes three main forms (although, as previously discussed, the boundaries between them may be fuzzy):
Research can also fall into two distinct types:
Research methods used by scholars include:
Research is often conducted using the hourglass model. Action research is a Reflective process of progressive Problem solving led by individuals working with others in teams or as part of a " Community of practice Categorization is the process in which ideas and objects are recognized, differentiated and understood. Consumer ethnocentrism is derived from the more general psychological concept of Ethnocentrism. Content analysis (sometimes called textual analysis) is a Methodology in the Social sciences for studying the Content of Communication The Delphi method is a systematic interactive Forecasting method which relies on a panel of independent experts Ethnography ( Greek ethnos = people and graphein = writing is a genre of writing that uses Fieldwork to provide a descriptive Experience as a general concept comprises Knowledge of or skill in or Observation of some thing or some event gained through involvement in or Intuition is apparent ability to acquire knowledge without a clear inference or the use of reason In scientific inquiry an experiment ( Latin: Ex- periri, "to try out" is a method of investigating particular types of research questions or An interview is a conversation between two or more people (the interviewer and the interviewee where Questions are asked by the interviewer to obtain information from Note The term model has a different meaning in Model theory, a branch of Mathematical logic. Participant observation is a set of Research strategies which aim to gain a close and intimate familiarity with a given group of individuals (such as a religious occupational Simulation is the imitation of some real thing state of affairs or process Statistics is a mathematical science pertaining to the collection analysis interpretation or explanation and presentation of Data. Statistical surveys are used to collect quantitative information about items in a population Q Methodology is a research method used in Psychology and other Social sciences to study people's "subjectivity" -- that is their viewpoint  The hourglass model starts with a broad spectrum for research, focusing in on the required information through the methodology of the project (like the neck of the hourglass), then expands the research in the form of discussion and results.
Academic publishing describes a system that is necessary in order for academic scholars to peer review the work and make it available for a wider audience. Academic publishing describes the subfield of Publishing which distributes academic Research and Scholarship. Scholarly method &mdash or as it is more commonly called scholarship &mdash is the body of principles and practices used by scholars to make their claims about the world as Peer review (also known as refereeing) is the process of subjecting an author's scholarly work research or Ideas to the scrutiny of others who are The 'system', which is probably disorganised enough not to merit the title, varies widely by field, and is also always changing, if often slowly. Most academic work is published in journal article or book form. In publishing, STM publishing is an abbreviation for academic publications in science, technology, and medicine. Medicine is the art and science of healing It encompasses a range of Health care practices evolved to maintain and restore Human Health by the
Most established academic fields have their own journals and other outlets for publication, though many academic journals are somewhat interdisciplinary, and publish work from several distinct fields or subfields. An academic discipline or field of study is a branch of Knowledge which is taught or Researched at the college or university level An academic journal is a peer-reviewed Periodical in which scholarship relating to a particular Academic discipline is published The kinds of publications that are accepted as contributions of knowledge or research vary greatly between fields.
Academic publishing is undergoing major changes, emerging from the transition from the print to the electronic format. Business models are different in the electronic environment. A business model is a term used for a broad range of informal and formal descriptions that are used by enterprises to represent various aspects of its business including its purpose offerings Since about the early 1990s, licensing of electronic resources, particularly journals, has been very common. Presently, a major trend, particularly with respect to scholarly journals, is open access. Open access ( OA) is free immediate permanent full-text Online access for any user web-wide to digital scientific and scholarly material primarily There are two main forms of open access: open access publishing, in which the articles or the whole journal is freely available from the time of publication, and self-archiving, where the author makes a copy of their own work freely available on the web. Self-archiving involves depositing a free copy of a digital document on the World Wide Web in order to provide Open access to it
Most funding for scientific research comes from two major sources, corporations (through research and development departments) and government (primarily through universities and in some cases through military contractors). Research funding is a term generally covering any funding for scientific Research, in the areas of both "hard" Science and Technology and Scientific method refers to bodies of Techniques for investigating phenomena A corporation is a separate legal entity usually used to conduct business The phrase research and development (also R and D or more often R&D) according to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, refers Many senior researchers (such as group leaders) spend more than a trivial amount of their time applying for grants for research funds. These grants are necessary not only for researchers to carry out their research, but also as a source of merit. Some faculty positions require that the holder has received grants from certain institutions, such as the US National Institutes of Health (NIH). "NIH" redirects here For other meanings of NIH see NIH (disambiguation. Government-sponsored grants (e. g. from the NIH, the National Health Service in Britain or any of the European research councils) generally have a high status. The National Health Service is the name commonly used to refer to the four Publicly-funded healthcare systems of the United Kingdom collectively or individually (although
The word research derives from the French recherche, from rechercher, to search closely where "chercher" means "to search" (see French language); its literal meaning is 'to investigate thoroughly'. French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people