|Party Chairman||Mike Duncan|
|Senate Leader||Mitch McConnell|
|House Leader||John Boehner|
|Headquarters||310 First Street SE|
|Political position||Fiscal: Center-right|
|International affiliation||International Democrat Union|
The Republican Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States of America, along with the Democratic Party. Robert M ("Mike" Duncan is the current chair of the Republican National Committee. Addison Mitchell "Mitch" McConnell Jr (born February 20 1942 is the senior United States Senator from Kentucky. John Andrew Boehner ˈbeɪnɚ born November 17, 1949, is an American politician of the Republican Party who is currently serving as the Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D Conservatism in the United States includes a variety of political ideologies including Fiscal conservatism, Supply-side economics, Social conservatism Fiscal conservatism (also known as economic conservatism is a political phrase term used in North America to describe advocacy of lower governmental spending practices and a Economic liberalism is the Economic component of Classical liberalism. Neoconservatism (or Neocon is a Right-wing political philosophy that emerged in the United States from the rejection of the Social liberalism, Moral relativism Social conservatism is a political or moral ideology that affirms the government's role in encouraging or enforcing traditional values or behaviors in the belief that these are what Liberal conservatism is a variant of Conservatism which combines conservative and liberal values and positions Classical liberalism (also known as traditional liberalism, Laissez-faire liberalism, Market liberalism or in much of the world The International Democrat Union (IDU is an Center-right international grouping of conservative, Christian-democratic and Liberal-conservative See also Electoral geography of the United States Red States and Blue States refer to those states of the United States of America This article presents the main political parties in United States politics. The Democratic Party is one of two major Political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. It is often referred to as the Grand Old Party or the GOP.
Founded in 1854 by anti-slavery expansion activists and modernizers, the Republican Party rose to prominence with the election of Abraham Lincoln, the first Republican president. Abolitionism was a political movement of the 18th and 19th century which sought to make Slavery illegal particularly in the United States and British West Indies Abraham Lincoln (February 12 1809 &ndash April 15 1865 the sixteenth President of the United States, successfully led his country through its greatest internal The party presided over the American Civil War and Reconstruction and was harried by internal factions and scandals toward the end of the 19th century. Causes of the war See also Origins of the American Civil War, Timeline of events leading to the American Civil War The coexistence of a slave-owning South Today, the Republican Party supports a conservative platform (as far as American politics are concerned), with further foundations in economic liberalism, fiscal conservatism, and social conservatism. Economic liberalism is the Economic component of Classical liberalism. Fiscal conservatism (also known as economic conservatism is a political phrase term used in North America to describe advocacy of lower governmental spending practices and a Social conservatism is a political or moral ideology that affirms the government's role in encouraging or enforcing traditional values or behaviors in the belief that these are what
The current U.S. President, George W. Bush, is the 19th Republican to hold that office. The President of the United States is the Head of state and Head of government of the United States and is the highest political official in United States by George Walker Bush ( born July 6 1946 is the forty-third and current President of the United States. Republicans currently fill a minority of seats in both the United States Senate and the House of Representatives, hold a minority of state governorships, and control a minority of state legislatures. The United States Senate is the Upper house of the bicameral United States Congress, the Lower house being the House of Representatives The United States House of Representatives is one of the two chambers of the United States Congress; the other is the Senate. The following is a list of incumbent United States Governors. Each State in the United States has a Legislative branch as part of its form of civil government The party's presumptive nominee for President of the United States in the upcoming 2008 election is Senator John McCain of Arizona. The President of the United States is the Head of state and Head of government of the United States and is the highest political official in United States by The United States presidential election of 2008, scheduled for Tuesday November 4 2008 will be the 56th consecutive The State of Arizona ( is a state located in the southwestern region of the United States. It is currently the second largest party with 55 million registered members, encompassing roughly one third of the electorate. 
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The Republican National Committee (RNC) is responsible for promoting Republican campaign activities. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Politics of the United States takes place in the framework of a presidential, Federal republic where the President of the United States (the Head of The federal government of the United States is the central United States Governmental body established by the United States Constitution. The Constitution of the United States of America is the supreme Law of the United States. Taxation in the United States is a complex system which may involve payment to at least four different levels of government and many methods of taxation The United States Congress is the bicameral Legislature of the federal government of the United States of America, consisting of two houses The United States House of Representatives is one of the two chambers of the United States Congress; the other is the Senate. The Speaker of the United States House of Representatives is the presiding officer&mdashor speaker &mdashof the United States House of Representatives. Party leaders of the United States House of Representatives are elected by their respective parties in a closed-door (private Caucus. This is a complete list of congressional districts for representation in the United States House of Representatives. The United States Senate is the Upper house of the bicameral United States Congress, the Lower house being the House of Representatives The President pro tempore of the Senate is the second-highest-ranking official of the United States Senate and the highest-ranking senator The Senate Majority and Minority Leaders (also called Senate Floor Leaders) are two United States Senators who are elected by the party conferences The President of the United States is the Head of state and Head of government of the United States and is the highest political official in United States by The Vice President of the United States is the first person in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death The United States Cabinet (usually simplified as "the Cabinet" is composed of the most senior appointed officers of the Executive branch of the Federal government This is an incomplete list of United States federal agencies. The United States federal courts are the system of Courts organized under the Constitution and laws of the Federal government of the United States The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. The United States courts of appeals (or circuit courts) are the intermediate appellate courts The United States district courts are the general Trial courts of the United States federal court system. The United States has a federal government, with elected officials at federal (national state and local level Elections for President and Vice President of the United States are This article presents the main political parties in United States politics. The Democratic Party is one of two major Political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. See also Third party (United States presidential candidates 2008 The term third party is used in the United States for a political party other than one State governments in the United States (sometimes referred to as "The State" is generally structured in accordance with the laws of the various individual states The following is a list of incumbent United States Governors. In the United States of America, a state legislature is a generic term referring to the legislative body of any of the country's 50 states. Each State in the United States has a Legislative branch as part of its form of civil government In the United States, a state court has Jurisdiction over disputes with some connection to a U Local government in the United States is generally structured in accordance with the laws of the various individual states. Information on politics by country is available for every Country, including both De jure and De facto independent Politics of the United States takes place in the framework of a presidential, Federal republic where the President of the United States (the Head of The Republican National Committee (RNC provides national leadership for the Republican Party of the United States. It is responsible for developing and promoting the Republican political platform, as well as coordinating fundraising and election strategy. Its current chairman is Mike Duncan. Robert M ("Mike" Duncan is the current chair of the Republican National Committee. The chairman of the RNC is chosen by the President when the Republicans have the White House or otherwise by the Party's state committees. The RNC, under the direction of the party's presidential candidate, supervises the Republican National Convention, raises funds, and coordinates campaign strategy. The Republican National Convention is the presidential nominating convention of the Republican Party of the United States. On the local level there are similar state committees in every state and most large cities, counties and legislative districts, but they have far less money and influence than the national body.
The Republican House and Senate caucuses have separate fund raising and strategy committees. Fundraising is the process of soliciting and gathering Money or other gifts in-kind by requesting donations from individuals businesses charitable foundations or governmental The National Republican Congressional Committee (NRCC) assists in House races, and the National Republican Senatorial Committee (NRSC) in Senate races. "NRCC" redirects here For the organization of Canadian collectives see Neighbouring Rights Collective of Canada. The National Republican Senatorial Committee (NRSC is the Republican Hill committee for the United States Senate, working to elect Republicans to They each raise over $100 million per election cycle, and play important roles in recruiting strong state candidates. The Republican Governors Association (RGA) is a discussion group that seldom funds state races; it is currently chaired by Governor Rick Perry of Texas. The Republican Governors Association is a Washington DC -based organization founded in 1963 consisting of U James Richard "Rick" Perry (born March 4, 1950) is a Republican Politician and the current Governor of Texas
The Republican Party includes fiscal conservatives, social conservatives, and libertarians. Conservatism is a term used to describe political philosophies that favour Tradition, where tradition refers to various religious cultural or nationally defined Social conservatism is a political or moral ideology that affirms the government's role in encouraging or enforcing traditional values or behaviors in the belief that these are what Libertarianism is a term used by a broad spectrum of political philosophies which prioritize individual Liberty and seek to minimize or even abolish the
The Republican Party is the more socially conservative and economically libertarian of the two major parties. Conservatism in the United States includes a variety of political ideologies including Fiscal conservatism, Supply-side economics, Social conservatism Libertarianism is a term used by a broad spectrum of political philosophies which prioritize individual Liberty and seek to minimize or even abolish the The party generally supports lower taxes and limited government in most economic areas allowing for more economic freedom. Limited Government is a government structure where any more than minimal governmental intervention in personal liberties and the economy is not usually allowed by Law, usually Economic freedom is freedom to produce trade and consume any goods and services acquired without the use of force fraud or theft In the 1980s, the Republican Party was more strongly conservative than before. In his 1981 inaugural address, Republican President Ronald Reagan summed up his belief in limited government when he said, "In this present crisis, government is not the solution to our problem; government is the problem. " Since 1980, the GOP has contained what George Will calls "unresolved tensions between, two flavors of conservatism -- Western and Southern. George Frederick Will (born May 4, 1941) is a Pulitzer Prize -winning conservative American newspaper Columnist, journalist " The Western brand, wrote Will, "is largely libertarian, holding that pruning big government will allow civil society -- and virtues nourished by it and by the responsibilities of freedom -- to flourish. " The Southern variety, however, reflects a religiosity based in evangelical and fundamentalist churches that is less concerned with economics and more with moralistic issues, such as opposition to abortion and same-sex marriage. Evangelicalism is a theological movement tradition and system of beliefs most closely associated with Protestant Christianity, which identifies with the Gospel Fundamentalism refers to a "deep and totalistic commitment" to a belief in and strict adherence to a set of basic principles (often Religious in nature a reaction An Same-sex marriage (also referred to as gay marriage) is a term for a legally or Socially recognized Marriage between two people of the same Noting the waning influence of libertarian philosophy on contemporary Republican ideology, Will describes the current Republican Party as "increasingly defined by the ascendancy of the religious right. " Evangelicals are not the only religious conservative faction in the Party, though: there are also the Mormons, who emphasize traditional family values . TalkMormon#Latter Day Saint vs Latter-day Saint --> Mormon Family values is a political and social concept used in various cultures to describe values that are believed to be traditional in that culture and in support of the idea
The Republican Party believes that making law is the province of the legislature and that judges, especially the Supreme Court, should not "legislate from the bench. The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. " Most Republicans point to Roe v. Wade as a case of judicial activism, where the court overturned most laws restricting abortion on the basis of a right to privacy inferred from the Bill of Rights and the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution. Roe v Wade, 410 US 113 (1973 is a controversial United States Supreme Court case that resulted in a Landmark decision regarding Judicial activism is a pejorative term for the misuse of judicial power and is a neologism for the older classical term " board judicial review. Privacy is the ability of an individual or group to seclude themselves or information about themselves and thereby reveal themselves selectively A Bill of Rights is a list or summary of rights that are considered important and essential by a group of people The Fourteenth Amendment ( Amendment XIV) to the United States Constitution is one of the post- Civil War Reconstruction Amendments, first Some Republicans have actively sought to block judges who they see as being activist judges and they have sought the appointment of judges who claim to practice judicial restraint. Judicial activism is a pejorative term for the misuse of judicial power and is a neologism for the older classical term " board judicial review. Judicial restraint is a theory of Judicial interpretation that encourages Judges to limit the exercise of their own power Other Republicans, though, argue that it is the right of judges to extend the interpretation of the Constitution and judge actions by the legislative or executive branches as legal or unconstitutional on previously unarticulated grounds. Constitutionality is the status of a law, a procedure or an act's accordance with the laws or guidelines set forth in the applicable Constitution.
The Republican party has supported various bills within the last decade to strip some or all federal courts of the ability to hear certain types of cases, in an attempt to limit judicial review. These jurisdiction stripping laws have included removing federal review of the recognition of same-sex marriage with the Marriage Protection Act, the constitutionality of the Pledge of Allegiance with the Pledge Protection Act, and the rights of detainees in Guantanamo Bay in the Detainee Treatment Act. Jurisdiction stripping refers to the practice of defining the jurisdiction of the United States federal judiciary as to eliminate its ability to hear certain classes of claims The Marriage "Protection" Act of 2007 (MPA) is a bill in the U The US Pledge Protection Act would deprive not only the Supreme Court but also all other federal courts jurisdiction to hear constitutional challenges to the "under The last of these limitations was overruled by the Supreme Court in Hamdan v. Rumsfeld. Hamdan v Rumsfeld, 548 US 557 (2006 is a case in which the Supreme Court of the United States held that military commissions set up by the
Compared with Democrats, many Republicans believe in a more robust version of federalism with greater limitations placed upon federal power and a larger role reserved for the States. Political federalism is a Political philosophy in which a group of members are bound together (Latin foedus, covenant) with a governing The federal government of the United States is the central United States Governmental body established by the United States Constitution. A US state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of the United States of America that share Sovereignty with the federal government Following this view on federalism, Republicans often take a less expansive reading of congressional power under the commerce clause, such as in the opinion of William Rehnquist in United States v. Lopez. Political federalism is a Political philosophy in which a group of members are bound together (Latin foedus, covenant) with a governing Article 1 Section 8 Clause 3 of the United States Constitution, known as the Commerce Clause, states that Congress has the power to regulate commerce with foreign William Hubbs Rehnquist (October 1 1924 – September 3 2005 was an American lawyer, jurist, and a political figure who served as an Associate Justice United States v Lopez, was the first United States Supreme Court case since the Great Depression to set limits to Congress's power under the Many Republicans on the more libertarian wing wish for a more dramatic narrowing of commerce clause power by revisiting, among other cases, Wickard v. Filburn, a case which held that growing wheat on a farm for consumption on the same farm fell under congressional power to "regulate commerce ... among the several States...". Article 1 Section 8 Clause 3 of the United States Constitution, known as the Commerce Clause, states that Congress has the power to regulate commerce with foreign Wickard v Filburn, 317 US 111 (1942 is a United States Supreme Court decision interpreting the Commerce Clause of the United States Article 1 Section 8 Clause 3 of the United States Constitution, known as the Commerce Clause, states that Congress has the power to regulate commerce with foreign
President George W. Bush is a proponent of the unitary executive theory and has cited it within his signing statements about legislation passed by Congress. George Walker Bush ( born July 6 1946 is the forty-third and current President of the United States. In American political and legal discourse the unitary executive theory is a theory or doctrine of Constitutional interpretation that holds it A signing statement is a written pronouncement issued by the President of the United States upon the signing of a bill into Law.  The administration's interpretation of the unitary executive theory was called seriously into question by Hamdan v. Rumsfeld, where the Supreme Court ruled 5-3 that the President does not have sweeping powers to override or ignore laws through his power as commander in chief, stating "the Executive is bound to comply with the Rule of Law that prevails. Hamdan v Rumsfeld, 548 US 557 (2006 is a case in which the Supreme Court of the United States held that military commissions set up by the " Following the ruling, the Bush administration has sought Congressional authorization for programs started only on executive mandate, as was the case with the Military Commissions Act, or abandoned illegal programs it had previously asserted executive authority to enact, in the case of the National Security Agency domestic wiretapping program. The United States Military Commissions Act of 2006, also known as HR-6166 was an Act of Congress signed by President George W The National Security Agency/ Central Security Service ( NSA/CSS) is a cryptologic intelligence agency of the United States government The NSA warrantless surveillance controversy concerns Surveillance of persons within the United States incident to the collection of Foreign intelligence by the
Republicans emphasize the role of corporate and personal decision making in fostering economic prosperity. They support the idea of individuals being economically responsible for their own actions and decisions. They favor a free-market, policies supporting business, economic liberalism, and fiscal conservatism but with higher spending on the military. A free market is a Market in which property rights are voluntarily exchanged at a price arranged completely by the mutual consent of sellers and buyers Economic liberalism is the Economic component of Classical liberalism. Fiscal conservatism (also known as economic conservatism is a political phrase term used in North America to describe advocacy of lower governmental spending practices and a A leading economic theory advocated by modern Republicans is supply-side economics. Supply-side economics is an arguably heterodox school of Macroeconomic thought that argues that economic growth can be most effectively created using incentives for Some fiscal policies influenced by this theory were popularly known as "Reaganomics," a term popularized during the Presidential administrations of Ronald Reagan. Reaganomics (a portmanteau of "Reagan" and "economics" refers to the Economic policies promoted by United States President Ronald This theory holds that reduced income tax rates increase GDP growth and thereby generate the same or more revenue for the government from the smaller tax on the extra growth. This belief is reflected, in part, by the party's long-term advocacy of tax cuts, a major Republican theme since the 1920s. Republicans believe that a series of income tax cuts since 2001 have bolstered the economy. A tax cut is a reduction in taxes. Economic stimulus via tax cuts along with interest rate intervention and deficit spending are one of the central tenets of Keynesian economics  Many Republicans consider the income tax system to be inherently inefficient and oppose graduated tax rates, which they believe are unfairly targeted at those who create jobs and wealth. They believe private spending is usually more efficient than government spending.
Most Republicans agree there should be a "safety net" to assist the less fortunate; however, they tend to believe the private sector is more effective in helping the poor than government is; as a result, Republicans support giving government grants to faith-based and other private charitable organizations to supplant welfare spending. Members of the GOP also believe that limits on eligibility and benefits must be in place to ensure the safety net is not abused. Republicans introduced and strongly supported the welfare reform of 1996, which was signed into law by Democratic President Clinton, and which limited eligibility for welfare, successfully leading to many former welfare recipients finding jobs. The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 ( PRWORA,) is a United States federal law considered to be a fundamental shift in both the method 
The party opposes a single-payer universal health care system, believing such a system constitutes "socialized medicine" and is in favor of a personal or employer-based system of insurance, supplemented by Medicare for the elderly and Medicaid for the poor. Universal health care is health care coverage which is extended to all eligible residents of a governmental region Socialized medicine is a term used primarily in the United States to refer to certain kinds of Publicly-funded health care. The GOP has a mixed record of supporting the historically popular Social Security, Medicare and Medicaid programs, all of which Republicans initially opposed. Social Security, in the United States currently refers to the federal Old-Age Survivors and Disability Insurance ( OASDI) program This article refers to Medicare, a United States health insurance program Medicaid is the United States health program for eligible individuals and families with low incomes and resources On the one hand, congressional Republicans and the Bush administration supported a reduction in Medicaid's growth rate.  On the other hand, congressional Republicans expanded Medicare, supporting a new drug plan for seniors starting in 2006.
Republicans are generally opposed by labor union management and members, and have supported various legislation on the state and federal levels, including right to work legislation and the Taft-Hartley Act which gives workers the right not to participate in unions, as opposed to a closed shop which prohibits workers from choosing not to join unions in workplaces. A trade union or labour union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages hours and working conditions forming The Right to work is the concept that people have a human right to work and may not be prevented from doing so In North America a closed shop is a Business or industrial factory in which union membership (often of a specific union and no other is Republicans generally oppose increases in the minimum wage, believing that minimum wage increases hurt many businesses by forcing them to cut jobs and services as well as raise the prices of goods to compensate for the decrease in profit. This hits the poor the hardest, who have the least number of options when prices rise, and/or when jobs and services are cut.
Most Republicans believe that strict environmental standards hurt businesses and therefore support reductions in environmental regulations based on the principle of laissez-faire economics. Laissez-faire ( pronunciation: French,; English,) is a French phrase literally meaning Let do (“allow to do” A considerable percentage of Republicans are skeptical of anthropogenic global warming and doubt scientific studies that demonstrate the impact human activity has on climate change, instead asserting that global warming is part of natural cyclical phenomenon. Global warming is the increase in the average measured temperature of the
Historically, however, the Republican Party has made several notable contributions to the protection of the environment. Republican President Theodore Roosevelt was a prominent conservationist whose policies eventually led to the creation of the modern U. Theodore Roosevelt (ˈroʊzəvɛlt October 27 1858 January 6 1919 also known as T S. National Park Service. The National Park Service ( NPS) is the United States federal agency that manages all National Parks, many National Monuments, and other conservation  Also, President Richard Nixon was responsible for establishing the Environmental Protection Agency in 1970.  More recently, California Republican Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger, with the help of 16 other states, plans to sue the Federal Government and the United States Environment Protection Agency as an attempt to gain a waiver that allows the state to set vehicle emission standards higher than the Federal Standard. California ( is a US state on the West Coast of the United States, along the Pacific Ocean. Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger ( German ˌaɐnɔlt aloʏs ˈʃvaɐtsənɛɡɐ born July 30 1947 is an Austrian American Bodybuilder, Actor In Law, filing is the act of submitting a Document to the Clerk of a Court for the court's immediate consideration for storage in the court's In the United States, Emissions standards are managed on a national level by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 
On the other hand, President George W. Bush has publicly opposed ratification of the Kyoto Protocols on the grounds that they unfairly targeted Western industralized nations such as the United States while giving developing Third World polluters such as China and India a pass. George Walker Bush ( born July 6 1946 is the forty-third and current President of the United States. The Kyoto Protocol is a protocol to the international Framework Convention on Climate Change with the objective of reducing Greenhouse gases in an effort Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country 
In 2000, the Republican Party adopted as part of its platform support for the development of market-based solutions to environmental problems. According to the platform, "economic prosperity and environmental protection must advance together, environmental regulations should be based on science, the government’s role should be to provide market-based incentives to develop the technologies to meet environmental standards, we should ensure that environmental policy meets the needs of localities, and environmental policy should focus on achieving results processes. " Although this platform was created for the Republican National Convention, emphasis on these issues within the Republican Party has diminished in the past few years. The Republican National Convention is the presidential nominating convention of the Republican Party of the United States. 
Currently the Bush Administration, along with several of the candidates seeking the Republican Presidential nomination in 2008, supports increased Federal investment into the development of clean alternative fuels such as ethanol as a way of helping the U. The Presidency of George W Bush began on his inauguration on January 20, 2001 as the 43rd and current President of the United States of America S. achieve energy independence. Senator John McCain, while his record on supporting ethanol is inconsistent, is one of the strongest Republican proponents of protecting the environment.  McCain supports the cap-and-trade policy, a policy that is quite popular among Democrats but much less so among other Republicans. Emissions trading (or emission trading) is an administrative approach used to control Pollution by providing economic Incentives for Most Republicans support increased oil drilling in currently protected areas such as the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, a position which has drawn sharp criticism from many environmental activists. West Texas PumpjackJPG|thumb|right|300px|This Pumpjack located south of Midland TX is a common sight in West Texas. The Arctic National Wildlife Refuge ( ANWR) is a National Wildlife Refuge in northeastern Alaska.
The 2004 Republican platform expressed support for the Federal Marriage Amendment to the United States Constitution to define marriage as exclusively between one man and one woman. The Federal Marriage Amendment (FMA (also referred to by proponents as the Marriage Protection Amendment) is a proposed amendment to the United States Constitution The Constitution of the United States of America is the supreme Law of the United States. A majority of the GOP's national and state candidates are pro-life and oppose abortion on religious or moral grounds, and favor faith-based initiatives. Overview See also Ethical aspects of abortion Pro-life individuals generally believe that human life should be valued either from conception or Implantation An The White House Office of Faith-Based and Community Initiatives ( OFBCI) is a department under the Office of the President of the United States that was established There are some exceptions, though, especially in the Northeast and Pacific Coast states. The Northeast is a region of the United States. As defined by the U They are generally against affirmative action for women and minorities often describing it as a quota system, believing that it is not meritocracy and that is counter-productive socially by only further promoting discrimination. Affirmative action in the United States|Employment equity (Canada|Reservation in India|Numerus clausus The term affirmative action describes many policies aimed at a historically Racial quotas in employment and education are numerical requirements for hiring promoting admitting and/or graduating members of a particular racial group while discriminating Meritocracy is a system of a government or another organization wherein Appointments are made and responsibilities are given based on demonstrated talent and Ability Unlike most discrimination policies discrimination between, which is the discernment of qualities and recognition of the differences focused here discrimination against is  Most of the GOP's membership favors capital punishment and stricter punishments as a means to prevent crime. Capital punishment, the death penalty or execution, is the Killing of a person by judicial process as Punishment. Republicans generally strongly support constitutionally protected gun ownership rights. Gun politics in the United States, incorporating the political aspects of Gun politics, and firearms rights has long been among the most controversial and intractable issues
Most Republicans support school choice through charter schools and education vouchers for private schools; many have denounced the performance of the public school system and the teachers' unions. School choice is a term used to describe a wide array of programs aimed at giving families the opportunity to choose the school their children will attend Charter schools are elementary or secondary schools in the United States that receive public money but A school voucher, also called an education voucher, is a certificate issued by the government by which parents can pay for the Education of their children at a The party has insisted on a system of greater accountability for public schools, most prominently in recent years with the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (Public Law 107-110 often abbreviated in print as NCLB and sometimes shortened in pronunciation to "nickelbee" is a controversial Many Republicans, however, opposed the creation of the United States Department of Education when it was initially created in 1979. The United States Department of Education (also referred to as ED, for Education Department is a Cabinet -level department of the United States
The religious wing of the party tends to support organized prayer in public schools and the inclusion of teaching creationism or intelligent design alongside evolution. School prayer in its most common usage refers to state sanctioned Prayer by students in state Schools. "Creationism" can also refer to Creation myths in general or to a concept about the origin of the soul. Intelligent eVolution is the third Album by eLDee, it was due to be released in 2008 Although the GOP has voted for increases in government funding of scientific research, some members actively oppose the federal funding of embryonic stem cell research because it involves the harvesting and destruction of human embryos (which many consider ethically equivalent to abortion), while arguing for applying research money into adult stem cell or amniotic stem cell research. Embryonic stem cells (ES cells are Stem cells derived from the inner cell mass of an early stage Embryo known as a Blastocyst. An embryo (from Greek:, plural, lit "that which grows" from en- "in" + bryein "to swell be full" is a multicellular An Adult stem cells are undifferentiated cells found throughout the body after embryonic development that divide to replenish dying cells and regenerate damaged The stem cell issue has garnered two once-rare vetoes on research funding bills from President Bush, who said the research "crossed a moral boundary. "
The Republican Party has always advocated a strong national defense; however, up until recently they tended to disapprove of interventionist foreign policy actions. Republicans opposed Woodrow Wilson's intervention in World War I and his subsequent attempt to create the League of Nations. Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28 1856—February 3 1924 was the twenty-eighth President of the United States. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All The League of Nations was an International organization founded as a result of the Treaty of Versailles in 1919–1920 Many Republicans opposed the creation of NATO. The North Atlantic Treaty Even in the 1990s, although George H.W. Bush orchestrated the Gulf War, Republicans opposed the intervention of the United States in Somalia and the Balkans. George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12 1924 served as the forty-first President of the United States from 1989 to 1993 Somalia ( Soomaaliya; الصومال) officially the Somali Republic ( Jamhuuriyadda Soomaaliya, جمهورية الصومال) and formerly known However, in 2000, George W. Bush ran on a platform that opposed these types of involvement in foreign conflicts. George Walker Bush ( born July 6 1946 is the forty-third and current President of the United States.
Today, the Republican Party supports unilateralism in issues of national security, believing in the ability and right of the United States to act without external or international support in its own self-interest. Unilateralism ("one+side -ism " is any doctrine or agenda that supports one-sided action In general, Republican defense and international thinking is heavily influenced by the theories of neorealism and realism, characterizing the conflicts between nations as great struggles between faceless forces of international structure, as opposed to the result of individual leaders, their ideas, and their actions. Realism, also known as political realism, in the context of International relations, encompasses a variety of theories and approaches all of which share a belief The realist school's influence shows in Reagan's Evil Empire stance on the Soviet Union and George W. The phrase evil empire was applied to the Soviet Union by US President Ronald Reagan and American conservatives, who took an aggressive The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 Bush's Axis of Evil. Definition President Bush's exact statement was as follows second goal is to prevent regimes (terrorist that sponsor terror from threatening America or our friends and
Republicans secured gains in the 2002 and 2004 elections with the War on Terror being one of the top issues favoring them. The 2002 midterm Congressional elections occurred in 2002. The Elections did not correspond with the presidential elections therefore they are considered midterm The War on Terrorism (also known as the War on Terror) is the common term for the military political and legal, and ideological conflict and specifically for U Since the September 11, 2001 attacks, the party supports neoconservative policies with regard to the War on Terror, including the 2001 war in Afghanistan and the 2003 invasion of Iraq. Neoconservatism (or Neocon is a Right-wing political philosophy that emerged in the United States from the rejection of the Social liberalism, Moral relativism The War in Afghanistan, which began on October 7 2001 as the U The 2003 invasion of Iraq, from March 20 to May 1 2003 was spearheaded by the United States, backed by British forces and smaller contingents from Australia
The doctrine of preemptive war, wars to disarm and destroy military foes before they can act, has been advocated by prominent members of the Bush administration, but the war within Iraq has undercut the influence of this doctrine within the Republican Party. Preemptive war (or a preemptive strike) is waged in an attempt to repel or defeat a perceived inevitable offensive or Invasion, or to gain a strategic advantage in Rudy Giuliani, the former mayor of New York during the time of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, and a once prominent Republican presidential candidate for the 2008 presidential election, has stated that America must keep itself "on the offensive" against terrorists, stating his support of that policy. KBE Per, "Postnominal letters should be included when they are issued by a country or organization the subject has been closely associated with The United States presidential election of 2008, scheduled for Tuesday November 4 2008 will be the 56th consecutive
The Bush administration supports the position that the Geneva Conventions do not apply to unlawful combatants, using the premise that they apply to soldiers serving in the armies of nation-states and not terrorist organizations such as Al-Qaeda. The Geneva Conventions consist of four Treaties formulated in Geneva, Switzerland, that set the standards for International law for humanitarian An unlawful combatant or unprivileged combatant/belligerent is a Civilian who directly engages in armed conflict under the International Humanitarian Law For the online game see Jennifer Government NationStates. The nation-state is a certain form of State that derives its legitimacy Many organizations that are accused of being a terrorist organization deny using Terrorism as a Military tactic to achieve their goals and there is no international Al-Qaeda, alternatively spelled al-Qaida, al-Qa`ida or al-Qa`idah, ( Arabic:; ar-Latn ''al-qāʿidah'' Translation: The The Supreme Court overruled this position in Hamdan v. Rumsfeld, which held that the Geneva Conventions were legally binding and must be followed in regards to all enemy combatants. Hamdan v Rumsfeld, 548 US 557 (2006 is a case in which the Supreme Court of the United States held that military commissions set up by the
Republicans support attempts for the democratization of Middle-Eastern countries currently under the rule of dictatorships.
The party, through former U. N. Ambassador John Bolton, has advocated reforms in the U.N. to halt corruption such as that which afflicted the Oil-for-Food Program. John Robert Bolton (born November 20, 1948) is an American public servant who has served in several Republican presidential administrations The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security The Oil-for-Food Programme, established by the United Nations in 1995 (under UN Security Council Resolution 986) and terminated in late 2003 was intended As previously stated, some Republicans including Bush oppose the Kyoto Protocol (although there is a section which supports it within the party). The Kyoto Protocol is a protocol to the international Framework Convention on Climate Change with the objective of reducing Greenhouse gases in an effort The party strongly promotes free trade agreements, most notably NAFTA, CAFTA and now an effort to go further south to Brazil, Peru and Colombia. Free trade is a system in which the trade of goods and services between or within countries flows unhindered by government-imposed restrictions |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld Peru (Perú Piruw Piruw officially the Republic of Peru ( reˈpuβlika del peˈɾu is a country in western South America. Colombia (kəˈlʌmbɪə officially the Republic of Colombia () is a country in northwestern South America.
Republicans are divided on how to confront illegal immigration between a moderate business-friendly platform that allows for migrant workers and easing citizenship guidelines, and enforcement-first nationalist approach. Illegal immigration refers to Immigration across National Borders in a way that violates the Immigration laws of the destination Country The Bush administration has made appeals to immigrants a high priority long-term political goal, but that goal is not a high priority in most local GOP entities. In general, pro-growth advocates within the Republican Party support more immigration, and traditional or populist conservatives oppose it. In 2006, the White House supported and Senate passed comprehensive immigration reform that would eventually allow millions of illegal immigrants to become citizens, but the House, taking an enforcement-first approach, refused to go along. This Bill did not passIt should be written in the past tense --> The Comprehensive Immigration Reform Act ( CIRA,) was a United States Senate bill 
The Republican Party have expressed their support for Puerto Ricans to exercise their right to decolonization. The following is from the 2004 party platform:
Business community. The GOP is usually seen as the traditionally pro-business party and it garners major support from a wide variety of industries from the financial sector to small businesses. The field of finance refers to the concepts of Time, Money and Risk and how they are interrelated
Gender. Since 1980 a "gender gap" has seen slightly stronger support for the GOP among men than among women. In the 2006 House races, women voted 43% GOP while men voted 47%. 
Race. Since 1964, the GOP has been weakly represented among African Americans, winning under 15% of the black vote in recent national elections (1980 to 2004). African Americans or Black Americans are citizens or residents of the United States who have origins in any of the black populations of Africa The party has nominated African American candidates for senator or governor in Illinois, Ohio, Pennsylvania and Maryland, but they all lost. More recently, President Bush has pushed for Hispanic votes, winning 35% in 2000 and 44% in 2004. Hispanic (hispano hispánico hispânico Hispānus adjective from ''Hispānia'', the Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula) is a term that historically In 2004, 44% of Asian Americans voted for George W. Asian Americans are Americans of Asian ancestry. They include sub-ethnic groups such as Chinese Americans Filipino Americans Indian Bush.  Its fervent anti-communism has made it the dominant party for some minority groups from current and former Communist states, in particular Cuban-Americans and Vietnamese-Americans. Anti-communism refers to opposition to Communism. Historically the word "communism" has been used to refer to several types of communal social organization and A Cuban American ( Cubanoamericano) is a United States citizen who traces his or her "national origin" to Cuba. A Vietnamese American (người Mỹ gốc Việt is a resident of the United States who is of Vietnamese heritage In the 2006 House races, the GOP won 51% of white votes, 37% Asian votes, and 30% Hispanic votes, while winning only 10% of African American votes. African Americans or Black Americans are citizens or residents of the United States who have origins in any of the black populations of Africa  The Republican Party became the party of abolition of slavery under Abraham Lincoln and from the Civil War until the Great Depression, blacks voted for Republican candidates by an overwhelming margin; in the Southern states, they were often not allowed to vote, but received Federal patronage appointments from the Republicans. Abraham Lincoln (February 12 1809 &ndash April 15 1865 the sixteenth President of the United States, successfully led his country through its greatest internal Causes of the war See also Origins of the American Civil War, Timeline of events leading to the American Civil War The coexistence of a slave-owning South The majority of black Americans switched to the Democratic Party in the 1930s when the New Deal offered them governmental support for civil rights. The New Deal was the name that United States President Franklin D In the South they began voting again after 1965, when a bipartisan coalition passed the Voting Rights Act, and ever since have formed 20% to 50% of the Democratic vote in the South. Background See also [[Disfranchisement after the Civil War]] The 13th Amendment, ratified in 1865 after the Civil War, abolished and prohibited 
Family status. In recent elections, Republicans have found their greatest support among whites from married couples with children living at home.  Unmarried and divorced women were far more likely to vote for Kerry in 2004. 
Income. The differences in voting among income groups are small, though poorer voters tend favor the Democratic Party while wealthier voters tend to support the Republican Party. Bush won 41% of the poorest 20% of voters in 2004, 55% of the richest twenty percent, and 53% of those in between. In the 2006 House races, the voters with incomes over $50,000 were 49% Republican, while those under were 38%. 
Military. Republicans hold a large majority in the armed services, with 57% of active military personnel and 66% of officers identified as Republican in 2003. 
Education. While people become more likely to vote Republican up to the level of having a bachelor's degree, they become less likely to vote Republican once reaching the post-graduate level. A bachelor's degree is usually an Undergraduate Academic degree awarded for a course or major that generally lasts for three four or in some cases and In 1988, the elder Bush got 53% of the total vote, but won 62% of voters with a bachelor's degree (but no higher degree). In 2004, the younger Bush got 51% and the college graduate vote was split in the 2006 mid-term elections. Among voters with a Masters' degree or higher, in 1988 the elder Bush won 50% while in 2004 the younger Bush received 42%. Compensating for this drop were the gains George W. Bush made among voters with 12 to 15 years of school.  Bush had an advantage with college graduates at 52%, those with some college (54%) and high school graduates (52%). Democrats had majorities among those with no high school (50%) and post-graduate study (55%). In 2006 the best Republican showing was 49% among voters with a bachelor degree.  Republicans remain a small minority in academia, with 15% of full-time faculty identifying as conservative. 
Age. The Democrats do better among younger Americans and Republicans among older Americans. In 2006, the GOP won only 38% of the voters aged 18-29. 
Sexual Orientation. Exit polls conducted in 2000, 2004 and 2006 indicate that 23-25% of gay and lesbian Americans voted for the GOP. In recent years, the party has opposed same-sex marriage, adoption by same-sex couples, inclusion of sexual orientation in hate crimes laws, the Employment Non-Discrimination Act, while supporting the use of the don't ask, don't tell policy within the military. Same-sex marriage (also referred to as gay marriage) is a term for a legally or Socially recognized Marriage between two people of the same The Employment Non-Discrimination Act ( ENDA) is a proposed U "Don't ask don't tell" is the common term for the policy about homosexuality in the U  The opposition to gay rights found in the Republican Party largely comes from the very religious and socially conservative portion of the party. 
Religion. Religion has always played a major role for both parties but, in the course of a century, the parties' religious compositions have changed. Religion was a major dividing line between the parties before 1960, with Catholics, Jews, and the Protestant white South heavily Democratic, and Northeastern Protestants heavily Republican. The United States presidential election of 1960 marked the end of Dwight D Most of the old differences faded away after the realignment of the late 1960s that undercut the New Deal coalition. The New Deal coalition was the alignment of interest groups and voting blocs that supported the New Deal and voted for Democratic presidential candidates from 1932 Voters who attend church weekly gave 61% of their votes to Bush in 2004; those who attend occasionally gave him only 47%, while those who never attend gave him 36%. The United States presidential election of 2004 was held on Tuesday November 2, 2004, to elect the President of the United States. 59% of Protestants voted for Bush, along with 52% of Catholics (even though Kerry was Catholic). } John Forbes Kerry (born December 11 1943 is an American Politician who is currently serving his fourth term as the junior United States Senator Since 1980, large majorities of evangelicals have voted Republican; 70-80% voted for Bush in 2000 and 2004, and 70% for GOP House candidates in 2006. The 2006 United States midterm elections were held on Tuesday November 7 2006. Jews continue to vote 70-80% Democratic. Democrats have close links with the African American churches, especially the National Baptists, while their historic dominance among Catholic voters has eroded to 50-50. The National Baptist Convention USA Inc is one of the largest religious organizations among African Americans The convention has over 30000 churches and over 6000000 The main line traditional Protestants (Methodists, Lutherans, Presbyterians, Episcopalians) have dropped to about 55% Republican (in contrast to 75% before 1968). Their church membership have dropped in that time as well, and the conservative evangelical rivals have grown. 
Region. Since 1980, geographically the Republican "base" ("red states") is strongest in the South and West, and weakest in the Northeast and the Pacific Coast. See also Electoral geography of the United States Red States and Blue States refer to those states of the United States of America The Southern United States &mdashcommonly referred to as the American South, Dixie, or simply the South &mdashconstitutes a large distinctive The Western United States &mdashcommonly referred to as the American West or simply the West &mdashtraditionally refers to the region comprising the westernmost The Northeast actually does well for the GOP in state contests but not in presidential ones (except New Hampshire). The Northeast is a region of the United States. As defined by the U New Hampshire ( is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America. The Midwest has been roughly balanced since 1854, with Illinois becoming more Democratic due to the City of Chicago and Minnesota & Wisconsin more Republican since 1990. The State of Illinois ( roughly ill-i-NOY is a state of the United States of America, the 21st to be admitted to the Union. Minnesota ( Native Americans demonstrated the name to early settlers Wisconsin ( or wɪˈskɑnsɨn (French Ouisconsin) is one of the fifty United States of America, located in the north central part of the United States Since the 1930s the Democrats have dominated most central cities, the Republicans now dominate rural areas, and the majority of suburbs. 
The South has become solidly Republican in national elections since 1980, and has been trending Republican at the state level since then at a slower pace.  In 2004 Bush led Kerry by 70%-30% among Southern whites, who comprised 71% of the Southern electorate. Kerry had a 70-30 lead among the 29% of the voters who were black or Hispanic. One-third of these Southern voters said they were white evangelicals; they voted for Bush by 80-20; but were only 72% Republican in 2006. 
The Republican Party's strongest focus of political influence lies in the Great Plains states, particularly Oklahoma, Kansas, and Nebraska, and in the western states of Idaho, Wyoming, and Utah (Utah gave George W. The Great Plains are the broad expanse of Prairie and Steppe which lie east of the Rocky Mountains in the United States and Canada Oklahoma ( is a state located in the South Central region of the United States of America. Kansas ( is a Midwestern state in the central region of the United States of America, an area often referred to as the American " Nebraska ( is a state located on the Great Plains of the Midwestern United States and The State of Idaho ( is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States of America. The State of Wyoming ( is a sparsely populated state in the western region of the United States. The State of Utah (ˈjuːtɔː or) is a western state of the United States. Bush more than 70% of the popular vote in 2004). These states are sparsely populated, have very few urban centers, and have overwhelmingly White populations, making it extremely difficult for Democrats to create a sustainable voter base there. Unlike the South, these areas have been strongly Republican since before the party realignments of the 1960s. The Great Plains states were one of the few areas of the country where Republicans had any significant support during the Great Depression. However, these areas also have very few electoral votes or House seats, making them of limited political utility relative to more populous states.
Conservatives and Moderates. The Republican coalition is quite diverse, and numerous factions compete to frame platforms and select candidates. The Republican Party of the United States is composed of various different groups or factions The "conservatives" are strongest in the South, where they draw support from religious conservatives. The "moderates" tend to dominate the party in New England, and used to be well represented in all states. In Politics and Religion, a moderate is an individual who holds an intermediate position between two viewpoints neither to be extreme or radical by those applying From the 1940s to the 1970s under such leaders as Thomas Dewey, Dwight D. Eisenhower, Nelson Rockefeller, and Richard Nixon, they usually dominated the presidential wing of the party. Thomas Edmund Dewey ( March 24, 1902 – March 16, 1971) was the Governor of New York (1943-1955 and the unsuccessful Republican Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (October 14 1890 – March 28 1969 was President of the United States from 1953 until 1961 and a five-star general Nelson Aldrich Rockefeller ( July 8, 1908 January 26, 1979) was the forty-first Vice President of the United States, the forty-ninth Since the 1970s they have been less powerful, though they are always represented in the cabinets of Republican presidents. In the 2006 elections, Rhode Island Senator Lincoln Chafee, arguably the last moderate-to-liberal Northeastern Republican of major prominence, lost his re-election bid. Rhode Island ( officially named the State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, is a state in the New England region of the United States Lincoln Davenport Chafee (ˈtʃeɪ fiː CHAY-fee) (born March 26, 1953) is a former United States Senator from Rhode Island. New Hampshire's two Republican congressmen lost to their Democratic opponents. New Hampshire ( is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America. In Vermont, Jim Jeffords, a Republican Senator became an Independent in 2001 due to growing disagreement with President Bush and the party leadership. Vermont ( is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America. James Merrill "Jim" Jeffords (born May 11, 1934) is a former U In Politics, an independent is a Politician who is not Affiliated with any Political party.
Since the 1980s, talk radio audiences and successful hosts have tended to be conservative, and typically favor the Republicans. Talk radio is a Radio format containing discussion about topical issues Some well known radio hosts include Rush Limbaugh, Glenn Beck, Sean Hannity, Neal Boortz, Laura Ingraham, Michael Reagan, Howie Carr, and Michael Savage. Rush Hudson Limbaugh III (born January 12, 1951) is an American radio host and conservative Political commentator. Glenn Beck (born February 10, 1964) is an American radio and Television host, conservative Political commentator Sean Hannity (born December 30 1961 is an American radio and television host, conservative Political commentator, and Neal A Boortz Jr (born April 6 1945 is an American radio host, author and Libertarian Political commentator. Laura Anne Ingraham (born June 19, 1964) is an American radio host, Author, and conservative political commentator Michael Edward Reagan (born March 18, 1945) is an American radio host and Republican Strategist. Howard Lawrence " Howie " Carr (born January 17, 1952) is an American Journalist, Author, and Michael Savage may refer to Michael Savage (commentator, an American radio host author and conservative political commentator
Republican Karl Rove and other commentators had speculated about a permanent political realignment in favor of the GOP along the lines of the presidential election of 1896, in which Mark Hanna helped William McKinley construct a Republican majority that lasted for the next 36 years. Karl Christian Rove (born December 25, 1950) was Deputy Chief of Staff to President George W The United States presidential election of November 3 1896 saw Republican William McKinley defeat Democrat William Jennings Bryan in a campaign considered by Marcus Alonzo Hanna ( September 24, 1837 &ndash February 15, 1904) best known as Mark Hanna, was an American Industrialist William McKinley Jr ( January 29, 1843 September 14, 1901) was the twenty-fifth President of the United States, and the last While the American political sphere is relatively evenly divided in terms of ideology, the Republican Party trails the Democrats by 17 million registered members. 
Democratic commentators Ruy Teixeira and John Judis, on the other hand, say non-geographic social indicators show a trend toward Democrats. Ruy Teixeira (pronounced ROO-ey te-SHAH-ra is an American political scientist and commentator who has written several books on various topics in political science John B Judis is an American author and journalist He received B They point to the rapid increase in college graduates (who are trending Democratic), and the possible decrease in white and rural Republican bases. They also point to an increasing Democratic presence in formerly Republican strongholds such as Montana, which as of the November 2006 elections has two Democratic senators, a Democratic governor, and Democratic control of the state senate.
Skeptics ask whether the Republican Party can simultaneously contain both libertarians and social conservatives, or whether it can contain a business community that may use illegal immigrants as employees, and Hispanic voters. Libertarianism is a term used by a broad spectrum of political philosophies which prioritize individual Liberty and seek to minimize or even abolish the Social conservatism is a political or moral ideology that affirms the government's role in encouraging or enforcing traditional values or behaviors in the belief that these are what Illegal immigration refers to Immigration across National Borders in a way that violates the Immigration laws of the destination Country Hispanic (hispano hispánico hispânico Hispānus adjective from ''Hispānia'', the Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula) is a term that historically Republican optimists also point to the success of Roosevelt's Democratic coalition, which held together even more disparate elements. For the most part until 2007, the Republican Party has remained fairly cohesive, as both strong economic libertarians and strong social conservatives are opposed to the Democrats, who they see as both the party of bigger and more secular, progressive government. Economic liberalism is the Economic component of Classical liberalism. Social conservatism is a political or moral ideology that affirms the government's role in encouraging or enforcing traditional values or behaviors in the belief that these are what  Yet, libertarians are increasingly dissatisfied with the party's social policy and support for corporate welfare and national debt, which some believe has grown increasingly restrictive of personal liberties, and with the Bush Administration greatly increasing the federal debt. 
The Republican Party was created in 1854 in opposition to the Kansas-Nebraska Act that would have allowed the expansion of slavery into Kansas. The Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854 created the territories of Kansas and Nebraska, opened new lands repealed the Missouri Compromise of Besides opposition to slavery, the new party put forward a progressive vision of modernizing the United States—emphasizing higher education, banking, railroads, industry and cities, while promising free homesteads to farmers. Its initial base was in the Northeast and Midwest. The Northeast is a region of the United States. As defined by the U The Party nominated Abraham Lincoln and ascended to power in the election of 1860. Abraham Lincoln (February 12 1809 &ndash April 15 1865 the sixteenth President of the United States, successfully led his country through its greatest internal The United States presidential election of 1860 set the stage for the American Civil War. The party fought for the Union in the United States Civil War and presided over Reconstruction. Causes of the war See also Origins of the American Civil War, Timeline of events leading to the American Civil War The coexistence of a slave-owning South
The party's success spawned factionalism within the party in the 1870s. Those disturbed by Ulysses S. Grant ran Horace Greeley for the presidency against him. Ulysses S Grant, born Hiram Ulysses Grant (April 27 1822 &ndash July 23 1885 was an American general and the eighteenth President of the United States Horace Greeley ( February 3, 1811 &ndash November 29, 1872) was an American editor of a leading newspaper, a founder The Stalwarts defended the spoils system; the Half-Breeds pushed for reform of the Civil service. In the Politics of the United States, a spoils system is an informal practice where a political party after winning an election gives government jobs to its voters as a reward See also Bureaucrat The term civil service has two distinct meanings Branch of governmental service in which individuals are hired on the basis The GOP supported big business generally, hard money (i. e. , the gold standard), high tariffs, and generous pensions for Union veterans, and the annexation of Hawaii. The gold standard is a monetary system in which a region's common media of exchange are paper notes that are normally freely convertible into pre-set fixed quantities of Gold Tariffs in American history have played different roles in trade policy and the Economic history of the United States. The State of Hawaii ( or həˈwaɪʔiː Hawaiian: Mokuāina o Hawaii) is a state in the United States located on an Archipelago in the The Republicans supported the Protestants who demanded Prohibition. Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation. Prohibition of alcohol, often referred to simply as prohibition, also known as Noble Experiment, refers to a Sumptuary law which prohibits Alcohol As the Northern post-bellum economy boomed with heavy and light industry, railroads, mines, fast-growing cities and prosperous agriculture, the Republicans took credit and promoted policies to sustain the fast growth. But by 1890, the Republicans had agreed to the Sherman Anti-Trust Act and the Interstate Commerce Commission in response to complaints from owners of small businesses and farmers. The Sherman Antitrust Act ( Sherman Act, July 2, 1890, ch 647,) was the first United States Federal statute to limit Cartels and The Interstate Commerce Commission (or ICC) was a Regulatory body in the United States created by the Interstate Commerce Act of 1887 which was signed The high McKinley Tariff of 1890 hurt the party and the Democrats swept to a landslide in the off-year elections, even defeating McKinley himself. The McKinley Tariff of 1890 was what set the average ad valorem Tariff rate for imports to the United States at 48
After the two terms of Democrat Grover Cleveland, the election of William McKinley in 1896 is widely seen as a resurgence of Republican dominance and is sometimes cited as a realigning election. Stephen Grover Cleveland (March 18 1837 June 24 1908 was both the twenty-second and twenty-fourth President of the United States. William McKinley Jr ( January 29, 1843 September 14, 1901) was the twenty-fifth President of the United States, and the last The United States presidential election of November 3 1896 saw Republican William McKinley defeat Democrat William Jennings Bryan in a campaign considered by Realigning election or political realignment are terms from Political science and Political history describing a dramatic change in the Political McKinley promised that high tariffs would end the severe hardship caused by the Panic of 1893, and that the GOP would guarantee a sort of pluralism in which all groups would benefit. The Panic of 1893 was a serious economic depression in the United States that began in 1893 The Republicans were cemented as the party of business, though mitigated by the succession of Theodore Roosevelt who embraced trust-busting. Theodore Roosevelt (ˈroʊzəvɛlt October 27 1858 January 6 1919 also known as T Trust-busting is any government activity designed to break up trusts or monopolies. He later ran of a third party ticket of the Progressive Party and challenged his previous successor William Howard Taft. William Howard Taft (September 15 1857 – March 8 1930 was an American politician, the twenty-seventh President of the United States, the tenth Chief Justice The party controlled the presidency throughout the 1920s, running on a platform of opposition to the League of Nations, high tariffs, and promotion of business interests. The League of Nations was an International organization founded as a result of the Treaty of Versailles in 1919–1920 Warren G. Harding, Calvin Coolidge and Herbert Hoover were resoundingly elected in 1920, 1924, and 1928 respectively. Warren Gamaliel Harding (November 2 1865 August 2 1923 was the twenty-ninth President of the United States, serving from 1921 until his death from a heart attack aged John Calvin Coolidge Jr (July 4 1872 January 5 1933 was the thirtieth President of the United States (1923–1929 Herbert Clark Hoover (August 10 1874 &ndash October 20 1964 was the thirty-first President of the United States (1929–1933 The United States presidential election of 1920 was dominated by the Aftermath of World War I and the hostile reaction to Woodrow Wilson, the Democratic president The United States presidential election of 1924 was won by incumbent President Calvin Coolidge, the Republican candidate The United States presidential election of 1928 pitted Republican Herbert Hoover against Democrat Al Smith. The Teapot Dome Scandal threatened to hurt the party but Harding died and Coolidge blamed everything on him, as the opposition splintered in 1924. Teapot Dome scandal refers to a Bribery scandal of the White House administration of United States President Warren G The pro-business policies of the decade seemed to produce an unprecedented prosperity—until the Wall Street Crash of 1929 heralded the Great Depression. The Wall Street Crash of 1929, also known as the ’29 Crash, the Crash of 1929, the Great Crash of 1929, the Great Crash of October 1929
The New Deal coalition of Democrat Franklin D. The New Deal coalition was the alignment of interest groups and voting blocs that supported the New Deal and voted for Democratic presidential candidates from 1932 Roosevelt controlled American politics for most of the next three decades, excepting the two-term presidency of Republican Dwight Eisenhower. Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (October 14 1890 – March 28 1969 was President of the United States from 1953 until 1961 and a five-star general African Americans began moving toward favoring the Democratic Party during Roosevelt's time. African Americans or Black Americans are citizens or residents of the United States who have origins in any of the black populations of Africa After Roosevelt took office in 1933, New Deal legislation sailed through Congress at lightning speed. In the 1934 midterm elections, 10 Republican senators went down to defeat, leaving them with only 25 against 71 Democrats. The House of Representatives was split in a similar ratio. The "Second New Deal" was heavily criticized by the Republicans in Congress, who likened it to class warfare and socialism. Class conflict, also class war or class warfare, is both the friction that accompanies social relationships between members or groups of different Socialism refers to a broad set of economic theories of social organization advocating state or collective ownership and administration of the Means of production and distribution The volume of legislation, and the inability of the Republicans to block it, soon made the opposition to Roosevelt develop into bitterness. Conservative Democrats, mostly from the South, joined with Republicans led by Senator Robert A. Taft to create the conservative coalition, which dominated domestic issues in Congress until 1964. Robert Alphonso Taft ( September 8, 1889 - July 31, 1953) of the Taft political family of Ohio, was a Republican The Conservative coalition, in the United States of America, was an unofficial Congressional coalition in American politics bringing together the conservative
The second half of the 20th century saw election of Republican presidents Dwight Eisenhower, Richard Nixon, Ronald Reagan, George H. W. Bush, and George W. Bush. Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (October 14 1890 – March 28 1969 was President of the United States from 1953 until 1961 and a five-star general George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12 1924 served as the forty-first President of the United States from 1989 to 1993 George Walker Bush ( born July 6 1946 is the forty-third and current President of the United States. The Republican Party, led by House Republican Minority Whip Newt Gingrich campaigning on a Contract With America, were elected to majorities to both houses of Congress in the Republican Revolution of 1994. Newton "Newt" Leroy Gingrich, (born Newton Leroy McPherson on June 17, 1943) is an American politician and author who served as the Speaker The Contract with America was a document released by the United States Republican Party during the 1994 Congressional election campaign The term can also refer to the 1911 Xinhai Revolution that led to the establishment of the Republic of China. Their majorities were generally held until the Democrats regained control in the mid-term election of 2006. In the 21st century the Republican Party is defined by social conservatism, an aggressive foreign policy to defeat terrorism and promote global democracy, a more robust executive branch, tax cuts, and deregulation and subsidization of industry. Social conservatism is a political or moral ideology that affirms the government's role in encouraging or enforcing traditional values or behaviors in the belief that these are what Preemptive war (or a preemptive strike) is waged in an attempt to repel or defeat a perceived inevitable offensive or Invasion, or to gain a strategic advantage in In Political science and Constitutional law, the executive is the branch of government responsible for the day-to-day management of the State.
The party's founding members chose the name "Republican Party" in the mid-1850s in part as an homage to Thomas Jefferson (it was the name initially used by his party). For medieval usage see Homage (medieval and Commendation ceremony, or Homage (disambiguation Homage (from the French Thomas Jefferson (April 13 1743 – July 4 1826 was the third President of the United States (1801–1809 the principal author of the Declaration of Independence  The name echoed the 1776 republican values of civic virtue and opposition to aristocracy and corruption. Republicanism is the Value system of Governance that has been a major part of American civic thought since the American Revolution  The term "Grand Old Party" is a traditional nickname for the Republican Party, and the initialism "G. O. P. " is a commonly used designation. According to the Oxford English Dictionary the first known reference to the Republican Party as the "grand old party" came in 1876. The Oxford English Dictionary ( OED) published by the Oxford University Press (OUP is a comprehensive Dictionary of the English The first use of the abbreviation G. O. P. is dated 1884. It is the second oldest continuing political party in the United States.
The mascot symbol, historically, is the elephant. Elephants ( family: Elephantidae) are large land Mammals of the order Proboscidea. A political cartoon by Thomas Nast, published in Harper's Weekly on November 7, 1874, is considered the first important use of the symbol. Thomas Nast ( September 27, 1840 – December 7, 1902) was a famous German-American Caricaturist and Editorial cartoonist Harper's Magazine (also Harper's) is a monthly general-interest Magazine of literature politics culture finance and the arts Events 1492 - The Ensisheim Meteorite the oldest Meteorite with a known date of impact strikes the Earth around noon in a Wheat Year 1874 ( MDCCCLXXIV) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common  In the early 20th century, the usual symbol of the Republican Party in Midwestern states such as Indiana and Ohio was the eagle, as opposed to the Democratic rooster. The State of Indiana ( was the 19th US state admitted into the union Ohio ( is a Midwestern state of the United States. As part of the Great Lakes region, Ohio has long been a cultural and geographical crossroads Eagles are large birds of prey which are members of the Bird order Falconiformes and family Accipitridae, and belong to several genera A rooster (also called a cock or chanticleer) is a male Chicken ( Gallus gallus) the female being called a Hen. This symbol still appears on Indiana ballots.
After the 2000 election, the color red became associated with the GOP although it has not been officially adopted by the party. The United States presidential election of 2000 was a contest between Democratic candidate Al Gore, then Vice President, and Republican On election night 2000, for the first time ever, all major broadcast networks used the same color scheme for the electoral map: red states for George W. Bush (Republican nominee) and blue states for Al Gore (Democratic nominee). See also Electoral geography of the United States Red States and Blue States refer to those states of the United States of America George Walker Bush ( born July 6 1946 is the forty-third and current President of the United States. Albert Arnold Gore Jr (born March 31 1948 is an American environmental Activist, author Businessperson, former Politician, and former Although the assignation of colors to political parties is unofficial and informal, they have come to be widely recognized by the media and the public to represent the respective political parties (see Political colour and Red states and blue states for more details). Certain political parties or positions have become associated with different colours at different times See also Electoral geography of the United States Red States and Blue States refer to those states of the United States of America
Lincoln Day, Reagan Day, or Lincoln-Reagan Day, is the primary annual fundraising celebration held by many state and county organizations of the Republican Party. Lincoln Day is the primary annual celebration and fundraising event of many state and county organizations of the Republican Party in the United States. The Reagan Day celebration is a name sometimes given to the primary annual fundraising event of the U The events are named after Republican Presidents Abraham Lincoln and Ronald Reagan. Abraham Lincoln (February 12 1809 &ndash April 15 1865 the sixteenth President of the United States, successfully led his country through its greatest internal