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A referendum (plural referendums or referenda), ballot question, or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, originally a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. An election is a Decision-making process by which a population chooses an individual to hold formal office Politics Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions Sortition, also known as allotment, is an equal-chance method of selection by some form of lottery such as drawing coloured pebbles from a bag A by-election or bye-election (called special election in the United States) is an Election held to fill a political office that has become vacant Electoral fraud is illegal interference with the process of an Election. A show election or a sham election is an Election that is held purely for show that is without any significant political purpose A Fixed-term election is an Election that occurs on a set date and cannot be changed by the incumbent politician A general election is an Election in which all or most members of a given political body are up for election A primary election ( nominating primary) also referred to simply as a primary, is an election in which voters in a Jurisdiction select candidates Indirect election is a process in which voters in an Election do not actually choose between candidates for an office but rather elect persons who will then make the choice Local Elections vary widely across Jurisdictions In Electoral systems that roughly follow the Westminster model, a terminology has evolved Apportionment is the process of allocating political power among a set of principles (or defined constituencies In multiple-party democratic primary elections crossover voting refers to a technique used by voters in which ballots are cast for the party a voter is opposed to in order to elect Gerrymandering is a form of redistribution in which electoral district or Constituency boundaries are manipulated for electoral advantage Redistricting, a form of redistribution, is the process of changing of political Borders in the United States The secret ballot is a voting method in which a Voter 's choices are confidential Suffrage (from the Latin suffragium, meaning "voting tablet" and figuratively "right to vote" probably from suffrago "hough" and originally A political party is a Political organization that seeks to attain and maintain political power within Government, usually by participating in electoral A voting system allows voters to choose between options often in an Election where candidates are selected for public office. Elections by country gives information on Elections For each De jure and De facto sovereign state and dependent territory The list of election results by country gives information on Elections For each De jure and De facto sovereign state and Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. The Plebeian Council ( Latin: concilium plebis) was the principal popular assembly of the ancient Roman Republic. This may be the adoption of a new constitution, a constitutional amendment, a law, the recall of an elected official or simply a specific government policy. A constitution is a system for government often Codified as a written document that establishes the rules and principles of an autonomous political entity Law is a system of rules enforced through a set of Institutions used as an instrument to underpin civil obedience politics economics and society A recall election is a procedure by which voters can remove an elected official from office The referendum or plebiscite is a form of direct democracy ideally favoring the majority. Direct Democracy is a movement within the British Conservative Party dedicated to localism and Constitutional reform as a means of reviving public
Referendums and referenda are both commonly used as plurals of the referendum factor. However, the use of referenda is deprecated by the Oxford English Dictionary which advises that:
In a first classification by necessity, a referendum may be mandatory, that is, the law (usually the constitution) directs authorities to holding referendums on specific matters (such is the case in amending most constitutions, or impeaching heads of state as well as ratifying international treaties) and are usually binding. A referendum can also be facultative, that is it can be initiated at the will of a public authority (President of the Republic in France and Romania or the Government/Parliament in Greece or Spain) or at the will of the citizens (a petition). It can be binding or non-binding.
A foundational referendum or plebiscite may be drafted by a constituent assembly before being put to voters. A constituent assembly is a body elected with the purpose of drafting and in some cases adopting a Constitution. In other circumstances a referendum is usually initiated either by a legislature or by citizens themselves by means of a petition. The process of initiating a referendum by petition is known as the popular or citizen's initiative. In Political science, the initiative (also known as popular or citizen's initiative) provides a means by which a Petition signed by a certain In the United States the term referendum is often reserved for a direct vote initiated by a legislature while a vote originating in a petition of citizens is referred to as an "initiative", "ballot measure" or "proposition. "
In countries in which a referendum must be initiated by parliament it is sometimes mandatory to hold a binding referendum on certain proposals, such as constitutional amendments. In countries, such as the United Kingdom, in which referendums are neither mandatory nor binding there may, nonetheless, exist an unwritten convention that certain important constitutional changes will be put to a referendum and that the result will be respected.
By nature of their effects, referendums may be either binding or non-binding. A non-binding referendum is merely consultative or advisory. It is left to the government or legislature to interpret the results of a non-binding referendum and it may even choose to ignore them. A legislature is a type of representative Deliberative assembly with the power to create amend and change Laws The law created by a legislature is called Legislation This is particularly the case in states which follow Westminster conventions of parliamentary sovereignty. In New Zealand, for example, citizen-initiated referendum (CIR) questions are broad statements of intent, not detailed laws. Following a referendum vote, parliament itself has the sole power to draft, debate and pass enabling legislation if it so chooses, and thus far, New Zealand governments have chosen to ignore completely two of the three proposals which have succeeded in forcing a vote since the CIR device was created in 1993. The third, a series of proposals about criminal justice, prompted some minor reforms only; it too was largely ignored. This -as was recently argued by Matt Qvortrup in his much cited 'Supply-side Politics (Centre for Policy Studies 2007)- has led to a disuse of the New Zealand device. However, a majority of 77 percent of the voters according to the New Zealand Election Study believe that the citizen initiated referendum make the politicians more accountable. Moreover trust in politicians has grown by almost 20 percent since the introduction of the device. In most referendums it is sufficient for a measure to be approved by a simple majority of voters in order for it to be carried. However, a referendum may also require the support of a super-majority, such as two-thirds of votes cast. A supermajority or a qualified majority is a requirement for a proposal to gain a specified level or type of support which exceeds a simple Majority in order to have In Lithuania certain proposals must be endorsed by a three-quarters majority (among them, any proposal to amend article 148 of the Lithuanian Constitution, which states, "Lithuania is an independent and democratic republic"). Lithuania, officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika is a Country in Eastern often referred to as Northern Europe or in the
In some countries, including Italy, there is also a requirement that there be a certain minimum turn-out of the electorate in order for the result of a referendum to be considered valid. This is intended to ensure that the result is representative of the will of the electorate and is analogous to the quorum required in a committee or legislature. In Law, a quorum is the minimum number of members of a Deliberative body necessary to conduct the business of that group
The franchise in a referendum is not necessarily the same as that for elections. Suffrage (from the Latin suffragium, meaning "voting tablet" and figuratively "right to vote" probably from suffrago "hough" and originally An election is a Decision-making process by which a population chooses an individual to hold formal office For example, in the Republic of Ireland only citizens may vote in a referendum whereas all European Union citizens resident in the state are entitled to vote in general elections. A general election is an Election in which all or most members of a given political body are up for election
Approval in a referendum is necessary in order to amend the Australian constitution. In Australia referendums are binding polls usually used to alter the constitution of the Commonwealth or a state or territory The Constitution of Australia is the law under which the Australian Commonwealth Government operates A bill must first be passed by both houses of Parliament or, in certain limited circumstances, by only one house of Parliament, and is then submitted to a referendum. If a majority of those voting, as well as separate majorities in each of a majority of states, (and where appropriate a majority of people in any affected state) vote in favour of the amendment, it is presented for Royal Assent, given in the Queen's name by the Governor-General. The granting of Royal Assent is the formal method by which a constitutional monarch completes the legislative process of Lawmaking by formally assenting to an The Governor-General of the Commonwealth of Australia is the representative in Australia of the monarch of Australia (currently Elizabeth II Queen of Australia) Due to the specific mention of referendums in the Australian constitution, non-constitutional referendums are usually termed plebiscites in Australia.
Referendums are rare in Canada and only three have ever occurred at the federal level. National Referenda are seldom used in Canada, and have tended to fail Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page The most recent was a referendum in 1992 on a package of proposed constitutional measures known as the Charlottetown Accord. The Charlottetown Accord was a package of constitutional amendments proposed by the Canadian federal and provincial governments in 1992. Although the Constitution of Canada does not expressly require that amendments be approved by referendum, some argue that, in light of the precedent set by the Charlottetown Accord referendum, this may have become an unwritten convention. The Constitution of Canada is the supreme law in Canada; the country's Constitution is an amalgamation of codified acts and uncodified traditions Referendums can also occur at the provincial level. The 1980 Quebec referendum and 1995 Quebec referendum on the secession of Québec are notable cases. The 1980 Quebec referendum was the first Referendum in Quebec on the place of Quebec within Canada and whether Quebec should pursue a path toward sovereignty The 1995 Quebec referendum was the second Referendum to ask voters in the Canadian province of Quebec whether Quebec should Quebec (kwɨˈbɛk In October of 2007, the province of Ontario voted on a mixed-member proportional representation electoral system. Ontario (ɒnˈtɛrioʊ is a province located in the central part of Canada, the largest by population and second largest after Quebec
There have been three plebiscites and one "consultation" in Chilean history. In 1925, a plebiscite was held over a new constitution which would replace a semi-parliamentary system with a presidential one. The "Yes" vote won overwhelmingly, with 95% of the vote. In 1978, after the United Nations protested against Pinochet's régime, the country's military government held a national consultation which asked if people supported Pinochet's rule. The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte (November The "Yes" vote won with 74%, although the results have been questioned. Another constitutional plebiscite was held in 1980. The National Plebiscite of 1980 in Chile was a referendum held on September 11, 1980 in order to approve the 1980 Political Constitution of the Republic The "Yes" won with 68. 5%, prolonging Pinochet's term until 1989 and replacing the 1925 Constitution with a new one still used today. The results of this plebiscite have also been questioned by Pinochet's opponents. In a historical plebiscite held in 1988, 56% voted to end the military régime. The next year, yet another plebiscite was held for constitutional changes for the transition to a democratic government (the "Yes" vote won with 91%). There have been several referendums in individual municipalities in Chile since the return to civilian rule in 1990. A referendum which took place on 2006 in Las Condes over the construction of a mall was noteworthy for being the first instance in Chilean history where electronic voting machines were used. Las Condes is a commune of Chile located in Santiago Province, Santiago Metropolitan Region.
October 7th, 2007 the first referendum held in Costa Rica was to approve or reject a free trade agreement with Central America, Dominican Republic (Costa Rica already has FTAs with the latter) and the United States known as DR-CAFTA, it was approved by a minimum number of votes (49. See also List of free trade agreements This is article is on free international trade The Dominican Republic ( Spanish: República Dominicana;) is a nation located in the Caribbean region and shares the island of Hispaniola with The United States of America —commonly referred to as the 030 votes). Results were 51. 62% voted in favor and 48. 38% against it. It is currently the only FTA in the world that has been approved on a referendum.
The Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe was rejected in France and Netherlands in popular referendums. The Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe (TCE commonly referred to as the European Constitution, was an unimplemented international Treaty intended This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands Popular referendums in support of the Treaty were held in Spain and Luxembourg. Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Luxembourg (Groussherzogtum Lëtzebuerg Grand-Duché de Luxembourg Großherzogtum Luxemburg is a small Landlocked country in Western Europe, bordered by Sixteen other states approved the Treaty by parliamentary vote only. TalkParliament#Screen-size. -->A  parliament is a Legislature, especially in those Seven states had not ratified the Treaty, but of those only three, Denmark, Ireland and the United Kingdom, had committed to hold referendums. The Kingdom of Denmark ( ˈd̥ænmɑɡ̊ (archaic ˈd̥anmɑːɡ̊ commonly known as Denmark, is a country in the Scandinavian region of northern Europe Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The Treaty has both been rejected by proponents of national sovereignty and by the left-wing anti-globalisation movement in France. Sovereignty is the exclusive Right to control a Government, a country, a people or oneself " Anti-globalization " is a term that encompasses a number of related ideas
The current Constitution of Iraq was approved by referendum on 15 October 2005, two years after the United States-led invasion. The current Constitution of Iraq was approved by a referendum that took place on 15 October 2005. The Kirkuk referendum is the Kirkuk part of a plebiscite that will decide whether the Kurdish regions within Iraqi governorates of Diyala The current Constitution of Iraq was approved by a referendum that took place on 15 October 2005. Events 533 - Byzantine General Belisarius makes his formal entry into Carthage, having conquered it from the Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The constitution was designed to shift crucial decisions about government, the judiciary and human rights to a future national assembly. It was later modified to provide for the establishment of a committee by the parliament to be elected in December of 2005 to consider changes to the constitution in 2006.
The current Constitution of Ireland was adopted by plebiscite on 1 July 1937. An amendment may be made to any part of the Constitution of Ireland, the founding law of Ireland, but only by referendum. The Constitution of Ireland (Bunreacht na hÉireann came into force on 29 December 1937 after having been passed by a national plebiscite the previous July "July 1st" redirects here For the Ayumi Hamasaki song see H (song. Year 1937 ( MCMXXXVII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. In the Republic of Ireland every constitutional amendment must be approved by referendum; 28 constitutional referendums have occurred since 1937. Ireland ( Irish: Éire, ˈeːrʲə is a country in north-western Europe.  Constitutional amendments are first adopted by both Houses of the Oireachtas (parliament), submitted to a referendum, and are signed into law by the President. The Oireachtas (ɛrʲaxt̪ˠasˠ is the "national parliament" or Legislature of Ireland, sometimes referred to as Oireachtas Éireann. The President of Ireland (Uachtarán na hÉireann n̪ˠə ˈheːɾʲən̪ˠ is the Head of state of Ireland. The role of the president, however, is merely ceremonial: she cannot refuse to sign into law an amendment that has been approved in a referendum. The constitution also provides for a referendum on an ordinary law, known as an 'ordinary referendum'. The ordinary referendum is a referendum in Ireland in which the President may refer a Bill directly to the electorate before it becomes law Such a referendum can only take place under special circumstances, and none have yet occurred. The closest referendum result was 1995's vote to legalise divorce - 50. 3% voted "Yes" (to legalise divorce) and 49. 7% voted "No. "
The constitution of Italy provides for two kinds of binding referendum: A legislative referendum can be called in order to abrogate totally or partially a law, but only at the request of 500,000 electors or five regional councils. The Constitution of Italy, provides for only two kinds of legally binding Referenda: a legislative referendum, which can only be called Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest This kind of referendum is valid only if at least a majority of electors goes to the polling station. It is forbidden to call a referendum regarding financial laws or laws relating to pardons or the ratification of international treaties. A constitutional referendum can be called in order to approve a constitutional law or amendment only when it has been approved by the Chambers (Chamber of Deputies and Senate of the Republic) with a majority of less than two thirds in both or either Chamber, and only at the request of one fifth of the members of either Chamber, or 500,000 electors or five regional councils. A constitutional referendum is valid no matter how many electors go to the polling station. Any citizen entitled to vote in an election to the Chamber of Deputies may participate in a referendum.
New Zealand has two types of referendum. Referendums (or referenda) are held only occasionally by the government of New Zealand. New Zealand is an Island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island Government referendum are predominantly either on constitutional issues or on alcohol policy (although this has been phased out). The constitution of New Zealand consists of a collection of statutes ( Acts of Parliament) Treaties Orders-in-Council, Letters patent, decisions of the In Chemistry, an alcohol is any Organic compound in which a Hydroxyl group ( - O[[hydrogen H]]) is bound to a Carbon There are issues on other issues however. Furthermore, constitutional issues, such as the establishment of the Supreme Court of New Zealand, need not be done through referendum. The Supreme Court of New Zealand is the highest court in the land and the Court of last resort in New Zealand, having formally come into existence at the beginning New Zealand also has provisions for Citizens' Initiated Referendum, although these are non-binding.
Under the Romanian Constitution of 1991, revised in 2003, there are three situations in which referendums can be held. The 1991 Constitution of Romania is the fundamental law that establishes the structure of the government of Romania, the rights and obligations of the country's citizens and Art 90 of the constitution establishes a facultative and non-binding referendum which the President can initiate on matters of principle. Art 95 of the Constitution establishes a mandatory and binding referendum for the impeachment of the President in case he is deemed guilty of disobeying the Constitution. Art 151 of the Constitution also establishes a mandatory and binding referendum on approving Constitutional amendments. This last provision has been used twice, in adopting the Romanian Constitution in 1991 and amending it 2003.
The Constitution of the Republic of Serbia was adopted on a referendum held in 28-29 October 2006. A referendum on a proposed draft of the new Serbian constitution was held on October 28 and 29 October 2006 and has resulted in the draft constitution The current Constitution of Serbia was approved by a referendum held in 2006 during October 28 and October 29. The constitutional referendum passed with 3,521,724 voting a 53. 04% majority. 3,645,517 or 54. 91% voted on the referendum, which made it legitimate.
According to the Constitution of Singapore, a referendum can be held in a few circumstances, including situations when a constitutional amendment passed by the Parliament is rejected by the President, or when the nation's sovereignty needs to be decided (i. The Constitution of Singapore is the supreme law of Singapore and it is a Codified constitution. e. merger or incorporation into other countries). There is only one referendum in Singapore to date, which is the 1962 national referendum, deciding on the merger of Singapore into Malaysia. The Singapore national referendum of 1962, or also commonly referred to as the Merger Referendum of Singapore was the first and only Referendum to Singapore eventually left Malaysia and declared independence on 9th August 1965. Events 48 BC - Caesar's civil war: Battle of Pharsalus - Julius Caesar decisively defeats Pompey at Pharsalus Year 1965 ( MCMLXV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the 1965 Gregorian calendar.
The Constitution of Sweden provides for both binding and non-binding referendums. The Swedish Constitution consists of four fundamental laws ( Swedish: grundlagar, singular grundlag) Since the introduction of parliamentary democracy six referendums have been held in Sweden: the first was on prohibition in 1922 and the most recent on euro membership in 2003. "Sverige" redirects here For other uses see Sweden (disambiguation and Sverige (disambiguation. Prohibition of alcohol, often referred to simply as prohibition, also known as Noble Experiment, refers to a Sumptuary law which prohibits Alcohol Please update other articles as well to avoid contradiction within Wikipedia e All have been non-binding, consultative referendums. Two, in 1957 and 1980, were multiple choice referendums.
In Switzerland, there are binding referendums at federal, cantonal and municipal level. They are a central feature of Swiss political life. It is not the government's choice whether or when a referendum is held, but it is a legal procedure regulated by the Swiss constitution. There are two types of referendums:
The possibility of facultative referendums forces the parliament to search for a compromise between the major interest groups. In many cases, the mere threat of a facultative referendum or of an initiative is enough to make the parliament adjust a law.
The referendums are said, by their adversaries, to slow politics down. On the other hand empirical scientists, e. g. Bruno S. Frey among many, show that this and other instruments of citizens' participation, direct democracy, contribute to stability and happiness. Bruno S Frey (born May 4, 1941 in Basel, Switzerland) is a Swiss Economist and a professor at the University of Zurich
The votes on referendums are always held on a Sunday, typically three or four times a year, and in most cases, the votes concern several referendums at the same time, often at different political levels (federal, cantonal, municipal). Elections are as well often combined with referendums. However, the percentage of voters is generally very low, about 20 to 30 percent unless there is an election. The decisions made in referendums tend to be conservative. Citizens' initiatives are usually not passed. The federal rule and referendums have been used in Switzerland since 1848.
Although Acts of Parliament may permit referendums to take place, owing to the doctrine of parliamentary sovereignty any such Act of Parliament can be reversed by a subsequent Act of Parliament and therefore binding referendums cannot be held in the United Kingdom. Referendums (or referenda) are only occasionally held by the government of the United Kingdom. Parliamentary sovereignty, Sovereignty of Parliament, parliamentary supremacy, or legislative supremacy is a concept in Constitutional law The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Referendums are rare and only once has a referendum proposal been put to the entire electorate of the UK; this was a referendum in 1975 on continued membership of the European Economic Community. The European Community (EC is one of the Three pillars of the European Union (EU created under the Maastricht Treaty (1992 Referendums have been held in individual parts of the United Kingdom on issues relating to devolution in Scotland and Wales, and the status of Northern Ireland but since the first one in 1973 only eight major referendums have been held (source: Electoral Commission). Devolution is the statutory granting of powers from the central government of a State to government at subnational level Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain. Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a Country within the United Kingdom, lying in the northeast of There have also been referendums held at the local level on proposals for directly elected local mayors. In 2004 the British government committed to holding a UK-wide referendum on the new EU Constitution, which was postponed in 2005 due to the French and Dutch rejection of the European Constitution. Referendums have also been proposed on the plan to adopt the euro as the UK's currency and whether to change from the 'First Past the Post' system to an alternative electoral system, such as proportional representation. The plurality voting system is a Single-winner voting system often used to elect executive officers or to elect members of a legislative assembly which is based on single-member A voting system allows voters to choose between options often in an Election where candidates are selected for public office. Proportional representation (sometimes referred to as full representation or PR is a category of electoral formula aiming at a close match between the percentage of votes In addition, under the 1972 Local Government Act, there is a little-known provision under which non-binding local referendums on any issue can be called by small groups of voters. A referendum on Scottish Independence is expected in 2010 in Scotland. Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain.
In the United States, the term "referendum" typically refers to a popular vote to overturn legislation already passed at the state or local levels (mainly in the western United States). By contrast, "initiatives" and "legislative referrals" consist of newly drafted legislation submitted directly to a popular vote as an alternative to adoption by a legislature. Collectively, referendums and initiatives in the United States are commonly referred to as ballot measures, initiatives, or propositions. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the
There is no provision for the holding of referendums at the federal level in the United States; indeed, there is no national electorate of any kind. However, the constitutions of 24 states (principally in the West) and many local and city governments provide for referendums and citizen's initiatives. The most famous U.S. state initiative is probably California's Proposition 13 which severely limited property tax increases. A US state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of the United States of America that share Sovereignty with the federal government California ( is a US state on the West Coast of the United States, along the Pacific Ocean. Proposition 13, officially titled the "People's Initiative to Limit Property Taxation" was a ballot Initiative to amend the constitution of the state of California They are especially popular in modifying state constitutions. Every state in the United States possesses its own constitution
A referendum usually offers the electorate only two choices, either to accept or reject a proposal, but this need not necessarily be the case. In Switzerland, for example, multiple choice referendums are common; two multiple choice referendums held in Sweden, in 1957 and 1980, offered voters a choice of three options; and in 1977 a referendum held in Australia to determine a new national anthem was held in which voters were presented with four choices. Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation "Sverige" redirects here For other uses see Sweden (disambiguation and Sverige (disambiguation. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. " Advance Australia Fair " is the official National anthem of Australia.
A multiple choice referendum poses the problem of how the result is to be determined if no single option receives the support of an absolute majority (i. A majority, also known as a simple majority in the US, is a Subset of a group that is more than half of the entire group e. , more than half) of voters. This can be resolved by applying voting systems designed for single winner elections to a multiple-choice referendum. A voting system allows voters to choose between options often in an Election where candidates are selected for public office.
Swiss referendums get around this problem by offering a separate vote on each of the multiple options as well as an additional decision about which of the multiple options should be preferred. In the Swedish case, in both referendums the 'winning' option was chosen by the Single Member Plurality ("first past the post") system. The plurality voting system is a Single-winner voting system often used to elect executive officers or to elect members of a legislative assembly which is based on single-member In other words the winning option was deemed to be that supported by a plurality, rather than an absolute majority, of voters. In the 1977 Australian referendum the winner was chosen by the system of Instant Run-off Voting (also known as the 'Alternative Vote'). Instant-runoff voting ( IRV) is a Voting system used for single-winner elections in which voters have one vote and rank Candidates in order of
Some groups, such as the Northern Ireland de Borda Institute, advocate the conduct of referendums using the Modified Borda count (MBC) form of preferential voting, and refer to such a vote as a Borda 'preferendum'. Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a Country within the United Kingdom, lying in the northeast of This article is about voting systems that use ranked ballots For alternative meanings see Preferential voting (disambiguation. The de Borda Institute argues that the MBC would produce results based on consensus rather than majoritarianism; it is therefore suggested for use in plebiscites held in areas of conflict such as Northern Ireland, the Balkans or Kashmir, and not least because the two-option referendum, in such situations, can and often does provoke violence. Majoritarianism is a traditional Political philosophy or agenda which asserts that a Majority (sometimes categorized by Religion, Language, or This article is about the geographical region of greater Kashmir The MBC can/could also be used (electronically) in meetings, councils and parliaments. Critics of the Borda count argue that it is particularly susceptible to tactical voting and to the tactical nomination of candidates, and that it may produce results that are opposed by a majority of voters. Proponents of the MBC point out, however, that democracy is for everybody, not just a majority; decisions should therefore be taken in consensus, either by talking and talking, or by talking and voting in an MBC. Other voting methods that could be employed are Condorcet methods and approval voting that are not subject to the effects of irrelevant alternatives and less susceptible to insincere preference intensity. A Condorcet method is any single-winner election method that meets the Condorcet criterion, that is which always selects the Condorcet winner, the candidate Approval voting is a single-winner voting system used for Elections Each voter may vote for (approve of as many of the candidates as they wish
Eleanor Roosevelt et al. Anna Eleanor Roosevelt (ˈɛlɪnɔr ˈroʊzəvɛlt October 11 1884 &ndash November 7 1962 wrote after the Nazi- Holocaust, WWII a Human Rights Declaration, passed into Law 10. 12. 1948, where Direct Democracy (Referendum) is part of. See: Article 21: "1. Everyone has the right to take part in the government of his country, directly or through freely chosen representatives. "
Although some advocates of direct democracy would have the referendum become the dominant institution of government, in practice and in principle, in almost all cases, the referendum exists solely as a complement to the system of representative democracy, in which most major decisions are made by an elected legislature. Representative democracy is a form of government founded on the principles of the people's representatives An often cited exception is the Swiss canton of Glaris, in which meetings are held on the village lawn to decide on matters of public concern. Glarus (German) is the capital of the Canton of Glarus in Switzerland. In most jurisdictions that practice them, referendums are relatively rare occurrences and are restricted to important issues.
Advocates of the referendum argue that certain decisions are best taken out of the hands of representatives and determined directly by the people. Some adopt a strict definition of democracy, saying elected parliaments are a necessary expedient to make governance possible in the large, modern nation-state, though direct democracy is nonetheless preferable and the referendum takes precedence over Parliamentary decisions.
Other advocates insist that the principle of popular sovereignty demands that certain foundational questions, such as the adoption or amendment of a constitution, the secession of a state or the altering of national boundaries, be determined with the directly expressed consent of the people. Popular sovereignty or the sovereignty of the people is the belief that the legitimacy of the State is created by the will or consent of its people, who
Advocates of representative democracy say referendums are used by politicians to avoid making difficult or controversial decisions.
Critics of the referendum argue that voters in a referendum are more likely driven by transient whims than careful deliberation, or that they are not sufficiently informed to make decisions on complicated or technical issues. Voters might furthermore be swayed by strong personalities, or the adverse influence of propaganda or expensive advertising campaigns. James Madison argued that direct democracy is the "tyranny of the majority. James Madison Jr (March 16 1751 – June 28 1836 was an American Politician, the fourth President of the United States (1809–1817 and one of the Founding "
Some opposition to the referendum has arisen from its use by dictators such as Hitler and Mussolini who, it is argued, used the plebiscite to disguise oppressive policies in a veneer of populism. Hi and welcome to Wikipedia! Please understand that this article is frequently vandalized and vandalism is reverted immediately Populism is a discourse which supports "the people" versus "the Elites " Populism may involve either a political philosophy urging social and political Hitler's use of the plebiscite is one reason why, since World War II, there has been no provision in Germany for the holding of referendums at the federal level. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe.
British politician Chris Patten summarized many of the arguments used by those who oppose the referendum in an interview in 2003 when discussing the possibility of a referendum in the United Kingdom on the European Union Constitution:
A further perceived flaw of the referendum is that in some circumstances the democratic spirit of the referendum may be flouted by the repeated submission to the referendum of a proposal until it is eventually endorsed, perhaps due to a low turn-out or public fatigue with the issue. This is especially a problem where a proposal may be difficult to reverse, such as secession from a larger country or the abolition of a monarchy. The repeated holding of a referendum on a single issue has been pejoratively referred to as a "never-end-um". Single-issue politics involves political campaigning or political support based on one essential Policy area or idea
Many critics of the EU point to the Treaty of Nice's ratification procedure in Ireland, where the government submitted the Treaty to a referendum twice, getting the required "Yes" vote on the second attempt. The Nice Treaty was signed by European leaders on 26 February, 2001 and came into force on 1 February 2003. Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world However such critics fail to mention the neutrality clause added at the second referendum, which helped allay fears which led the electorate to vote "No" the first time. The Twenty-sixth Amendment of the Constitution of Ireland permitted the state to ratify the Treaty of Nice.
Some critics of the referendum attack the use of closed questions. A difficulty which can plague a referendum of two issues or more is called the separability problem. The separability problem is a concept from the field of Social choice theory that describes the situation where two or more issues up for vote on a ballot either are or are If one issue is in fact, or in perception, related to another on the ballot, the imposed simultaneous voting of first preference on each issue can result in an outcome that is displeasing to most.