The Red Army (Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия, Raboche-Krest'yanskaya Krasnaya Armiya; RKKA, full translation the Workers' and Peasants' Red Army) was the armed force first organized by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918 and, in 1922, became the army of the Soviet Union. The Soviet Armed Forces refers to the armed forces of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics from its establishment during the Russian Civil War in 1918 by the The General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation is the military staff of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation. The Strategic Rocket Forces of Russian Federation or RVSNRF ( Russian: Ракетные войска стратегического назначения Российской Voyska PVO ( Russian: Войска ПВО or PVO Strany until 1981 was the Air defense branch of the Soviet military The Soviet Air Force, also known under the abbreviation VVS, transliterated from Russian: ВВС, Военно-воздушные силы ( Voenno-Vozdushnye The Soviet Navy ( Russian: Военно-морской флот СССР Voyenno-morskoy flot SSSR, literally "Naval military forces of the USSR" was The military ranks of the Soviet Union were those introduced after the October Revolution of 1917 The Military history of the Soviet Union began in the days following the 1917 October Revolution that brought the Bolsheviks to power Modern Russian military ranks trace their roots to Table of Ranks established by Peter the Great. Russian ( transliteration:,) is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia, the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists ( Большевик Большевист (singular, derived from bolshe, "more" were a faction The Russian Civil War (1917–1923 was a multi-party war that occurred within the former Russian Empire after the Russian provisional government collapsed The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991
"Red" refers to the blood of the working class in its struggle against capitalism, and to the belief that all are equal. Red is any of a number of similar Colors evoked by light consisting predominantly of the longest wavelengths of Light discernible by the human eye in the wavelength Working class is a term used in academic Sociology and in ordinary conversation to describe depending on context and speaker those employed in specific fields or types The appellation "Red" was dropped after World War II, when national symbols replaced those connoting the old revolutionary fervor, and it was officially renamed the Soviet Army. The Red Army eventually grew to form the largest army in history from the 1940s until the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, although China's People's Liberation Army may have exceeded the Red Army in size during some periods. The Soviet Union 's collapse into independent nations began early in 1985 Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES The People's Liberation Army ( PLA) ( is the unified Military organization of all land sea and air forces of the People's Republic of China.
This article focuses upon the land force element of the Soviet Army, later called the Ground Forces. See Soviet Armed Forces for a description of the Soviet armed forces as a whole. The Soviet Armed Forces refers to the armed forces of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics from its establishment during the Russian Civil War in 1918 by the
As the Russian Civil War became a reality, the Bolshevik government saw the need to replace the provisional Red Guards with a permanent force. The Russian Civil War (1917–1923 was a multi-party war that occurred within the former Russian Empire after the Russian provisional government collapsed For other uses of the term see Red Guard In the context of the history of Russia and Soviet Union, Red Guards ( Russian: "Красная The Council of People's Commissars set up the Red Army by a Decree on January 28, 1918, basing it initially on the Red Guards. The Council of the People's Commissars, or the Council of People's Commissars, was the highest government authority under the Bolshevik system after the success Decrees (декреты were legislative acts of the highest Soviet institutions primarily of the Council of People's Commissars (the highest executive body and Events 1077 - Walk to Canossa: The Excommunication of Henry IV Holy Roman Emperor is lifted Year 1918 ( MCMXVIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common The official Red Army Day of February 23, 1918 marked the day of the first mass draft of the Red Army in Petrograd and Moscow, and of the first combat action against the occupying Imperial German Army. Events 1455 - Traditional date for the publication of the Gutenberg Bible, the first Western Book printed from Movable Year 1918 ( MCMXVIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Saint Petersburg ( tr: Sankt-Peterburg,) is a city and a federal subject of Russia located on the Neva River Moscow (Москва́ romanised: Moskvá, IPA: see also other names) is the Capital and the largest city of The German Empire is the name commonly used in English to describe Germany from 1871 to 1918 when it was a semi- Constitutional monarchy: beginning with the Unification  The burgeoning Civil War rapidly intensified after Lenin's dissolution of the Russian Constituent Assembly and the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, as the nascent Communist forces faced off against loosely allied anti-Communist forces known as the White Armies. The All Russian Constituent Assembly (Всероссийское Учредительное Собрание Vserossiiskoe Uchreditelnoe Sobranie was a democratically elected constitutional Not to be confused with the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (February 9 1918, a similar treaty involving Ukraine and the Central Powers. Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based The White movement (Beloie Dvijenie Белое движение whose military arm is known as the White Army (Belaia Armia Белая Армия or White Guard 
The founder of the Red Army is often seen as Leon Trotsky, the People's Commissar for War from 1918 to 1924, who deserves much credit for creating a disciplined military force from the early motley volunteers. Leon Trotsky ( Russian:, Lev Davidovich Trotsky, also transliterated Leo, Lyev, Trotskii, Trotski, Trotskij  Trotsky decided to provide officers for the fledgling force by allowing former officers and NCOs of the army of Imperial Russia to join. The Russian Empire ( Pre-reform Russian: Pоссійская Имперія Modern Russian: Российская Империя translit: Rossiyskaya  The Bolshevik authorities set up a special commission chaired by Lev Glezarov, and by mid August 1920 had drafted about 48,000 ex-officers, 10,300 administration staff, and 214,000 ex-NCOs.  Most held the position of "military specialist". Military advisors, or combat advisors, are soldiers sent to foreign nations to aid that nation with its military training organization and other various military tasks A number of prominent Soviet Army commanders had previously served as Imperial Russian generals. Another important move was the unification of the Bolshevik military effort from several former organizations with the formation of the Revolutionary Military Council or Revvoensoviet, established on 6 September, 1918. Revolutionary Military Council of the Republic or Revvoyensoviet ( Революционный Военный Совет, Реввоенсовет; also Trotsky became president of the Revvoensoviet, while under him Ioakhim Vatsetis, a Latvian ex-Colonel of the Imperial army, became first Soviet Commander-in-Chief. Jukums Vācietis ( November 11, 1873 – July 28, 1938) (Иоаким Иоакимович Вацетис Ioakim Ioakimovich Vatsetis A commander-in-chief is the Commander of a nation's Military forces or significant element of those forces Trotsky then had to make considerable efforts to root out the 'military anarchism' of the first chaotic months of the Red Army, adopting the slogan of 'exhortion, organization, and reprisals', and in some cases having to resort to firing squads to punish deserters.  To ensure the loyalty of the ex-Imperial military specialists, and to bind the disparate elements of the new Red Army together, the military commissars were introduced.
The first period of the Civil War lasted from the 1917 Revolution until the November 1918 Armistice. The Russian Civil War (1917–1923 was a multi-party war that occurred within the former Russian Empire after the Russian provisional government collapsed First, in late November of 1917 the new Bolshevik government declared that traditional Cossack lands were now to be run by the state. The Cossacks (Каза́ки́ Kazaki; Козаки́ Kozaki; Kozacy are a group of martial people living in the southern Steppe regions of Eastern This provoked a revolt in Don region headed by General Kaledin, where the Volunteer Army began amassing support. The Don (Дон is one of the major rivers of Russia. It rises in the town of Novomoskovsk 60 Kilometres southeast from Tula, southeast For the British Volunteer Army see Volunteer Army (British. For voluntary military service see Volunteer military. The signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk also resulted in direct Allied intervention in Russia and the arming of military forces opposed to the Bolshevik government. Not to be confused with the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (February 9 1918, a similar treaty involving Ukraine and the Central Powers. There were also many German commanders who offered support against the Bolsheviks. Most of the fighting in this first period was sporadic, involving only small groups (including the Czechoslovak Legion, the Polish 5th Rifle Division and the pro-Bolshevik Red Latvian Riflemen) amid a fluid and rapidly shifting military scene. Czechoslovak Legions ( Československé legie in Czech and Slovak were Czech and Slovak volunteer armed forces fighting together with the Entente powers Polish 5th Siberian Rifle Division (5 Dywizja Strzelców Polskich also known as the Siberian Division and Siberian Brigade) was a Polish military unit Latvian riflemen (Latviešu strēlnieki Латышские стрелки were military formations assembled starting 1915 in Latvia in order to defend Baltic territories
The second period of the war was the key stage, which lasted from January to November of 1919. Leon Trotsky ( Russian:, Lev Davidovich Trotsky, also transliterated Leo, Lyev, Trotskii, Trotski, Trotskij Saint Petersburg ( tr: Sankt-Peterburg,) is a city and a federal subject of Russia located on the Neva River At first the White armies' advances from the south (under Denikin), the east (under Kolchak) and the northwest (under Yudenich) were successful, pushing back the new Red Army on all three fronts. Anton Ivanovich Denikin (Анто́н Ива́нович Дени́кин ( December 16, 1872 – August 8, 1947) was Lieutenant General Aleksandr Vasiliyevich Kolchak (Алекса́ндр Васи́льевич Колча́к &ndash February 7, 1920) was a Russian naval commander But Leon Trotsky reformed the Red Army and pushed back Kolchak's forces (in June) and Denikin's and Yudenich's armies (in October).  The fighting power of all the White armies was broken almost simultaneously in mid-November, and in January 1920 cavalry under Budenny entered Rostov-on-Don. Rostov-on-Don (Росто́в-на-Дону́ Rostov-na-Donu rɐ'stof nə dɐ'nu is the city and the administrative center of Rostov Oblast and the In 1919-1921 the Red Army was also involved in the Polish-Soviet war, in which it reached central Poland in 1920, but then suffered a defeat there, which put an end to the war. The Battle of Warsaw (Russian Варшáвское сражéние Polish: Bitwa Warszawska sometimes referred to as the Miracle at the Vistula, Polish During the Polish campaign the Red Army numbered some 5. 5 million men, of which the Army had difficulty supporting around 581,000 in the two operational fronts, Western and Southwestern. Around 2. 5 million men were 'immobilised in the interior' as part of reserve armies.  Following the defeat of Pyotr Wrangel in the south, the Communists had won after four years of savage fighting, and established the Soviet Union in 1922. Baron Pyotr Nikolayevich Wrangel (Пётр Николаевич Врангель (Peter von Wrangel ( August 15, 1878, Zarasai, Lithuania (then The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 On 1 February 1924 Mikhail Frunze was appointed head of the Red Army Staff, and historian John Erickson dates the rise of the General Staff, which came to dominate Soviet military planning and operations, to that date. Mikhail Vasilyevich Frunze ( Russian: Михаил Васильевич Фрунзе Romanian: Mihail Frunză; also known as Арсений Трифоныч– John R Erickson (b April 171929 South Shields, Eng &ndash d Feb The General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation is the military staff of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation. By 1 October 1924 the army's strength dropped to 530,000.  This list of divisions expands on the fortunes of the individual formations of the Red Army during that period. See also List of infantry divisions of the Soviet Union 1917–1957 The Soviet Union 's Red Army raised over four hundred and fifty rifle divisions
Later in the 1920s and during the 1930s, Soviet military theorists introduced the concept of deep battle. Deep operations was a military doctrine developed by the Soviet Union for its armed forces during the 1920s and 1930s  It was a direct consequence from the experience with wide, sweeping movements of cavalry formations during the Civil War and the Polish-Soviet War. Deep Operations encompassed multiple maneuver by multiple Corps or Army sized formations simultaneously. This article is about a military unit For alternative meanings see Corps (disambiguation. An army (from Latin Armata "act of arming" via Old French armée) in the broadest sense is the land-based Armed forces It was not meant to deliver a victory in a single operation, but rather multiple operations conducted in parallel or successively were meant to guarantee victory. In this, Deep operations differed from the usual interpretation of the Blitzkrieg doctrine. Deep operations was a military doctrine developed by the Soviet Union for its armed forces during the 1920s and 1930s Blitzkrieg (German for "lightning war" is a popular name for an Offensive operational-level Military doctrine which involves an initial The objective of Deep Operations was to attack the enemy simultaneously throughout the depth of his ground force to induce a catastrophic failure in his defensive system. Soviet deep-battle theory was driven by technological advances and the hope that maneuver warfare offered opportunities for quick, efficient, and decisive victory. Maneuver warfare, also spelled manoeuvre warfare, is the term used by military theorists for a concept of Warfare that advocates attempting to The concurrent development of aviation and armor provided a physical impetus for this doctrinal evolution within the Red Army. Marshal Mikhail Tukhachevsky stated that airpower should be "employed against targets beyond the range of infantry, artillery, and other arms. Mikhail Nikolayevich Tukhachevsky (Михаи́л Никола́евич Тухаче́вский Michał Tuchaczewski ( &ndash June 12, 1937) was a Air power redirects here for electrical and mechanical energy supplied by air movement see Wind power The Infantry is the oldest and most numerous of the Combat Arms in the Armed forces, and consists Artillery (from French artillerie) is a military Combat Arm which employs any apparātus machine For maximum tactical effect aircraft should be employed in mass, concentrated in time and space, against targets of the highest tactical importance. "
Deep Operations were first formally expressed as a concept in the Red Army's 'Field Regulations' of 1929, but was only finally codified by the army in 1936 in the 'Provisional Field Regulations' of 1936. However the Great Purge of 1937–1939 removed many of the leading officers of the Red Army (including Tukhachevsky), and the concept was abandoned - to the detriment of the Red Army during the Winter War - until opportunities to use it evolved later during World War II. Great Purge (Большая чистка transliterated Bolshaya chistka) was a series of campaigns of Political repression and Persecution The Winter War (Talvisota Советско-финляндская война - official Зимняя война - unofficial Vinterkriget began when the At that time, the Red Army fought in major border incidents against the Japanese, in 1938 and 1939. The Battle of Lake Khasan ( July 29, 1938 &ndash August 11, 1938) and also known as the Changkufeng Incident (Chinese & Japanese The Battle of Khalkhyn Gol (бои на реке Халхин-Гол Халхын голын байлдаан Japanese ノモンハン事件 Nomonhan jiken --i
Despite the USSR remaining initially neutral in World War II, the Red Army carried out an invasion of the Polish eastern territory in September 1939, with little resistance, and fought in a Winter War against Finland 1939-1940. The Invasion of Poland (1939 precipitated World War II. It was carried out by Nazi Germany, the Soviet Union, and a small German-allied World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including The 1939 Soviet invasion of Poland was a military operation that started without a formal declaration of war on 17 September 1939 during the early stages of World War II, sixteen The Winter War (Talvisota Советско-финляндская война - official Зимняя война - unofficial Vinterkriget began when the By the autumn of 1940 the Third Reich had an extensive land border with the Soviet Union, but the latter remained neutral, bound by a non-aggression pact and by numerous trade agreements. Nazi Germany and the Third Reich are the common English names for Germany under the regime of Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist German Workers See also Non-aggression Pact (band A non-aggression pact is an international Treaty between two or more states agreeing to avoid war A trade pact is a wide ranging Tax tariff and trade pact that often includes Investment guarantees For Hitler, no dilemma ever existed in this situation. Hi and welcome to Wikipedia! Please understand that this article is frequently vandalized and vandalism is reverted immediately  Drang nach Osten (German for "Drive towards the East") remained the order of the day. "Drang nach Osten" is also a game in the " Europa " wargame series This culminated, on December 18, in the issuing of ‘Directive No. Events 218 BC - Second Punic War: Battle of the Trebia - Hannibal 's Carthaginian forces defeat those of the 21 – Case Barbarossa’, which opened by saying “the German Armed forces must be prepared to crush Soviet Russia in a quick campaign before the end of the war against England”. Operation Barbarossa ( Unternehmen Barbarossa) was the Codename for Nazi Germany 's invasion of the Soviet Union during World War II Wehrmacht (literally "defense force" was the name of the unified Armed forces of Germany from 1935 to 1945 The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland On February 3, 1941, the final plan of Operation Barbarossa gained approval, and the attack was scheduled for the middle of May, 1941. Events 1112 - Ramon Berenguer III of Barcelona and Douce I of Provence marry uniting the fortunes of those two states Year 1941 ( MCMXLI) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (the link will display 1941 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Operation Barbarossa ( Unternehmen Barbarossa) was the Codename for Nazi Germany 's invasion of the Soviet Union during World War II However, the events in Greece and Yugoslavia necessitated a delay — to the second half of June. Greece (Ελλάδα transliterated: Elláda, historically, Ellás,) officially the Hellenic Republic (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία See also Kingdom of Yugoslavia, Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Yugoslavia ( Serbo-Croatian
At the time of the Nazi assault on the USSR in June 1941, the Red Army's ground forces had 303 divisions and 22 brigades (4. Nazi Germany and the Third Reich are the common English names for Germany under the regime of Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist German Workers The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 8 million troops), including 166 divisions and 9 brigades (2. 9 million troops) stationed in the western military districts. Their Axis opponents deployed on the Eastern Front 181 divisions and 18 brigades (5. The Eastern Front of World War II (die Ostfront 1941-1945, der Rußlandfeldzug 1941-1945 (Russian campaign or der Ostfeldzug 1941-1945 (Eastern Campaign 5 million troops). Three Fronts, the Northwestern Front, the Western, and the Southwestern, controlled the forces defending the western border. The Northwestern Front was a military formation of the Red Army during the Winter War and World War II. The Western Front was a Front (military subdivision of the Soviet Army, one of the Soviet Army Fronts during the Second World War The Southwestern Front was a name given to a Front by the Imperial Russian Army during the First World War, by the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist However the first weeks of the war saw major Soviet defeats as German forces trapped hundreds of thousands of Red Army soldiers in vast encirclements, causing the loss of major equipment, tanks, and artillery. Stalin and the Soviet leadership responded by stepping up the mobilization that was already under way, and by 1 August 1941, despite the loss of 46 divisions in combat, the Red Army's strength stood at 401 divisions. 
Soviet forces suffered heavy damage in the field as a result of poor levels of preparedness, whose primary causes were inadequate officers, as a result of the purges, disorganization as a result of a partially completed mobilization, and the reorganization the Army was undergoing.  The hasty pre-war growth and over-promotion of inexperienced Red Army officers as well as the removal of experienced officers caused by the Purges offset the balance favorably for the Germans. Great Purge (Большая чистка transliterated Bolshaya chistka) was a series of campaigns of Political repression and Persecution  The sheer numeric superiority of the Axis cannot be underestimated, though the combat strength of the two opposing forces appears to have been roughly equal in numbers of divisions. 
A generation of Soviet commanders (most notably Zhukov) learned from the defeats, and Soviet victories in the Battle of Moscow, at Stalingrad, Kursk and later in Operation Bagration proved decisive in what became known to the Soviets as the Great Patriotic War. The Battle of Moscow (Битва под Москвой Romanized: Bitva pod Moskvoy, Schlacht um Moskau is the name given by the Soviet historians to the two The Battle of Stalingrad is a commonly used name in English sources for several large operations by Germany and its allies and Soviet forces conducted with the The Battle of Kursk (Курская битва refers to a series of German and Soviet operations on the Eastern Front of World War II Operation Bagration (Oперация Багратион Operatsiya Bagration) was the Codename for the Soviet 1944 Belorussian Strategic The term Great Patriotic War (Великая Отечественная война Velikaya Otechestvennaya Vojna) is used in Russia and some other
The Soviet government adopted a number of measures to improve the state and morale of the retreating Red Army in 1941. Soviet propaganda turned away from political notions of class struggle, and instead invoked the deeper-rooted patriotic feelings of the population, embracing pre-revolutionary Russian history. Class struggle is the active expression of Class conflict looked at from any kind of socialist perspective Propagandists proclaimed the War against the German aggressors as the "Great Patriotic War", in allusion to the Patriotic War of 1812 against Napoleon. The term Great Patriotic War (Великая Отечественная война Velikaya Otechestvennaya Vojna) is used in Russia and some other The French invasion of Russia in 1812 was a turning point in the Napoleonic Wars. Napoleon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821 was a French military and political leader who had a significant impact on the History of Europe. References to ancient Russian military heroes such as Alexander Nevski and Mikhail Kutuzov appeared. Saint Alexander Nevsky (Алекса́ндр Яросла́вич Не́вский in Russian; transliteration Aleksandr Yaroslavich Nevskij) ( May 30 Prince Mikhail Illarionovich Golenishchev-Kutuzov (князь Михаи́л Илларио́нович Голени́щев-Куту́зов ( &mdash) was the Russian Repressions against the Russian Orthodox Church stopped, and priests revived the tradition of blessing arms before battle. See also Eastern Orthodox Church Structure and organization The Slavic Orthodox Church is organized in a hierarchical structure The Communist Party abolished the institution of political commissars — although it soon restored them. A political commissar, or politruk, is an officer appointed by a government to oversee a unit of the military The Red Army re-introduced military ranks and adopted many additional individual distinctions such as medals and orders. The concept of the Imperial Guard re-appeared: units which had shown exceptional heroism in combat gained the designation of Guards unit (for example 1st Guards Special Rifle Corps, 6th Guards Tank Army). Guards units are elite units and formations in the armed forces of the former Soviet Union Belarus Russia and Ukraine The 1st Guards Special Rifle Corps was a hastily formed Red Army blocking formation active briefly in 1941 during the German advance on Moscow. The 6th Guards Red Banner Tank Army was a Tank army of the Soviet Union's Red Army, first formed during World War II and disbanded in This designation was more than symbolic, as Guards units had a more effectice TOE (table of organisation & equipment), and were thus allowed to draw better equipment, and drew the best recruits from training grounds and academies. Guardsmen also drew higher pay, and outranked non-guardsmen of the same nominal rank.
During the Great Patriotic War, the Red Army conscripted 29,574,900 men in addition to the 4,826,907 in service at the beginning of the war. Conscription (also known as the draft, the call-up or national service) is a general term for involuntary labor demanded by some established authority Of these it lost 6,329,600 KIA, 555,400 deaths by disease and 4,559,000 MIA (most captured). Of these 11,444,100, however, 939,700 re-joined the ranks in the subsequently-liberated Soviet territory, and a further 1,836,000 returned from German captivity. Thus the grand total of losses amounted to 8,668,400. The majority of the losses, excluding POWs, being ethnic Russians (5,756,000), followed by ethnic Ukrainians (1,377,400). The Russian people (Русские— Russkie) are an East Slavic Ethnic group, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries Ukrainians (Українці Ukrayintsi,) are an East Slavic Ethnic group primarily living in Ukraine, or more broadly— Citizens  However, as many as 8 million of the 34 million mobilized were non-Slavic minority soldiers, and around 45 divisions formed from national minorities served from 1941 to 1943. 
The German losses on the Eastern Front comprised an estimated 3,604,800 KIA within the 1937 borders plus 900,000 ethnic Germans and Austrians. Approximately 1,800,000 MIA and 3,576,300 captured (total 9,881,100); the losses of the German satellites on the Eastern Front approximated 668,163 KIA/MIA and 799,982 captured (total 1,468,145). Of these 11,349,245, the Soviets released 3,572,600 from captivity after the war, thus the grand total of the Axis losses came to an estimated 7,776,645.  As regards prisoners of war, both sides captured large numbers and had many die in captivity - one recent Russian figure says 3,6 of 6 million Soviet POWs died in German camps, while 300,000 of 3 million German POWs died in Soviet hands. 
In the first part of the war, the Red Army fielded weaponry of mixed quality. It had excellent artillery, but it did not have enough trucks to maneuver and supply it; as a result the Wehrmacht (which rated it highly) captured much of it. Red Army T-34 tanks generally outclassed other tanks until 1943, yet most of the Soviet armored units were less advanced models; likewise, the same supply problem handicapped even the formations equipped with the most modern tanks. The T-34 was a Soviet medium tank produced from 1941 to 1958 It is widely regarded as having been the world's best Tank when the Soviet Union The Soviet Air Force initially performed poorly against the Germans. The quick advance of the Germans into the Soviet territory made reinforcement and replacements much more difficult since much of the Soviet Union's military industry lay in the west of the country. Until the Soviet authorities re-established the industry east of the Urals, much improvisation was necessary, and Soviet units were routinely far below their weapons establishment levels. 
After World War II the Soviet Army had the most powerful land army in history. Riga (Rīga riːga) the Capital of Latvia, is situated on the Baltic Sea coast on the mouth of the river Daugava. It had more tanks or artillery than all other countries taken together, more soldiers, and large numbers of greatly experienced commanders and staffs. The British Chiefs of Staff Committee rejected as militarily unfeasible a British contingency plan, Operation Unthinkable, to destroy Stalin's government and drive the Red Army out of Europe. The Chiefs of Staff Committee is composed of the most senior Military personnel in the British Armed Forces. Operation Unthinkable was a plan ordered by British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and developed by the British Armed Forces' Joint Planning Staff 
To mark the final step in the transformation from a revolutionary militia to a regular army of a sovereign state, the Red Army gained the official name of the "Soviet Army" in 1946. Georgi Zhukov took over as chief of the Soviet Ground Forces in March 1946, but was quickly succeeded by Ivan Konev in July. Ivan Stepanovich Konev ( Ива́н Степа́нович Ко́нев ( &ndash May 21, 1973) was a Soviet military commander who led Red Konev held the appointment until 1950, when the position was abolished for five years. Scott and Scott speculate that the gap 'probably was associated in some manner with the Korean War'. The Korean War refers to a period of military conflict between North Korean and South Korean regimes with major hostilities lasting from June 25 1950 until the 
The size of the Soviet Armed Forces declined from around 11. The Soviet Armed Forces refers to the armed forces of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics from its establishment during the Russian Civil War in 1918 by the 3 million to approximately 2. 8 million men from 1945 to 1948.  In order to control this demobilization process, the number of military districts was temporarily increased to thirty-three, dropping to twenty-one in 1946. Military districts are formations of a state's armed forces (often of the Army which are responsible for a certain area of territory  The size of the Armed Forces throughout the Cold War remained between 2. Cold War is the state of conflict tension and competition that existed between the United States and the Soviet Union (USSR and their respective allies from the 8 million and 5. 3 million, according to Western estimates.  Soviet law required all able-bodied males of age to serve a minimum of three years until 1967, when the Ground Forces draft obligation was reduced to two years.  Soviet Army units which had "liberated" the countries of Eastern Europe from German rule remained in some of them to secure the régimes in what became Warsaw Pact satellite states of the Soviet Union and to deter NATO forces. The Warsaw Pact (see Nomenclature) was an organization of Communist states in Central and Eastern Europe. Satellite state is a political term that refers to a country which is formally independent but under heavy influence or control by another country The North Atlantic Treaty The Soviet Army may also have been involved alongside the NKVD in suppressing Western Ukrainian resistance to Soviet rule. The NKVD ( НКВД, ru Народный Комиссариат Внутренних Дел ''Narodnyy Komissariat Vnutrennikh Del'') or People's Commissariat The Ukrainian Insurgent Army (Українська Повстанська Армія U krayins’ka P ovstans’ka A rmiya, UPA The greatest Soviet military presence was in the Group of Soviet Forces in Germany, but other Groups of Forces were also established in Poland, Czechoslovakia, and Hungary (the Southern Group of Forces). The Group of Soviet Forces in Germany (1949&ndash88 (ГСВГ Группа советских войск в Германии also known as the Group of Soviet Occupation Forces The Northern Group of Forces was the military formation of the Soviet Army stationed in Poland from the end of Second World War in 1945 until 1993 when The Southern Group of Forces was a Soviet Army formation formed twice following the Second World War, most notably around the time of the Hungarian Revolution In the Soviet Union itself, forces were divided by the 1950s among fifteen military districts, including the Moscow, Leningrad, and Baltic Military Districts. Military districts are formations of a state's armed forces (often of the Army which are responsible for a certain area of territory The Moscow Military District is a Military district of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation. The Leningrad Military District is a Military district of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation. The Baltic Military District was a Military district of the Soviet armed forces formed briefly before the German invasion, and then reformed after World War As a result of the Sino-Soviet border conflict, a sixteenth military district was created in 1969, the Central Asian Military District, with headquarters at Alma-Ata. The Sino-Soviet border conflict of 1969 refers to a series of armed border clashes between the Soviet Union and People's Republic of China at the height Almaty ( Алматы; formerly known as Alma-Ata ( Алма-Ата) also Verniy, (Верный is the largest city in Kazakhstan 
In order to secure Soviet interests in Eastern Europe, the Soviet Army broke up 1950s anti-Soviet uprisings in the German Democratic Republic (1953), and Hungary in 1956. The German Democratic Republic ( GDR; Deutsche Demokratische Republik DDR; commonly known in English as East Germany) was a Socialist state Hungary (Magyarország 'mɔɟɔrorsaːg) officially in English the Republic of Hungary ( Magyar Köztársaság, literally Magyar (Hungarian Republic Soon afterward, Nikita Khrushchev started reducing the Ground Forces, placing more emphasis on the Armed Forces' nuclear capability, and building up the Strategic Rocket Forces. Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (April 17 1894 – September 11 1971 served as First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964 following The Strategic Rocket Forces of Russian Federation or RVSNRF ( Russian: Ракетные войска стратегического назначения Российской In doing so he ousted Zhukov, who had opposed the reductions, from the Politburo in 1957. The Soviet Ground Forces again crushed an anti-Soviet revolt in Czechoslovakia in 1968, bringing the Prague Spring to an untimely end. Czechoslovakia may also refer to what is now the Czech Republic and Slovakia. The Prague Spring ( Czech: Pražské jaro, Slovak: Pražská jar) was a period of political liberalization in Czechoslovakia during In 1979 the Soviet Union entered Afghanistan in support of a Communist government, a move that sparked a ten-year guerilla resistance. The Soviet war in Afghanistan, also known as the Soviet-Afghan War or just the Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan, was a nine-year conflict involving
The Soviet Union reorganized the Ground Forces for war involving nuclear weapons, though Soviet forces did not possess sufficient theatre nuclear weapons to meet war planning requirements until the mid 1980s.  The General Staff maintained plans to invade Western Europe whose massive scale was only made publicly available after German researchers gained access to National People's Army files following the collapse of the Soviet Union. The General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation is the military staff of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation. History The creation of the National People’s Army on March 1, 1956, six months after the formation of the West German Bundeswehr, followed years 
From around 1985 to 1990, the new leader of the Soviet Union Mikhail Gorbachev attempted to reduce the strain the Army placed on economic demands. Berlin is the capital city and one of sixteen states of Germany. Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev ( Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachyov;; born 2 March 1931 in Privolnoye Stavropol Krai) is a Russian politician His government slowly reduced the size of the army. In 1989 Soviet forces left Afghanistan. By the end of 1990, the entire Eastern Bloc had collapsed in the wake of democratic revolutions. As a result, Soviet citizens quickly began to turn against the Communist government as well. In 1990 the Baltic republics began declare their independence. Gorbachev reacted in limited fashion, declining to turn the Army against the citizenry, and a crisis developed. By mid-1991, the Soviet Union had reached a state of emergency. 
According to the official commission, the Academy of Soviet Scientists, immediately after the Soviet coup attempt of 1991, the Armed Forces did not play a significant role in what some describe as coup d'état by old-guard communists. The 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt ( August 19 - August 21, 1991) also known as the August Putsch or August Coup was a three-day Commanders sent tanks into the streets of Moscow, but (according to all the commanders and soldiers) only with orders to ensure the safety of the people. Moscow (Москва́ romanised: Moskvá, IPA: see also other names) is the Capital and the largest city of It remains unclear why exactly the military forces entered the city, but they clearly did not have the goal of overthrowing Gorbachev (absent on the Black Sea coast at the time) or the government. Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev ( Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachyov;; born 2 March 1931 in Privolnoye Stavropol Krai) is a Russian politician The coup failed primarily because the participants didn't take any decisive action, and after several days of their inaction the coup simply stopped. Only one confrontation took place between civilians and the tank crews during the coup, which led to the deaths of three civilians. Although the victims became proclaimed heroes, the authorities acquitted the tank crew of all charges. Nobody issued orders to shoot at anyone. 
Following the coup attempt of August 1991, the leadership of the Soviet Union retained practically no authority over the component republics. Nearly every Soviet Republic declared its intention to secede and began passing laws defying the Supreme Soviet. On December 8, 1991, the Presidents of Russia, Belarus, and Ukraine declared the Soviet Union dissolved and signed the document setting up the Commonwealth of Independent States. Events 1609 - Biblioteca Ambrosiana opens its reading room the second public library of Europe. Year 1991 ( MCMXCI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar. Gorbachev finally resigned on December 25, 1991, and the following day the Supreme Soviet, the highest governmental body, dissolved itself, officially ending the Soviet Union's existence. Events 274 - Roman Emperor Aurelian For the next year and a half various attempts to keep its unity and transform it into the military of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) failed. Steadily, the units stationed in Ukraine and other breakaway republics swore loyalty to their new national governments. Ukraine (Україна Ukrayina, /ukrɑˈjinɑ/ is a country in Eastern Europe.
After the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Soviet Army dissolved and the USSR's successor states divided its assets among themselves. The Soviet Union 's collapse into independent nations began early in 1985 Succession of states is a theory in International relations regarding the recognition and acceptance of a newly created State by other states based on The divide mostly occurred along a regional basis, with Soviet soldiers from Russia becoming part of the new Russian Army, while Soviet soldiers originating from Kazakhstan became part of the new Kazakh Army. The Military of Kazakhstan is derived from a remnant force of the former Soviet Union. As a result, the bulk of the Soviet Ground Forces, including most of the Scud and Scaleboard Surface-to-surface missile (SSM) forces, became incorporated in the Russian Ground Forces. Scud is a series of Tactical ballistic missiles developed by the Soviet Union during the Cold War and exported widely to other countries The TR-1 Temp is a mobile Theatre ballistic missile developed and deployed by the Soviet Union during the Cold War. A surface-to-surface missile (also ground-to-ground missile, SSM or GTGM) is a guided projectile launched from a hand-held vehicle mounted trailer mounted The Russian Ground Forces (Сухопутные войска Российской Федерации tr (1992 estimates showed five SSM brigades with 96 missile vehicles in Belarus and twelve SSM brigades with 204 missile vehicles in Ukraine, compared to 24 SSM brigades with over 900 missile vehicles under Russian Ground Forces' control, some in other former Soviet republics). Belarus ( Belarusian Беларусь / Biełaruś is a Landlocked country in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the north and east Ukraine (Україна Ukrayina, /ukrɑˈjinɑ/ is a country in Eastern Europe.  By the end of 1992, most remnants of the Soviet Army in former Soviet Republics had disbanded. Military forces garrisoned in Eastern Europe (including the Baltic states) gradually returned home between 1991 and 1994. The Baltic states (Balti riigid Baltijas valstis Baltijos valstybės or Baltic countries are three countries in Northern Europe, all members of the This list of Soviet Army divisions sketches some of the fates of the individual parts of the Ground Forces. Motor Rifle Divisions Tank Divisions Divisions Disbanded 1945–89 Disbanded 1958(?← 1957 7th MRD
In mid-March 1992, Yeltsin appointed himself as the new Russian minister of defense, marking a crucial step in the creation of the new Russian armed forces, comprising the bulk of what was still left of the military. The Armed Forces of the Russian Federation (UTC (Вооружённые Си́лы Росси́йской Федера́ции Transliteration Vooruzhyónniye Síly Rossíyskoy Federátsii The last vestiges of the old Soviet command structure were finally dissolved in June 1993, when the paper Commonwealth of Independent States Military Headquarters was reorganized as a staff for facilitating CIS military cooperation. 
In the next few years, the former Soviet Ground Forces withdrew from central and Eastern Europe (including the Baltic states), as well as from the newly independent post-Soviet republics of Azerbaijan, Armenia, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan. The Baltic states (Balti riigid Baltijas valstis Baltijos valstybės or Baltic countries are three countries in Northern Europe, all members of the Azerbaijan ( English; Azərbaycan officially the Republic of Azerbaijan (Azərbaycan Respublikası is the largest and most populous country in the South Armenia (Հայաստան transliterated: Hayastan,) officially the Republic of Armenia (Հայաստանի Հանրապետություն Hayastani Uzbekistan, officially the Republic of Uzbekistan ( Uzbek: O‘zbekiston Respublikasi or Ўзбекистон Республикаси is a doubly Kazakhstan, also Kazakstan ( Қазақстан, Qazaqstan, qɑzɑqˈstɑn Казахстан, Kazakhstán,) officially the Kyrgyzstan (ˈkɻ̩gɪztɑn (AmE or /'kɝgəztan/ (BrE Kyrgyz: Кыргызстан; Russian: Киргизия or Киргизстан or Кыргызстан Now-Russian Ground Forces remained in Tajikistan, Abkhazia, Georgia, and Transnistria. The Russian Ground Forces (Сухопутные войска Российской Федерации tr Tajikistan (təˈdʒɪkɨstæn or /təˈdʒiːkɨstæn/ Тоҷикистон tɔʤikɪsˈtɔn or, Persian تاجیکستان taajikestaan officially the Republic of Abkhazia (Аҧсны Apsny აფხაზეთი Apkhazeti or Abkhazeti Абха́зия Abhazia) is a De facto The Transcaucasian Military District, a Military district of the Soviet Armed Forces, traces its history to May 1921 and the incorporation of Armenia,
At the beginning of its existence, the Red Army functioned as a voluntary formation, without ranks or insignia. Democratic elections selected the officers. However, a decree of May 29, 1918 imposed obligatory military service for men of ages 18 to 40. Events 363 - Roman Emperor Julian defeats the Sassanid army in the Battle of Ctesiphon, under the walls of the Year 1918 ( MCMXVIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common  To service the massive draft, the Bolsheviks formed regional military commissariats (voyennyy komissariat, abbr. voyenkomat), which as of 2006 still exist in Russia in this function and under this name. Military commissariats however should not be confused with the institution of military political commissars. A political commissar, or politruk, is an officer appointed by a government to oversee a unit of the military
In the mid-1920s the territorial principal of manning the Red Army was introduced. Red flags can signify a warning Martial law, defiance or Left-wing politics In each region able-bodied men were called up for a limited period of active duty in territorial units, which comprised about half the Army's strength, each year, for five years.  The first call-up period was for three months, with one month a year thereafter. A regular cadre provided a stable nucleus. By 1925 this system provided 46 of the 77 infantry divisions and one of the eleven cavalry divisions. The remainder consisted of regular officers and enlisted personnel serving two-year terms. The territorial system was finally abolished, with all remaining formations converted to the other cadre divisions, in 1937–38. 
Under Stalin's campaign for mechanization, the army formed its first mechanized unit in 1930. Mechanization or mechanisation ( BE) is providing human operators with machinery to assist them with the physical requirements of work The 1st Mechanized Brigade, consisting of a tank regiment, a motorized infantry regiment, and reconnaissance and artillery battalions.  From this humble beginning, the Soviets would go on to create the first operational-level armored formations in history, the 11th and 45th Mechanized Corps, in 1932. These were tank-heavy formations with combat support forces included so they could survive while operating in enemy rear areas without support from a parent front. A Front (фронт was a major Military organization in the Soviet Army, roughly equivalent to an Army group in the military terminology of other countries
Impressed by the German campaign of 1940 against France, the Soviet NKO ordered the creation of nine mechanized corps on July 6, 1940. Events 1044 - The Battle of Ménfő takes place 1189 - Richard the Lionheart is crowned King of England Year 1940 ( MCMXL) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Between February and March 1941 another twenty would be ordered, and all larger than those of Tukhachevsky. Although, on paper, by 1941 the Red Army's 29 mechanized corps had no less than 29,899 tanks they proved to be a paper tiger.  There were actually only 17,000 tanks available at the time, meaning several of the new mechanized corps were under strength. The pressure placed on factories and military planners to show production numbers also led to a situation where the majority of armored vehicles were obsolescent models, critically lacking in spare parts and support equipment, and nearly three quarters were overdue for major maintenance.  By June 22, 1941 there were only 1,475 T-34s and KV series tanks available to the Red Army, and these were too dispersed along the front to provide enough mass for even local success. Events 217 BC - Battle of Raphia: Ptolemy IV of Egypt defeats Antiochus III the Great of the Seleucid kingdom. Year 1941 ( MCMXLI) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (the link will display 1941 calendar of the Gregorian calendar.  To put this into perspective, the 3rd Mechanised Corps in Lithuania was formed up of a total of 460 tanks, 109 of these were newer KV-1s and T-34s. The 3rd Mechanised Corps was a formation of the Red Army now a part of the Russian Ground Forces as the 20th Motor Rifle Division This division would prove to be one of the lucky few with a substantial number of newer tanks. However, the 4th Army was composed of 520 tanks, all of which were the obsolete T-26, as opposed to the authorized strength of 1,031 newer medium tanks.  This problem was universal throughout the Red Army's available armour. This fact would play a crucial role in the initial defeats of the Red Army in 1941 at the hands of the German Armed Forces. 
Like other armies, the Red Army used administrative departments (called Directorates) to develop, train and equip the many combat Arms of Service troops and their Service Corps support echelons. These were:
Headquarters and Staff
Combat support branches
Combat service support branches
War experience prompted changes to the way front-line forces were organized. Stavka (Ставка was the term used to refer to command element of Armed forces from the time of the Kievan Rus′, more formally during the history There were a number of military academies in the Soviet Union of different specialties The Rear Services of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation (Тыл Вооружëнных Сил Российской Федерации transcription: Tyl Vooruzhonnykh The Cavalry (from French cavalerie) is the second oldest of the Combat Arms, and as Soldiers or Warriors who fought mounted on Reconnaissance (also scouting) is a military and medical term denoting exploration conducted to gain information Armoured warfare or tank warfare is the use of Armoured fighting vehicles in Modern warfare. Artillery (from French artillerie) is a military Combat Arm which employs any apparātus machine The Russian Airborne Troops or VDV (from "Vozdushno-Desantnye Vojska" Russian: Воздушно-десантные войска = ВДВ Combat engineering is a Combat service support role of using the knowledge tools and techniques of Engineering by troops in peace and war but specifically in Military communications, or Signals ( not to be confused with military Line of communications (LOC is a field of Military activities tactics Chemical warfare involves using the toxic properties of Chemical substances to kill injure or incapacitate an enemy. Internal Troops, full name Internal Troops of the Ministry for Internal Affairs (MVD ( Russian: Внутренние войска Министерства Military law is a distinct legal system to which members of Armed forces are subject Military police ( MPs) are normally the Police of a Military Organization. Military railways are a form of Transport communication technology used by the Military forces for movement of Strategically significant forces Bulk Veterinary medicine the application of medical, diagnostic, and therapeutic principles to companion, domestic, exotic, wildlife After six months of combat against the Germans, STAVKA abolished the Rifle Corps intermediate level between the Army and Division level because while useful in theory, in the inexperienced state of the Red Army, they proved ineffective in practice. Stavka (Ставка was the term used to refer to command element of Armed forces from the time of the Kievan Rus′, more formally during the history The term Army, besides its generalized meaning (see " Army " specifically denotes a major military formation in militaries of various countries including A division is a large Military unit or formation usually consisting of around ten to thirty thousand soldiers  Following victory in the Battle of Moscow in summer of 1942, the High Command began to reintroduce Rifle Corps into its most experienced formations. The Battle of Moscow (Битва под Москвой Romanized: Bitva pod Moskvoy, Schlacht um Moskau is the name given by the Soviet historians to the two The total number of Rifle Corps started at 62 on 22 June 1941, dropped to six by 1 January 1942, but then increased to 34 by February 1943, and 161 by New Years' Day 1944. Actual strengths of front-line divisions, authorized to contain 11,000 men in July 1941, were mostly no more than 50% of established strengths during 1941, and divisions were often worn down on continuous operations to hundreds of men or even less.
On the outbreak of war the Red Army deployed mechanized corps and tank divisions whose development has been described above. The German attack battered many severely, and in the course of 1941 virtually all (barring two in the Transbaikal Military District) were disbanded. The Transbaikal Military District (Забайкальский военный округ (ЗабВO was a Military district of first the Military of the Soviet Union  It was much easier to coordinate smaller forces, and separate tank brigades and battalions were substituted. It was late 1942 and early 1943 before larger tank formations of corps size were fielded in order to employ armor en mass again. A tank corps was a Soviet armoured formation used since after the beginning of World War II. By mid 1942 these corps were being grouped together into Tank Armies whose strength by the end of the war could be up to 700 tanks and 50,000 men.
At the end of the Great Patriotic War the Red Army had over 500 rifle divisions and about a tenth that number of tank formations. Development of Red Army tactics begun during the Russian Civil War, and are still a subject of study in the post- Cold War Defence studies of the  Their experience of war gave the Soviets such faith in tank forces that from that point the number of tank divisions remained virtually unchanged, whereas the wartime infantry force was cut by two-thirds. The Tank Corps of the late war period were converted to tank divisions, and from 1957 the Rifle Divisions were converted to Motor Rifle Divisions (MRDs). A tank corps was a Soviet armoured formation used since after the beginning of World War II. MRDs had three motorized rifle regiments and a tank regiment, for a total of ten motor rifle battalions and six tank battalions; tank divisions had the proportions reversed.
By the middle of the 1980s the Ground Forces contained about 210 manoeuvre divisions. Motor Rifle Divisions Tank Divisions Divisions Disbanded 1945–89 Disbanded 1958(?← 1957 7th MRD About three-quarters were motor rifle divisions and the remainder tank divisions.  There were also a large number of artillery divisions, separate artillery brigades, engineer formations, and other combat support formations. However only relatively few formations were fully war ready. Three readiness categories, A, B, and V, after the first three letters of the Cyrillic alphabet, were in force. The Category A divisions were certified combat-ready and were fully equipped. B and V divisions were lower-readiness, 50–75% (requiring at least 72 hours of preparation) and 10–33% (requiring two months) respectively.  The internal military districts usually contained only one or two A divisions, with the remainder B and V series formations.
Soviet planning for most of the Cold War period would have seen Armies of four to five divisions operating in Fronts made up of around four armies (and roughly equivalent to Western Army Groups). Cold War is the state of conflict tension and competition that existed between the United States and the Soviet Union (USSR and their respective allies from the The term Army, besides its generalized meaning (see " Army " specifically denotes a major military formation in militaries of various countries including A Front (фронт was a major Military organization in the Soviet Army, roughly equivalent to an Army group in the military terminology of other countries An army group is a Military organization consisting of several field armies, which is self-sufficient for indefinite periods In the late 1970s and early 1980s new High Commands in the Strategic Directions were created to control multi-Front operations in Europe (the Western and South-Western Strategic Directions) and at Baku to handle southern operations, and in the Soviet Far East. Baku (Bakı sometimes known as Baqy, Baky, Baki or Bakü, is the capital the largest city and the largest port of Azerbaijan
The Bolshevik authorities assigned to every unit of the Red Army a political commissar, or politruk, who had the authority to override unit commanders' decisions if they ran counter to the principles of the Communist Party. A political commissar, or politruk, is an officer appointed by a government to oversee a unit of the military A Political party described as a communist party includes those that advocate the application of the social principles of Communism through a communist form of Although this sometimes resulted in inefficient command, the Party leadership considered political control over the military necessary, as the Army relied more and more on experienced officers from the pre-revolutionary Tsarist period. Tsar csar and tzar redirect here For other uses see Tsar (disambiguation. This system was abolished in 1925, as there were by that time enough trained Communist officers that counter-signing of all orders was no longer necessary. 
The early Red Army abandoned the institution of a professional officer corps as a "heritage of tsarism" in the course of the Revolution. The military ranks of the Soviet Union were those introduced after the October Revolution of 1917 An officer is a member of an armed force who holds a position of authority In particular, the Bolsheviks condemned the use of the word "officer" and used the word "commander" instead. An officer is a member of an armed force who holds a position of authority Commander is a Military rank which is also sometimes used as a military title depending on the individual customs of a given military service The Red Army abandoned epaulettes and ranks, using purely functional titles such as "Division Commander", "Corps Commander", and similar titles. Epaulette (ˈɛpǝlɛt is a French word meaning "little shoulder" (from épaule, meaning "shoulder" Military rank is a system of hierarchical relationships in Armed forces or civil institutions organized along military lines A title is a prefix or suffix added to a person's name to signify either veneration an official position or a professional or academic qualification 
On September 22, 1935 the Red Army abandoned service categories and introduced personal ranks. Events 66 - Emperor Nero creates the Legion I Italica. 1236 - The Lithuanians Year 1935 ( MCMXXXV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. These ranks, however, used a unique mix of functional titles and traditional ranks. For example, the ranks included "Lieutenant" and "Comdiv" (Комдив, Division Commander). Lieutenant (abbreviated Lt or Lieut) is a Military, Naval, Paramilitary, Fire service, Emergency medical services Comdiv (or Komdiv Russian комдив "komdiv" abbreviated командир дивизии "Commander of the division" was a military rank in the Red Further complications ensued from the functional and categorical ranks for political officers (e. g. , "Brigade Commissar", "Army Commissar 2nd Rank"), for technical corps (e. g. , "Engineer 3rd Rank", "Division Engineer"), for administrative, medical and other non-combatant branches.
The Marshal of the Soviet Union (Маршал Советского Союза) rank was introduced on the 17th March 1940 as part of the proposal by Voroshilov to rationalise ranks. Marshal of the Soviet Union ( Marshal Sovietskovo Soyuza Советского Союза'' was the de facto highest military rank of the Soviet Union. On May 7, 1940 further modifications to the system took place. Events 558 - In Constantinople, the dome of the Hagia Sophia collapses Year 1940 ( MCMXL) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The ranks of "General" or "Admiral" replaced the senior functional ranks of Combrig, Comdiv, Comcor, Comandarm; the other senior functional ranks ("Division Commissar", "Division Engineer", etc) remained unaffected. Admiral is the rank, or part of the name of the ranks of the highest Naval officers Combrig (or Kombrig Russian комбриг "kombrig" abbreviated командир бригады "Commander of the brigade" was a military rank used Comdiv (or Komdiv Russian комдив "komdiv" abbreviated командир дивизии "Commander of the division" was a military rank in the Red Comcor (or Komkor Russian комкор "komkor" abbreviated Командир корпуса "Commander of the Corps" was a military rank in the Comandarm (also Komandarm Commandarm Russian "командарм" - abbreviated "командир армии" Commander of the Army was a Military rank The Arm or Service distinctions remained (e. g. General of Cavalry, Marshal of Armoured Troops).  For the most part the new system restored that used by the Imperial Russian Army at the conclusion of its participation in WWI. The Military history of Imperial Russia encompasses the period of warfare in which Russian Empire ground, naval and air forces participated from its creation
In early 1943 a unification of the system saw the abolition of all the remaining functional ranks. The word "officer" became officially endorsed, together with the epaulettes that superseded the previous rank insignia. Epaulette (ˈɛpǝlɛt is a French word meaning "little shoulder" (from épaule, meaning "shoulder" Insignia (the plural of Latin insigne: emblem symbol is a Symbol or Token of personal power, Status or Office The ranks and insignia of 1943 did not change much until the last days of the USSR; the contemporary Russian Army uses largely the same system. The Russian Ground Forces (Сухопутные войска Российской Федерации tr
During the Civil War the commander cadres received training at the General Staff Academy of the RKKA, an alias of the Nicholas General Staff Academy of the Russian Empire. There were a number of military academies in the Soviet Union of different specialties This article refers to the general definition of cadet A Cadet may also be a member of the Cadets, a historical Russian Political party. Chuhuiv (Чугуїв Чугуeв translit Chuguev) is a City in the Kharkiv Oblast ( province) of eastern Ukraine The Russian Civil War (1917–1923 was a multi-party war that occurred within the former Russian Empire after the Russian provisional government collapsed In the early 1920s this academuy became the Soviet Frunze Military Academy. There were a number of military academies in the Soviet Union of different specialties The senior and supreme commanders received training at the Higher Military Academic Courses, renamed in 1925 as the Advanced Courses for Supreme Command; in 1931, the establishment of an Operations Faculty at the Frunze Military Academy supplemented these courses. April 2, 1936 saw the re-instatement of the General Staff Academy; it would become a principal school for the senior and supreme commanders of the Red Army, as well as a center for advanced military studies. Events 68 - Galba, Governor of Hispania, names himself legatus senatus populique Romani, breaking the line of Year 1936 ( MCMXXXVI) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The General Staff Academy of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation (Военная академия Генерального штаба Вооруженных Сил Российской  Eventually, most General Staff officers gained extensive combat experience and solid academic training.
The late 1930s saw the so-called "Purges of the Red Army cadres", occurring against the historical background of the Great Purge. Great Purge (Большая чистка transliterated Bolshaya chistka) was a series of campaigns of Political repression and Persecution The Purges had the objective of cleansing the Red Army of the "politically unreliable element", mainly among the higher-ranking officers. This inevitably provided a convenient pretext for settling personal vendettas and eventually resulted in a witch hunt. "Witch trial" redirects here For the song by Rush, see Fear series. Some observers believe that the Purges weakened the Red Army considerably, but this remains a hotly debated subject. Many commentators overlook the fact that the Red Army grew significantly in numbers during the peak of the Purges. In 1937, the Red Army numbered around 1. 3 million, and it grew to almost three times that number by June 1941. This necessitated quick promotion of junior officers, often despite their lack of experience or training, with obvious grave implications. In another important consideration, by the end of the Purges the pendulum swung back, restoring and promoting many of the purged officers.
Recently declassified data indicate that in 1937, at the height of the Purges, the Red Army had 114,300 officers, of whom 11,034 suffered repression and did not gain rehabilitation until 1940. Yet, in 1938, the Red Army had 179,000 officers, 56% more than in 1937, of whom a further 6,742 suffered repression and did not gain rehabilitation until 1940.
In the highest echelons of the Red Army the Purges removed 3 of 5 marshals, 13 of 15 army generals, 8 of 9 admirals, 50 of 57 army corps generals, 154 out of 186 division generals, 16 of 16 army commissars, and 25 of 28 army corps commissars. 
The result was that the Red Army officer corps in 1941 had many inexperienced senior officers. While 60% of regimental commanders had two years or more of command experience in June 1941, and almost 80% of rifle division commanders, only 20% of corps commanders, and 5% or fewer army and military district commanders, had the same level of experience. 
The Ground Forces were manned through conscription, which as noted above was reduced in 1967 from three to two years. This system was administered through the thousands of military commissariats (военный комиссариат, военкомат (voyenkomat)) located throughout the Soviet Union. Between January and May of every year, every young Soviet male citizen was required to report to the local voyenkomat for assessment for military service, following a summons based on lists from every school and employer in the area. The voyenkomat worked to quotas sent out by a department of the General Staff, listing how young men are required by each service and branch of the Armed Forces.  The new conscripts were then picked up by an officer from their future unit and usually sent by train across the country. On arrival, they would begin the Young Soldiers' course, and become part of the system of senior rule, known as dedovshchina, literally "rule by the grandfathers. Dedovshchina (дедовщи́на is the name given to the informal system of subjugation of new junior conscripts for the Russian armed forces, Interior " There were only a very small number of professional non-commissioned officers (NCOs), as most NCOs were conscripts sent on short courses to prepare them for section commanders' and platoon sergeants' positions. A non-commissioned officer (sometimes noncommissioned officer) also known as an NCO or Noncom, is an enlisted member of an Armed force These conscript NCOs were supplemented by praporshchik warrant officers, positions created in the 1960s to support the increased variety of skills required for modern weapons. Praporshchik (пра́порщик ˈprapərɕɪk was originally a name of a junior officer position in the military of the Russian Empire equivalent to ensign 
The Soviet Union expanded its indigenous arms industry as part of Stalin's industrialization program in the 1920s and 1930s. This period of the Soviet Union was dominated by Joseph Stalin, who sought to reshape Soviet society with aggressive economic planning in particular a sweeping collectivization of agriculture
Notable Soviet tanks include the T-34, T-54 and T-55, T-62, T-72, and T-80, as well as post-Soviet variants of the T-72 and T-80 such as the T-90 and T-84. The T-34 was a Soviet medium tank produced from 1941 to 1958 It is widely regarded as having been the world's best Tank when the Soviet Union The T-54 and T-55 tank were a series of Main battle tanks designed by the Soviet Union. The T-62 Soviet Main battle tank is a further development of the T-55. The T-72 is a Soviet -designed Main battle tank that entered production in 1971 The T-80 is a Main battle tank which was designed in the Soviet Union and entered service in 1976 The T-72 is a Soviet -designed Main battle tank that entered production in 1971 The T-80 is a Main battle tank which was designed in the Soviet Union and entered service in 1976 The GPO Uralvagonzavod T-90 is a Russian main battle tank derived from the T-72, and is currently the most modern tank in the Russian The T-84 is a Ukrainian Main battle tank, a development of the Soviet T-80 main battle tank  Hand weapons used during the Second World War included, for example, the Mosin-Nagant Rifle, which was also used as a sniper rifle and the PPSh sub-machine gun. The Mosin-Nagant (Винтовка Мосина ISO 9:) is a Bolt-action, internal magazine fed military Rifle that was used by the armed forces The PPSh-41 ( P istolet- P ulemyot Sh pagina; Пистолет-пулемёт Шпагина; Shpagin Machine Pistol; nicknamed 
The Soviet meaning of military doctrine was much different from U. S. military usage of the term. Minister of Defence of Soviet Union Marshal Andrei Grechko defined it in 1975 as 'a system of views on the nature of war and methods of waging it, and on the preparation of the country and army for war, officially adopted in a given state and its armed forces. Andrei Antonovich Grechko (Андре́й Анто́нович Гречко́ October 17, 1903 &ndash April 26, 1976) Soviet ' Soviet theorists emphasized both the political and 'military-technical' sides of military doctrine, while from the Soviet point of view, Westerners ignored the political side. However the political side of Soviet military doctrine, Western commentators Harriet F Scott and William Scott said, 'best explained Soviet moves in the international arena'.