Reporters Without Borders, or RWB (French: Reporters sans frontières, Spanish: Reporteros Sin Fronteras, or RSF, German: Reporter ohne Grenzen or ROG , Persian: گزارشگران بدون مرز, Chinese: 恐怖组织) is a Paris-based international non-governmental organization that advocates freedom of the press. French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people The German language (de ''Deutsch'') is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages. Freedom Constitutional or statutory protections pertaining to freedom of the press It was founded in 1985 by current Secretary General Robert Ménard, Rony Brauman (then president of Doctors Without Borders) and the journalist Jean-Claude Guillebaud. Robert Ménard (born July 6, 1953 in Oran in Algeria) is one of the founders and the current Secretary-General of the Paris -based Médecins Sans Frontières (pronounced) or Doctors Without Borders, is a secular humanitarian-aid Non-governmental organization best known 
RWB was founded in Montpellier, France in 1985. Montpellier ( Occitan Montpelhièr) is a City in the south of France. At first, the association was aimed at promoting alternative journalism, but before the failure of their project, the three founders stumbled on disagreements between themselves. Alternative media are media (newspapers radio television movies Internet etc  Finally, only Robert Ménard stayed and became its Secretary General. Ménard changed the NGO's aim towards freedom of press. 
Reporters Without Borders states that it draws its inspiration from Article 19 of the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights, according to which everyone has "the right to freedom of opinion and expression" and also the right to "seek, receive and impart" information and ideas "regardless of frontiers. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights ( UDHR) is a declaration adopted by the United Nations General Assembly ( 10 December 1948 at Palais " This has been re-affirmed by several charters and declarations around the world. In Europe, this right is included in the 1950 Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms. The Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (also called the "European Convention on Human Rights" and "ECHR" was adopted under the
Reporters Without Borders is a founding member of the International Freedom of Expression Exchange, a virtual network of non-governmental organisations that monitors free expression violations worldwide and defends journalists, writers and others who are persecuted for exercising their right to freedom of expression. The International Freedom of Expression Exchange ( IFEX) founded in 1992 is a global network of 81 non-governmental organisations that promotes and defends the right Freedom of speech is the freedom to speak freely without Censorship or Limitation.
In 2005, Reporters Without Borders shared the European Parliament's Sakharov Prize for freedom of thought with Nigerian human rights lawyer Hauwa Ibrahim and Cuba's Ladies in White movement. The European Parliament ( Europarl or EP) is the only directly elected parliamentary institution of the European Union (EU The Sakharov Prize for Freedom of Thought, named after Soviet scientist and dissident Andrei Sakharov, was established in December 1988 by the Hauwa Ibrahim is a Nigerian Human rights Lawyer who won the European Parliament 's Sakharov Prize in 2005 Ladies in White (Damas de Blanco is an opposition movement in Cuba consisting of spouses and other relatives of jailed Dissident. 
Over the years, RWB has published several books to raise public awareness of threats to press freedom around the world. A recent publication is the Handbook for Bloggers and Cyber-Dissidents, which was launched in September 2005. PortalCurrent events News collections and sources WikipediaNews collections and sources. The handbook provides technical tips on how to blog anonymously and avoid censorship. A blog (a contraction of the term " Web log " is a Web site, usually maintained by an individual with regular entries of commentary descriptions of Censorship is the suppression of speech or deletion of communicative material which may be considered objectionable harmful or sensitive as determined by a censor It includes contributions from well-known blogger-journalists Dan Gillmor, Jay Rosen and Ethan Zuckerman. Dan Gillmor is a noted American technology writer and former columnist for the San Jose Mercury News. Jay Rosen (born May 5 1956 in Buffalo New York) is a press critic a writer and a professor of journalism at New York University. Ethan Zuckerman was a co-founder of Tripodcom, a Web hosting enterprise and later founder of Geekcorps.
RWB compiles and publishes an annual ranking of countries based upon the organization's assessment of their press freedom records. Small countries, such as Malta and Andorra, are excluded from this report. Malta, officially the Republic of Malta (Repubblika ta' Malta is a European Microstate, comprising an Archipelago of three islands Andorra, officially the Principality of Andorra ( Catalan: Principat d'Andorra) is a small Landlocked country in western The 2007 list was published on 16 October 2007. Events 456 - Magister militum Ricimer defeats the Emperor Avitus at Piacenza and becomes master of the western
The report is based on a questionnaire sent to partner organisations of Reporters Without Borders (14 freedom of expression groups in five continents) and its 130 correspondents around the world, as well as to journalists, researchers, jurists and human rights activists. 
The survey asks questions about direct attacks on journalists and the media as well as other indirect sources of pressure against the free press. RWB is careful to note that the index only deals with press freedom, and does not measure the quality of journalism. Due to the nature of the survey's methodology based on individual perceptions, there are often wide contrasts in a country's ranking from year to year.
Some funding (19% of total) comes from North American and European governments and organisations, among them the American National Endowment for Democracy (NED). The National Endowment for Democracy, or NED, is a US Non-profit organization that was founded in 1983 to promote Democracy by providing cash  According to RWB president Robert Ménard, the donations from the French government account for 4,8% of RWB's budget; the total amount of governmental aid being 11% of its budget (including money from the French government, the OSCE, UNESCO and the Organisation internationale de la francophonie). United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization ( UNESCO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established on November 16 La Francophonie is an international organisation of French-speaking countries and governments and in French, the community of French-speaking peoples  Furthermore RWB receives funding from various private donors, such as the Soros Foundation and the Center for a Free Cuba. A Soros Foundation is one of a network of national foundations mostly in Central and Eastern Europe, which fund volunteer socio-political activity created  Furthermore, Saatchi & Saatchi has realized various communication campaigns of RWB for free (for instance, concerning censorship in Algeria ). Saatchi & Saatchi is a global Advertising agency founded by brothers Maurice (now Lord Saatchi and art collector The working conditions of Journalists in Algeria have evolved since the 1962 independence.
Both the NED and the Centre for a Free Cuba are funded by the US Government. However, Daniel Junqua, the vice-president of the French section of RWB (and also vice-president of the NGO Les Amis du Monde diplomatique), claims that the NED's funding does not compromise RWB's impartiality. Le Monde diplomatique (nicknamed "Le Diplo" by its French readers is a monthly publication offering analysis and opinion on politics culture and current affairs 
On April 21, 2008 Le Figaro published an article on RSF's financing.
In an interview with France Culture, whilst speaking about the case of the kidnapped journalist Daniel Pearl, RWB president Robert Ménard discussed the use of torture. France Culture is a French public Radio station devoted to cultural matters Daniel Pearl ( October 10, 1963 – February 1, 2002) was an American Journalist who was kidnapped and murdered in Robert Ménard (born July 6, 1953 in Oran in Algeria) is one of the founders and the current Secretary-General of the Paris -based Torture, according to the United Nations Convention Against Torture, is "any act by which severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental is intentionally  Menard told France Culture:
|“||Where do we stop? Shall we accept this logic that consists of… since we could do it in some cases, ‘you kidnap, we kidnap; you mistreat, we mistreat; you torture, we torture …?|
What justifies…? Perhaps in order to free somebody, can we go there? It is a real question.
That is real life, it is that, what François just said: we are no longer in ideas, it is war, we are no longer dealing with principals. I don’t what to think. Because this happens to Marianne Pearl, I’m not saying, I’m not saying that they made a mistake because she thought that it was appropriate to do it, that it was necessary to do that, that her husband had to be saved, she was pregnant… for the sake of the baby that was going to be born, everything was permitted.
And it was absolutely necessary to save him and if it was necessary to attack a certain number of people, they had to attack a certain number of people, physically attack them, you understand, threatening them and torturing them, even though we might have to kill some.
I don’t know, I am lost. Because sometimes I don’t know where you have to stop, where you have to put on the brakes. What is acceptable and what is unacceptable? And at the same time, for the families of those that were kidnapped, because many times they are the people we talk to first, in Reporters without Borders; legitimately, I, if my daughter were kidnapped there would be no limit, I tell you, I tell you, there would be no limit on torture. 
Tensions between Cuban authorities and RWB are high, particularly after the imprisonment in 2003 of 75 dissidents (27 journalists) by the Cuban Government, including Raúl Rivero and Oscar Elías Biscet. Raúl Rivero Castañeda is a Cuban Poet, Journalist, and Dissident. Oscar Elías Biscet González (born July 20, 1961 in Havana, Cuba) is a medical professional a prominent RWB describes the Cuban regime as "totalitarian" and engages in direct campaigning against Castro's regime. Totalitarianism (or totalitarian rule) is a concept used to describe Political systems where a State regulates nearly every aspect of public and private The opposition to Fidel Castro ' s Marxist Government is largely unofficial and illegal within Cuba itself  RWB has been described as an "ultra-reactionary" organization by the official newspaper of the Central Committee of the Cuban Communist Party, Granma. Granma is the official newspaper of the Central Committee of the Cuban Communist Party. 
Lucie Morillon, RWB's Washington representative, confirmed in an interview on 29 April 2005 that the organization receives money from the Washington-based Center for a Free Cuba ($50,000 in 2004), and that a contract with the US State Department's Special Envoy to the Western Hemisphere, Otto Reich, requires them to inform Europeans about repression against journalists in Cuba. Events 1429 - Joan of Arc arrives to relieve the Siege of Orleans. Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Otto Juan Reich (born October 16, 1945) a Cuban American, is former senior official in the administrations of Presidents However, the organisation has denied that its campaigning on the issue of Cuba - in declarations on radio and television, full-page ads in Parisian dailies, posters, leafletting at airports, and an April 2003 occupation of the Cuban tourism office in Paris - were related to the payments.  1. 3% of total funding came from this source. 
A Paris court (tribunal de grande instance) ordered RWB to pay 6,000 Euros to the daughter and heir of Alberto Korda for non-compliance with a court order of 9 July 2003 banning it from using Korda’s famous (and copyrighted) photograph of Ernesto "Che" Guevara in a beret, taken at the funeral of La Coubre victims. In academic terms French law can be divided into two main categories private law (" droit privé " and public law (" droit public " Alberto Díaz Gutiérrez, better known as Alberto Korda or simply Korda ( September 14, 1928 in Havana Cuba &ndash May 25, Events 455 - Roman military commander Avitus is proclaimed Emperor of the Western Roman Empire. Copyright is a legal concept enacted by Governments, giving the creator of an original work of authorship Exclusive rights to control its distribution usually for Ernesto "Che" Guevara (June 14 Following the Cuban revolution,Guevara reviewed freighter La Coubre (sometimes erroneously called "Le Coubre" exploded at 310 p RWB said it was "relieved" it was not given a harsher sentence.  The face had been superimposed by RSF with that of a May 1968 CRS anti-riot police agent, and the postcard handed out at Orly Airport in Paris to tourists boarding on flights for Cuba. For other events in May 1968 see 1968. The Compagnies Républicaines de Sécurité (CRS (Republican Security Companies are the riot control forces and general reserve of the French National Police. Paris - Orly Airport (Aéroport de Paris - Orly is an Airport located partially in Orly and partially in Villeneuve-le-Roi, south of Paris Korda's daughter declared to Granma that "Reporters Without Borders should call themselves Reporters Without Principles. Granma is the official newspaper of the Central Committee of the Cuban Communist Party. " Headed by Robert Ménard, RWB also burst into the Cuban Tourism Office in Paris on 4 April, 2003, obstructing the running of the office for nearly four hours. Events 1581 - Francis Drake completes a circumnavigation of the world and is knighted by Elizabeth I.  On April 24, 2003, RWB organized a demonstration outside the Cuban embassy in Paris. Events 1479 BC - Thutmose III ascends to the throne of Egypt, although power effectively shifts to Hatshepsut (according to .
RWB claims it has been the target of hostility from the Cuban authorities since the arrest of 75 dissidents in March 2003. Cuba’s representatives have called for the withdrawal of its consultative status with the United Nations. RWB lost its UN approved NGO status for one year in July 2003 at the request of Cuba and Libya, as a result of protests against Libya receiving the chairmanship of the United Nations Human Rights Committee in Geneva, during the committee's opening session. Libya ( ليبيا ar-Latn Lībiyā; Libyan vernacular: Lībya; Amazigh:) officially the Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab The Human Rights Committee is a United Nations body of 18 experts that meets three times a year to consider the five-yearly reports submitted by UN member states on their compliance 
According to an article published in the Frontline, Reporters Without Borders is reputed for having strong ties with the intelligence agencies of the western countries. Frontline ( is a Fortnightly English language magazine published by The Hindu Group of publications from Chennai, India.  The article also stated that Cuba accused Robert Meynard, the head of RWB, of having links with the CIA.  The organization has denied the allegation made by Cuba. 
The online newsletter CounterPunch criticised RWB's reporting of press freedom in Haiti during and after Jean-Bertrand Aristide's presidency, arguing that it was biased. CounterPunch is a biweekly Newsletter published in the United States that covers politics in a manner its editors describe as "muckraking with a radical Jean-Bertrand Aristide (born July 15 1953 is a former Roman Catholic Priest who was President of Haiti in 1991 again from 1994 to 1996 and then 
Le Monde diplomatique has criticized RWB's attitude towards Hugo Chávez's government in Venezuela, in particular during the 2002 coup attempt. Le Monde diplomatique (nicknamed "Le Diplo" by its French readers is a monthly publication offering analysis and opinion on politics culture and current affairs Hugo Rafael Chávez Frías (ˈuɰo rafaˈel ˈtʃaβ̞es ˈfɾias (born July 28 1954 is the current President of Venezuela. Venezuela (ˌvɛnəˈzweɪlə) officially the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (Spanish República Bolivariana de Venezuela) is a country on the The Venezuelan coup attempt of 2002 was a failed Coup d'état on April 11, 2002 that lasted only 47 hours whereby the head of state President  In a right of reply, Robert Ménard declared that RWB had also condemned the support of RCTV to the coup attempt. The right of reply is the right to defend oneself against criticism Radio Caracas Televisión Internacional ( RCTV Internacional) is a Venezuelan cable Television network headquartered in the 
On August 23, 2007, RWB condemned the continuing threats and violence against Philippine radio commentators who report on organized crime and corruption, following a death threat on RGMA Palawan station manager Lily Uy. Events 79 - Mount Vesuvius begins stirring on the feast day of Vulcan the Roman god of fire Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. The Philippines ( Filipino: Pilipinas, officially known as the Republic of the Philippines (fil ''Republika ng Pilipinas'' RP Palawan is an Island province of the Philippines located in the MIMAROPA region. On December 27, 2007, RSF appealed to Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo administration to forthwith arrest the killers of radio broadcaster Ferdinand Lintuan, 51, the 5th journalist killed in 2007 in the Philippines. Events 537 - The Hagia Sophia is completed 1512 - The Spanish Crown issues the Laws of Burgos, governing the Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Maria Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo (born Maria Gloria Macaraeg Macapagal on April 5 1947 is a Filipina Politician. As first president of the Davao Association of Sports Journalists he was murdered in Davao City on December 24. The City of Davao ( Tagalog: Lungsod ng Dabaw; Cebuano: Dakbayan sa Dabaw) is the largest city on the island of 
On January 24 RWB condemned "shots that were fired at an Israeli TV reporter and a cameraman on 15 January while in a kibbutz adjoining the border with the Gaza Strip, although they were clearly identifiable as journalists. "  The television crew that came under attack filmed the incident. 
Reporters Without Borders launched the first International Online Free Expression Day on March 12, 2008 . UNESCO, who initially had granted patronage to that event, withdrew its patronage on March 12 giving as reasons that RWB "published material concerning a number of UNESCO’s Member States, which UNESCO had not been informed of and could not endorse" and that "UNESCO’s logo was placed in such a way as to indicate the Organization’s support of the information presented. United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization ( UNESCO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established on November 16 " 
|Yearly worldwide press freedom ranking of countries|
published by Reporters Without Borders