Regulation can be considered as legal restrictions promulgated by government authority. Homeostasis (from Greek: ὅμος hómos, "equal" and ιστημι istēmi, "to stand" lit Law is a system of rules enforced through a set of Institutions used as an instrument to underpin civil obedience politics economics and society For the government of parliamentary systems see Executive (government. One can consider at least two levels in democracies -- legislative acts, and implementing specifications of conduct imposed sanction (as a fine). Punishment is the practice of imposing something unpleasant or aversive on a person or animal usually in response to disobedient or morally wrong behavior FINE was created in 1998 and is an informal association of the four main Fair Trade networks F Fairtrade Labelling Organizations International This administrative law or implementing regulatory law is in contrast to statutory or case law. Administrative law is the body of Law that governs the activities of administrative agencies of Government. A statute is a formal written enactment of a Legislative authority that governs a Country, State, City, or County. Case law' (also known as decisional law or judicial precedent) is that body of reported Judicial opinions in countries that have Common law
Regulation mandated by a state attempts to produce outcomes which might not otherwise occur, produce or prevent outcomes in different places to what might otherwise occur, or produce or prevent outcomes in different timescales than would otherwise occur. A state is a political association with effective Sovereignty over a geographic Area and representing a Population. Common examples of regulation include attempts to control market entries, prices, wages, pollution effects, employment for certain people in certain industries, standards of production for certain goods, the military forces and services. Price in Economics and Business is the result of an exchange and from that trade we assign a numerical Monetary value to a good, A wage is a compensation workers receive in exchange for their labor. Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into an environment that causes instability disorder harm or discomfort to the physical systems or living organisms they are in Employment is a Contract between two parties, one being the employer and the other being the employee. For other uses of this term see Industry (disambiguation An industry (from Latin industrius, "diligent industrious" The economics of imposing or removing regulations relating to markets is analysed in regulatory economics. Economics is the social science that studies the production distribution, and consumption of goods and services. Sao Paulo Stock Exchangejpg|thumb| Virtual market arena where buyer and seller are not present and trade via intemediates and electronical information Regulatory economics is the Economics of Regulation, in the sense of the application of Law by Government
A statute is passed by the legislature. A legislature is a type of representative Deliberative assembly with the power to create amend and change Laws The law created by a legislature is called Legislation A statute can have regulatory intent.
An implementing regulation (in democratic systems using laws as the basis for state action) is adopted by a public administration regulatory agency. Public administration can be broadly described as the development implementation and study of branches of government Policy. In some national venues, there may be further review, as by an Office of Administrative Law (OAL). In countries with well established judicial systems, the regulation will be subject to judicial review, on challenge by a party having standing to bring an action ('standing' is usually interpreted to mean being adversely affected).
A regulation is a form of secondary legislation which is used to implement a primary piece of legislation appropriately, or to take account of particular circumstances or factors emerging during the gradual implementation of, or during the period of, a primary piece of legislation.
Other forms of secondary legislation are statutory instruments, statutory orders, by-laws and rules. Some of these (but not all of them) need to be referred back before being implemented, to the primary legislative process.
Regulations, like any other form of coercive action, have costs for some and benefits for others. Coercion (co-er-shion is the practice of compelling a person or manipulating them to behave in an involuntary way (whether through action or inaction by use of threats Efficient regulations may only be said to exist where the total benefits to some people exceed the total costs to others.
Regulations are justified using a variety of reasons and therefore can be classified in several broad categories:
The second half of the 20th Century saw a wave of attempts to modify some existing regulatory structures and systematize the creation and review of new ones. A part of this was the deregulation movement. Deregulation, a term which gained widespread currency in the period 1970-2000 can be seen as a process by which governments remove reduce or simplify Restrictions on Business
A parallel development with 'deregulation' has been organized, ongoing programs to review regulatory initiatives with a view to minimizing, simplifying, and making more cost effective regulations. Such efforts, given impetus by the Regulatory Flexibility Act of 1980 in the United States, are embodied in the United States Office of Management and Budget's Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, and the United Kingdom's Better Regulation Commission. The Regulatory Flexibility Act is perhaps the most comprehensive effort by the U The Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs ( OIRA) is an office of the United States Government that Congress established in the 1980 Paperwork The Better Regulation Commission is as Non-departmental public body of the British government independent of any government department but under the oversight of Department Cost-benefit analysis is frequently used in such reviews. Cost-benefit analysis is a term that refers both to a formal discipline used to help appraise or assess the case for a Project or proposal which itself is In addition, there have been regulatory innovations, usually suggested by economists, such as emissions trading. Emissions trading (or emission trading) is an administrative approach used to control Pollution by providing economic Incentives for Academic research on wedding economic theory with regulatory activity continues.
From other point of view, liberalization does not always imply deregulation, but more players in the Market (desoligolipolization). An oligopoly is a Market form in which a Market or Industry is dominated by a small number of sellers (oligopolists
An example in Britain is that there is primary, central government legislation covering the operations of local government, such as devolution. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Central government or the national government (or in Federal states the Federal government) is the Government at the level of the Nation-state Legislation (or " Statutory law " is law which has been promulgated (or " Enacted quot by a Legislature or other Governing Local governments are administrative offices that are smaller than a State. Devolution is the statutory granting of powers from the central government of a State to government at subnational level These functions include education, social services, leisure or provision. Education encompasses both the Teaching and Learning of Knowledge, proper conduct, and technical competency Social work is a discipline involving the application of Social theory and research methods to study and improve the lives of people groups and societies Leisure or free time, is a period of Time spent out of work and essential domestic Activity.
In that primary legislation there are provisions to allow local authorities to legislate for themselves, within reason and under proper process, on a range of matters in their areas of responsibility. This allows the law to be effectively applied with appropriate flexibility and taking account of local factors. These are often best known by the local authority concerned.
Regulations also assist the primary legislative process, the national parliament, to avoid the potential bottleneck of the detailed implementation of all the laws it produces in all the varying circumstances throughout the land or throughout the process of their implementation. The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative body in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories
Since 1997, central government has been working to improve regulation by applying new principles of better regulation. The Better Regulation Commission is as Non-departmental public body of the British government independent of any government department but under the oversight of Department
In French law, the difference between statute law, adopted by the legislative branch and regulation is of paramount importance when it comes to adoption, amendment or judicial review. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Statutory law or statute law is written Law (as opposed to oral or Customary law) set down by a Legislature or other governing A legislature is a type of representative Deliberative assembly with the power to create amend and change Laws The law created by a legislature is called Legislation The French constitution reserves a number of topics for statute law; in normal times, the executive branch may take decisions on such matters only if it has been specifically authorized by a statute to do so as secondary legislation through decrees, or if it has been specifically and rarely authorized by the legislative branch to do so as primary legislation through ordinances. The current Constitution of France was adopted on October 4, 1958. In Political science and Constitutional law, the executive is the branch of government responsible for the day-to-day management of the State. A statute is a formal written enactment of a Legislative authority that governs a Country, State, City, or County. Delegated legislation (also referred to as secondary legislation or subordinate legislation) is Law made by an executive authority under powers given to A decree is an order made by a Head of state or government and having the force of Law. Primary legislation is Legislation made by the Legislative branch of Government. The government of France is a Semi-presidential system determined by the French Constitution of the fifth Republic, in which the nation declares On all other matters, the executive branch is solely responsible for issuing primary legislation through decrees. Primary legislation is Legislation made by the Legislative branch of Government. A decree is an order made by a Head of state or government and having the force of Law. Secondary or tertiary legislation may come in the form of arrêtés.
All legislation and regulation issued by the executive, including ordinances not ratified by the legislative branch, is subject to judicial review by the administrative courts, such as the Conseil d'État. A legislature is a type of representative Deliberative assembly with the power to create amend and change Laws The law created by a legislature is called Legislation An administrative court is a Court specializing in administrative issues particularly disputes concerning the exercise of Public power. This article is about the present-day French institution For institutions with the same name during the Ancien Régime in France see Conseil du Roi.
EU regulation has a general scope, and is obligatory in all its elements and directly applicable in all Member States of the European Union. A regulation is a Legislative act of the European Union which becomes immediately enforceable as law in all member states simultaneously A Member State of the European Union is any one of the twenty-seven sovereign Nation states that have acceded the European Union (EU since its De facto Any local laws contrary to the regulation are overruled, as EU Law has supremacy over the laws of the Member States. New legislation enacted by Member states must be consistent with the requirements of EU regulations. For these reasons regulations constitute the most powerful or influential of the EU legislative acts. The Law of the European Union is the unique legal system which operates alongside the laws of Member States of the European Union (EU
Other forms of legislative acts of the European Union (EU) are directives, decisions, recommendations and opinions. The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in A directive is a legislative act of the European Union which requires member states to achieve a particular result without dictating the means of achieving A Decision (defined in Article 249/EC is one of the three binding instruments provided by secondary EU legislation A recommendation in the European Union (introduced in Article 249/EC is one of two kinds of non- Binding acts cited in the Treaty of Rome. The Law of the European Union is the unique legal system which operates alongside the laws of Member States of the European Union (EU