The Renaissance of the 12th century was a period of many changes during the High Middle Ages. The High Middle Ages was the period of European history in the 11th 12th and 13th centuries (AD 1000&ndash1299 It included social, political and economic transformations, and an intellectual revitalization of Europe with strong philosophical and scientific roots. Definition In the absence of agreement about its meaning the term "social" is used in many different senses referring among other things to attitudes Politics Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions An economy is the realized social system of production exchange distribution and consumption of goods and services of a country or other area Philosophy is the study of general problems concerning matters such as existence knowledge truth beauty justice validity mind and language Science (from the Latin scientia, meaning " Knowledge " or "knowing" is the effort to discover, and increase human understanding These changes paved the way to later achievements such as the literary and artistic movement of the Italian Renaissance in the 15th century and the scientific developments of the 17th century. The Italian Renaissance began the opening phase of the Renaissance, a period of great cultural change and achievement in Europe that spanned the period from the end of the 14th The period which many historians of science call the Scientific Revolution can be roughly dated as having begun in 1543 the year in which Nicolaus Copernicus published
Charles H. Haskins, was the first historian to write extensively about a renaissance that ushered in the High Middle Ages starting about 1070. Charles Homer Haskins (1870-1937 was an American historian of the Middle Ages, and advisor to US President Woodrow Wilson. The High Middle Ages was the period of European history in the 11th 12th and 13th centuries (AD 1000&ndash1299 In 1927, he wrote that:
[the 12th century in Europe] was in many respects an age of fresh and vigorous life. The epoch of the Crusades, of the rise of towns, and of the earliest bureaucratic states of the West, it saw the culmination of Romanesque art and the beginnings of Gothic; the emergence of the vernacular literatures; the revival of the Latin classics and of Latin poetry and Roman law; the recovery of Greek science, with its Arabic additions, and of much of Greek philosophy; and the origin of the first European universities. The Crusades were a series of military campaigns of a religious character waged by much of Christian Europe against external and internal opponents Communes in Europe in the Middle Ages were sworn allegiances of mutual defense (both physical defense and of traditional freedoms among community members of a town or city For the online game see Jennifer Government NationStates. The nation-state is a certain form of State that derives its legitimacy Romanesque art refers to the art of Western Europe from approximately 1000 AD to the rise of the Gothic style in the 13th century or later depending on region This article is about Gothic art See also Gothic architecture Gothic art was a Medieval art movement that lasted about 200 Vernacular literature is Literature written in the Vernacular - the speech of the "common people" "Classical literature" redirects here For literature in Classical languages outside the Graeco-Roman sphere see Ancient literature. Roman law is the legal system of Ancient Rome. As used in the West the term commonly refers to legal developments prior to the Roman/Byzantine state's adopting The Renaissance of the 12th century saw a major search by European scholars for new learning which led them to the Arabic fringes of Europe especially to Islamic The history of science and technology ( HST) is a field of History which examines how humanity's understanding of the natural world ( Science Ancient Greek philosophy focused on the role of Reason and Inquiry. This article is about Western European institutions See also Medieval university (Asia and Byzantine university Medieval university The twelfth century left its signature on higher education, on the scholastic philosophy, on European systems of law, on architecture and sculpture, on the liturgical drama, on Latin and vernacular poetry. Scholasticism was the dominant form of theology and philosophy in the Latin West in the Middle Ages, particularly in the 12th 13th and 14th centuries Liturgical drama or religious drama, in its various Christian contexts originates from the mass itself and usually presents a relatively complex ritual that includes . . 
In Northern Europe, the Hanseatic League was founded in the 12th century, with the foundation of the city of Lübeck in 1158–1159. The Hanseatic League (also known as the Hansa) was an alliance of trading cities and their Guilds that established and maintained trade Lübeck ( is the second largest City in Schleswig-Holstein, in Northern Germany, and one of the major Many northern cities of the Holy Roman Empire became hanseatic cities, including Hamburg, Stettin, Bremen and Rostock. Hamburg (English, German: ˈhambʊɐk local pronunciation Low German / Low Saxon: Hamborg) is the second-largest city in Germany Bremen (ˈbʁeːmən is a Hanseatic city in northwestern Germany (official name Stadtgemeinde Bremen / City Municipality of Bremen Rostock (ˈʁɔstɔk from Polabian Roz toc, literally "to flow apart" is the largest City in the north German state Hanseatic cities outside the Holy Roman Empire were, for instance, Bruges and the Polish city of Danzig (Gdańsk). Bruges (Brugge is the capital and largest city of the province of West Flanders in the Flemish Region of Belgium. Gdańsk ( Polish pronunciation; 'Danzig', Gduńsk Gedania Dantiscum is the City at the centre of the fourth-largest Metropolitan area in Poland In Bergen, Norway and Novgorod, Russia the league had factories and middlemen. is the second largest city in Norway. It is located on the south-western coast of Norway in the county of Hordaland in between a group of mountains known as De syv fjell Veliky Novgorod (Вели́кий Но́вгород is the foremost historic city of North-Western Russia and the administrative center of Novgorod In this period the Germans started colonising Eastern Europe beyond the Empire, into Prussia and Silesia. Prussia ( Latin: Borussia, Prutenia; Prūsija Prūsija Prusy Old Prussian: Prūsa) was most recently a historic state Etymology One theory claims that the name Silesia is derived from the Silingi, who were most likely a Vandalic (East Germanic people
In the late 13th century, a Venetian explorer named Marco Polo became one of the first Europeans to travel the Silk Road to China. Venice ( Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venesia or Venexia) is a city in Northern Italy, the capital of the Marco Polo ( September 15 1254 – January 9 1324 at earliest but no later than June 1325 was a Venetian trader and explorer The Silk Road, or Silk Routes, are an extensive interconnected network of Trade routes across the Asian continent connecting East South and Western Asia with the China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National Westerners became more aware of the Far East when Polo documented his travels in Il Milione. The Travels of Marco Polo is the usual English title of Marco Polo 's travel book nicknamed Il Milione ( The Million He was followed by numerous Christian missionnaries to the East, such as William of Rubruck, Giovanni da Pian del Carpini, Andrew of Longjumeau, Odoric of Pordenone, Giovanni de Marignolli, Giovanni di Monte Corvino, and other travellers such as Niccolò da Conti. William of Rubruck (c 1220 in Rubrouck Flanders - c 1293 was a Flemish Franciscan missionary and explorer Giovanni da Pian del Carpine, or John of Plano Carpini or John of Pian de Carpine or Joannes de Plano (c Andrew of Longjumeau (Original French name André de Longjumeau) was a 13th century Dominican missionary and diplomat and one of the most active Occidental diplomats Odoric of Pordenone (real name Odoric Mattiussi or Mattiuzzi) ( c. Giovanni de' Marignolli, a notable traveller to the Far East in the 14th century born probably before 1290 and sprung from a noble family in Florence. John of Montecorvino, or Giovanni Da/di Montecorvino in Italian also spelled Monte Corvino (1246 Montecorvino, Southern Italy - 1328 Niccolò Da Conti (also Nicolò de' Conti) (1395&ndash1469 was a Venetian merchant and explorer born in Chioggia, who traveled to India and
Philosophical and scientific teaching of the Early Middle Ages was based upon few copies and commentaries of ancient Greek texts that remained in Western Europe after the collapse of the Western Roman Empire. The Early Middle Ages is a period in the History of Europe following the fall of the Western Roman Empire spanning roughly five centuries from AD 500 The Western Roman Empire refers to the western half of the Roman Empire, from its division by Diocletian in 285 the other half of the Roman Empire was the Eastern Much of Europe had lost contact with the knowledge of the past. This scenario changed during the Renaissance of the 12th century. The increased contact with the Islamic world in Spain and Sicily, the Crusades, the Reconquista, as well as increased contact with Byzantium, allowed Europeans to seek and translate the works of Hellenic and Islamic philosophers and scientists, especially the works of Aristotle, Euclid, Ptolemy, Plotinus, Geber, al-Khwarizmi, Rhazes, Abulcasis, Alhacen, Avicenna, Avempace, and Averroes, among others. Al-Andalus (الأندلس was the Arabic name given to those parts of the Iberian Peninsula governed by Muslims or The Islamic conquest and rule of Sicily, Malta, and parts of Southern Italy was a process whose origin can be traced back through the general The Crusades were a series of military campaigns of a religious character waged by much of Christian Europe against external and internal opponents The Reconquista (a Spanish and Portuguese word for "Reconquest" Arabic: الاسترداد, "Recapturing" was a period This article is about the city See also Byzantine Empire. Byzantium ( Greek: Βυζάντιον Latin: la BYZANTIVM The Renaissance of the 12th century saw a major search by European scholars for new learning which led them to the Arabic fringes of Europe especially to Islamic Ancient Greek philosophy focused on the role of Reason and Inquiry. Islamic philosophy is a branch of Islamic studies, and is a longstanding attempt to create harmony between Philosophy ( Reason) and the religious teachings Aristotle (Greek Aristotélēs) (384 BC – 322 BC was a Greek philosopher a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. Euclid ( Greek:.) fl 300 BC also known as Euclid of Alexandria, is often referred to as the Father of Geometry Claudius Ptolemaeus ( Greek: Klaúdios Ptolemaîos; after 83 &ndash ca Plotinus ( Greek:) (ca AD 204–270 was a major philosopher of the ancient world who is widely considered the founder of Neoplatonism (along with his For the 12th century astronomer see Jabir ibn Aflah. For the anonymous 14th century Spanish alchemist see Pseudo-Geber. TemplateInfobox Muslim scholars --> Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas Al-Zahrawi (936 - 1013 (أبو القاسم بن خلف TemplateInfobox Muslim scholars --> ( Arabic: ابو علی، حسن بن حسن بن هيثم Latinized TemplateInfobox Muslim scholars --> ( Persian /ابو علی الحسین ابن عبدالله ابن سینا (born Abū-Bakr Muhammad ibn Yahya ibn al-Sāyigh ( Arabic أبو بكر محمد بن يحيى بن الصائغ known as Ibn Bājjah (ابن باجة was an Andalusian Abū 'l-Walīd Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad ibn Rushd (Arabicأبو الوليد محمد بن احمد بن رشد better known just as Ibn Rushd (ابن رشد and in European The development of medieval universities allowed them to aid materially in the translation and propagation of these texts and started a new infrastructure which was needed for scientific communities. This article is about Western European institutions See also Medieval university (Asia and Byzantine university Medieval university
At the beginning of the 13th century there were reasonably accurate Latin translations of the main works of almost all the intellectually crucial ancient authors, allowing a sound transfer of scientific ideas via both the universities and the monasteries. By then, the natural science contained in these texts began to be extended by notable scholastics such as Robert Grosseteste, Roger Bacon, Albertus Magnus and Duns Scotus. Scholasticism was the dominant form of theology and philosophy in the Latin West in the Middle Ages, particularly in the 12th 13th and 14th centuries Robert Grosseteste (c 1175 &ndash October 9, 1253) English statesman scholastic philosopher, Theologian and Bishop of For the Nova Scotia premier see Roger Bacon (politician. Roger Bacon, O Precursors of the modern scientific method can be seen already in Grosseteste's emphasis on mathematics as a way to understand nature, and in the empirical approach admired by Bacon, particularly in his Opus Majus. Scientific method refers to bodies of Techniques for investigating phenomena The Opus Majus ( Latin for "Greater Work" is the most important work of Roger Bacon.
The first half of the 14th century saw much important scientific work being done, largely within the framework of scholastic commentaries on Aristotle's scientific writings. Scholasticism was the dominant form of theology and philosophy in the Latin West in the Middle Ages, particularly in the 12th 13th and 14th centuries  William of Ockham introduced the principle of parsimony: natural philosophers should not postulate unnecessary entities, so that motion is not a distinct thing but is only the moving object and an intermediary "sensible species" is not needed to transmit an image of an object to the eye. William of Ockham (also Occam, Hockham, or any of several other spellings ˈɒkəm (c Occam's razor (sometimes spelled Ockham's razor) is a principle attributed to the 14th-century English Logician and Franciscan Friar,  Scholars such as Jean Buridan and Nicole Oresme started to reinterpret elements of Aristotle's mechanics. Jean Buridan (in Latin, Johannes Buridanus; ca 1295 &ndash 1358 was a French Priest who sowed the seeds of the Copernican revolution Nicole Oresme, also known as Nicolas Oresme, Nicholas Oresme, or Nicolas d'Oresme (c In particular, Buridan developed the theory that impetus was the cause of the motion of projectiles, which was a precursor of the modern concept of inertia. The vis insita or innate force of matter is a power of resisting by which every body as much as in it lies endeavors to preserve in its present state whether it be of rest or of moving The vis insita or innate force of matter is a power of resisting by which every body as much as in it lies endeavors to preserve in its present state whether it be of rest or of moving  Meanwhile, the Oxford Calculators began to mathematically analyze the kinematics of motion, conducting this analysis without considering the causes of motion. The Oxford Calculators were a group of 14th-century thinkers almost all associated with Merton College, Oxford, who took a strikingly logico-mathematical Kinematics ( Greek κινειν, kinein, to move is a branch of Classical mechanics which describes the motion of objects without 
Even though the devastation brought by the Black Death (mid 14th century) and other disasters sealed a sudden end to the previous period of massive philosophic and scientific development, two centuries later started the European Scientific Revolution, which may also be understood as a resumption of the process of scientific change halted during the crisis of the Late Middle Ages. The Black Death, or the Black Plague, was one of the deadliest Pandemics in human history widely thought to have been caused by a bacterium named Yersinia The period which many historians of science call the Scientific Revolution can be roughly dated as having begun in 1543 the year in which Nicolaus Copernicus published Around the start of the 14th century a series of events began that brought centuries of European prosperity and growth to a halt
During the 12th century in Europe, there was a radical change in the rate of new inventions and innovations in the ways of managing traditional means of production and economic growth. Medieval technology refers to the technology used in medieval Europe, which generally does not include the parts of Europe under Arab rule, such as Islamic In less than a century, there were more inventions developed and applied usefully than in the previous thousand years of human history all over the globe. The period saw major technological advances, including the adoption or invention of printing, gunpowder, spectacles, a better clock, the astrolabe, and greatly improved ships. Technology is a broad concept that deals with a Species ' usage and knowledge of Tools and Crafts and how it affects a species' ability to control and adapt Printing is a process for reproducing text and image typically with ink on Paper using a printing press Gunpowder is a an explosive mixture of Sulfur, Charcoal and Potassium nitrate (also known as saltpetre/saltpeter that burns rapidly producing volumes Glasses, also called eyeglasses or spectacles, are frames bearing lenses worn in front of the Eyes normally for vision correction, Circadian Locomotor Output Cycles Kaput, or Clock is a gene which encodes proteins regulating Circadian rhythm. The astrolabe is a historical Astronomical instrument used by classical astronomers, Navigators A ship /ʃɪp/ is a large vessel that floats on water Ships are generally distinguished from Boats based on size The latter two advances made possible the dawn of the Age of Exploration. The Age of Discovery or Age of Exploration was a period from the early 15th century and continuing into the early 17th century during which Europeans explored
Alfred Crosby described some of this technological revolution in The Measure of Reality : Quantification in Western Europe, 1250-1600 and other major historians of technology have also noted it.
A new method of learning called scholasticism developed in the late 12th century from the rediscovery of the works of Aristotle; the works of medieval Jewish and Muslim philosophers influenced by him, notably Maimonides, Avicenna (see Avicennism) and Averroes (see Averroism); and the Christian philosophers influenced by them, most notably Albertus Magnus, Bonaventure and Abélard. Scholasticism was the dominant form of theology and philosophy in the Latin West in the Middle Ages, particularly in the 12th 13th and 14th centuries Aristotle (Greek Aristotélēs) (384 BC – 322 BC was a Greek philosopher a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. This article covers the influence of Jewish and Islamic philosophy on each other focusing especially on the period from 800-1400 CE Early Islamic philosophy or classical Islamic philosophy is a period of intense philosophical development beginning in the 2nd century AH of the Islamic calendar Moses Maimonides ( March 30 1135 – December 13 1204) also known as the Rambam, was a Rabbi, Physician, and TemplateInfobox Muslim scholars --> ( Persian /ابو علی الحسین ابن عبدالله ابن سینا (born Avicennism ( is a school of Early Islamic philosophy which began during the middle of the Islamic Golden Age. Abū 'l-Walīd Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad ibn Rushd (Arabicأبو الوليد محمد بن احمد بن رشد better known just as Ibn Rushd (ابن رشد and in European Averroism is the term applied to either of two philosophical trends among scholastics in the late 13th century, the first of which was based on the Saint Bonaventure of Bagnoregio (San Bonaventura (1221 &ndash July 15, 1274) born John of Fidanza (Giovanni di Fidanza was the eighth Minister Those who practiced the scholastic method believed in empiricism and supporting Roman Catholic doctrines through secular study, reason, and logic. In Philosophy, empiricism is a theory of Knowledge which asserts that knowledge arises from Experience. They opposed Christian mysticism, and the Platonist-Augustinian beliefs in mind dualism and the view of the world as inherently evil. Christian Mysticism is traditionally practised through the disciplines of Prayer (including oratio meditation and Contemplation In Philosophy of mind, dualism is a set of views about the relationship between mind and matter which begins with the claim that mental phenomena are in some The most famous of the scholastic practitioners was Thomas Aquinas (later declared a "Doctor of the Church"), who led the move away from the Platonic and Augustinian and towards Aristotelianism. Doctor of the Church ( Latin doctor, teacher from Latin docere, to teach is a title given by a variety of Christian Churches to individuals Platonism is the Philosophy of Plato or the name of other philosophical systems considered closely derived from it Using the scholastic method, Aquinas developed a philosophy of mind by writing that the mind was at birth a tabula rasa ("blank slate") that was given the ability to think and recognize forms or ideas through a divine spark. Philosophy of mind is the branch of Philosophy that studies the nature of the Mind, Mental events Mental functions mental properties MIND ( Moving In New Directions) (est 1975 is an alternative education high school in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Tabula rasa ( Latin: blank slate) refers to the epistemological thesis that individual human beings are born with no built-in mental content Other notable scholastics included Roscelin, Peter Abelard, and Peter Lombard. Roscellinus, also called Roscelin of Compiègne or in Latin Roscellinus Compendiensis and Rucelinus (c Peter Lombard or Petrus Lombardus; (c 1100 — July 20, 1160 in Paris) was a scholastic theologian and Bishop and author One of the main questions during this time was the problem of the universals. Prominent non-scholastics of the time included Anselm of Canterbury, Peter Damian, Bernard of Clairvaux, and the Victorines. Saint Anselm of Canterbury (1033 &ndash April 21, 1109) was an Italian medieval Philosopher, theologian, and church official Saint Peter Damian, OSB ( Petrus Damiani, also Pietro Damiani or Pier Damiani; c Bernard of Clairvaux, OCist ( 1090 - August 20, 1153) was a French abbot and the primary builder of the reforming Cistercian monastic order