The Reconquista (a Spanish and Portuguese word for "Reconquest") was a period of 750 years in which several Christian kingdoms expanded themselves over the Iberian Peninsula at the expense of the Muslim Moorish states of Al-Andalus (Arabic الأندلس, al-andalus). Portuguese ( or língua portuguesa) is a Romance language that originated in what is now Galicia (Spain and northern Portugal. A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra A Muslim (مسلم pronounced Muslim, not Muzlim) is an adherent of the Religion The description Moors has referred to several historic and modern populations of Muslim (and earlier non-Muslim people of Berber and Arab descent Al-Andalus (الأندلس was the Arabic name given to those parts of the Iberian Peninsula governed by Muslims or Arabic (ar الْعَرَبيّة (informally ar عَرَبيْ) in terms of the number of speakers is the largest living member of the Semitic language
The Christian rulers widely proclaimed that they were re-conquering Christian territory that had been previously lost. This claim ensured that Christian reinforcements would continue to arrive from other Christian realms, especially because the Papacy in Rome continued to support such efforts. History See also History of the Papacy Catholics recognize the Pope as a successor to Saint Peter, who Jesus named as the "shepherd" and Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2
In reality the situation was much more nuanced and complicated. Christian or Muslim rulers would, from time to time, fight amongst themselves and even support certain rulers of the 'other side'. A Muslim (مسلم pronounced Muslim, not Muzlim) is an adherent of the Religion Peace treaties would be signed, reinforced through marriage, and broken on occasion. Blurring the sides even further were groups of mercenaries who disregarded the religious sides on several occasions, fighting simply for whoever paid them better.
The Battle of Covadonga in 722 is considered the official beginning of the Reconquista. The Battle of Covadonga was the first major victory by a Christian military Force in Iberia following the Muslim Moors ' conquest of Events By Place Americas 3 January — K'inich Ahkal Mo' Naab III takes the throne of the Maya state of Palenque
The Portuguese Reconquista ended in 1249 with the conquest of the Algarve (Arabic الغرب — Al-gharb) under Afonso III, the first Portuguese monarch to claim the title "King of Portugal and the Algarve". The Algarve ( pron aɫ'gaɾv(ɨ is the southernmost region of mainland Portugal. Arabic (ar الْعَرَبيّة (informally ar عَرَبيْ) in terms of the number of speakers is the largest living member of the Semitic language Afonso III (ɐˈfõsu in Portuguese; rare English alternatives Alphonzo or Alphonse) or Affonso (Archaic Portuguese
The wider Reconquista, the Portuguese Reconquista being a part of it, came to an end on the 2 January 1492 with the conquest of Granada, as the last Muslim ruler of Granada, Muhammad XII of Granada (Boabdil of Granada) surrendered his kingdom to King Ferdinand II of Aragon and Queen Isabella I of Castile, the Catholic Monarchs (los Reyes Católicos). Events 366 - The Alamanni cross the frozen Rhine River in large numbers invading the Roman Empire. The Battle of Granada was the siege of the city of Granada over a period of months leading up to its capitulation on the 2 January 1492 Abu 'abd-Allah Muhammad XII (أبو عبد الله محمد الثاني عشر (b Ferdinand II of Aragon the Catholic (Fernando II de Aragón y V de Castilla "el Católico" Ferran II d'Aragó "el Catòlic" Ferrando II d'Aragón The Catholic Monarchs (los Reyes Católicos is the collective title used in history for Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon This event ended Muslim rule in the Iberian Peninsula and the creation of a united Roman Catholic nation encompassing most of modern day Spain. Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Navarre remained separate until 1512.
In the 5th century the Visigoths were commissioned by a weakened Western Roman Empire to reconquer Hispania from the Vandals and the Alans. The 5th century is the period from 401 to 500 in accordance with the Julian calendar in Anno Domini / Common Era. The Visigoths (Visigothi, Wisigothi, Vesi, Visi, Wesi, or Wisi were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East The Western Roman Empire refers to the western half of the Roman Empire, from its division by Diocletian in 285 the other half of the Roman Empire was the Eastern The Alans or Alani (occasionally but more rarely termed Alauni or Halani) were an Iranian nomadic group among the Sarmatian people In return, the Visigoths received Roman Hispania and Southern Gaul as foedus. Gaul (Gallia was the Roman name for the region of Western Europe comprising present day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Foederatus (pl foederati) is a Latin term whose definition and usage drifted in the time between the early Roman Republic and the In 476, the last Roman emperor was deposed by Odoacer, and the Visigoths ruled Hispania as an independent kingdom. Events By place Western Roman Empire September 4 — Romulus Augustus, the last Emperor of the Western Roman Empire Romulus Augustus (c 461/463 &ndash after 476 sometimes known as Romulus Augustulus ( Little Augustus) was the last Western Roman Emperor reigning from Odoacer (435–493 also known as Odovacar (from the Germanic Audawakrs, meaning "watchful of wealth" was a Roman general and the
Around AD 711 the Visigothic Kingdom in the Iberian Peninsula was embroiled in a civil war, and divided along unknown lines. Events By Place Europe April 30 — Ummayad troops led by Tariq ibn Ziyad land at Gibraltar, and begin The Visigothic kingdom was a Western European power from the fifth to eighth century one of the Successor states to the Western Roman Empire, originally The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra A civil war is a War between a State and domestic political actors that are in control of some part of the territory claimed by the state On the death of the Visigothic king Wittiza in 710, Roderic was reported to have seized the kingdom and the Byzantine exarch. Wittiza ( Witiza, Witica, Witicha, Vitiza, or Witiges; c 687 &ndash probably 710 was the Visigothic King of For the area code see Area code 710. For the Los Angeles-area freeway see Interstate 710. Ruderic, Roderic, Roderik, Roderich, or Roderick ( Spanish and Portuguese: Rodrigo, Ludhriq, This article is about Byzantine governors and ecclesiastical ranks His enemies included Julian the count of Ceuta; who was sheltering Wittiza's family such as King Achila II, and other partisans along with Arians and Jews fleeing forced conversions at the hands of the Roman Catholic Church. Julian Count of Ceuta was a Legendary Christian local ruler or subordinate ruler in North Africa who had a role in the Umayyad conquest of Hispania - a Ceuta is an autonomous city of Spain located on the Mediterranean, on the North African side of the Strait of Gibraltar, which Achila II (also spelled Agila, Aquila, or Akhila because the sound represented by /j/ did not exist in Latin; died circa 714 was the king of Arianism is the theological teaching of Arius (c AD 250-336 who was ruled a heretic by the Christian church at the Council of Nicea. PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ In 711, Julian is reported to have enjoyed good relations with the Moorish governor of nearby Tangier, Tariq ibn Ziyad and his emir Musa ibn Nusair. Events By Place Europe April 30 — Ummayad troops led by Tariq ibn Ziyad land at Gibraltar, and begin Tangier or Tangiers ]] ( Tanja طنجة in Berber and Arabic, Tánger in Spanish Tariq Ibn Ziyad or Taric bin Zeyad (طارق بن زياد d 720 known in Spanish history and legend as Taric el Tuerto (Taric the one-eyed was Emir ( Arabic: ar أمير;, female أميرة; emira;) ( Farsi and Urdu: امیر) Musa bin Nusair also Musa ben Nusair or Musa Ibn Nusayr (موسى بن نصير 640—716 was a Syrian Muslim who served as a governor and general under This opportunity was seized by the Muslims, who had recently conquered Northern Africa, to launch a single, or perhaps several, raid(s) under the command of Tarif ibn Malluk. The Umayyad conquest of North Africa continued the century of rapid Arab Muslim expansion following the death of Muhammad in 632 CE Tarif ibn Malluk (طريف بن مالك was a Berber commander under Musa ibn Nusair, the Muslim conqueror of North Africa.
It is unclear if there was a single large raid or several smaller ones, and of their initial intentions: the search of plunder, evaluation of the local opposition, or, more likely, a combination of the two. Also involved was a certain Julian, count of Ceuta who aided the Muslims. Julian Count of Ceuta was a Legendary Christian local ruler or subordinate ruler in North Africa who had a role in the Umayyad conquest of Hispania - a His identity, background, and reasons are very unclear — various accounts of popular traditional stories attribute the dispute to his daughter, Florinda also known as La Cava Rumia, being impregnated by Roderic — and may have stemmed from religious as well as political reasons.
Roderic, who was fighting the Basques in the north, reunited his army and marched south to deal with the raiders. The Basques (Euskaldunak are a people who inhabit a region spanning over parts of north-central Spain and southwestern France. However he was defeated, and probably killed, at the Battle of Guadalete by the forces of Tariq ibn Ziyad, partly because of the desertion of Gothic troops under his command at the urging of Wittiza's brother Oppas; the bishop of Seville. The Battle of Guadalete was fought in 711 or 712 at an unidentified location between the Christian Visigoths of Hispania under their king Roderic Tariq Ibn Ziyad or Taric bin Zeyad (طارق بن زياد d 720 known in Spanish history and legend as Taric el Tuerto (Taric the one-eyed was The Goths ( Gothic: Gothic usvg|14px|u]]Gothic asvg|14px|a]]Gothic s Seville ( Spanish: Sevilla, see also different names) is the artistic cultural and financial capital of southern Spain. A large part of the Visigothic nobility also fell in the battle. Nobility is a government-privileged title which may be either hereditary (see Hereditary titles) or for a lifetime The collapse of the military and political Chain of command created a sudden power vacuum, which left the kingdom highly disorganized. In a Military context the chain of command is the line of authority and responsibility along which orders are passed within a Military unit and between different A power vacuum is an expression for a political situation that can occur when a Government has no identifiable central Authority. The Muslims took advantage of this suddenly very advantageous situation and escalated their expedition into a full-fledged invasion. An invasion is a military offensive consisting of all or large parts of the Armed forces of one geopolitical entity aggressively entering territory
In 712 Musa bin Nusair and his son Abd al-Aziz ibn Musa arrived, bringing large reinforcements. Events By Place Europe Ansprand succeeds Aripert as king of the Lombards. Musa bin Nusair also Musa ben Nusair or Musa Ibn Nusayr (موسى بن نصير 640—716 was a Syrian Muslim who served as a governor and general under Abd al-Aziz ibn Musa ibn Nusayr (عبد العزيز بن موسى was the first governor of Al-Andalus, modern day Spain. The Muslim commanders successfully conquered most of the cities and towns. This pushed Achila II, and later his successor Ardo, more and more into the north-west until the Muslims conquered almost the entire Iberian Peninsula. Ardo (or Ardonus, possibly short for Ardabastus, Ardabast; died 720/721 was "the last of all the Visigothic kings" of Hispania All Christian resistance was largely crushed. Pelayo, a noble in charge of Roderic's royal guard (Comes Spatharius), escaped the battle and returned to his native Asturias to regroup. The Principality of Asturias ( Spanish: Principado de Asturias, Asturian: Principáu d'Asturies or Asturies) is an
During the next three years, the Moors conquered the majority of Hispania, often helped and welcomed by the Jews to whom Christian rulers had applied a harsh status and partly by those fugitives enslaved under Ergica's laws. Egica, Ergica, or Egicca (c 610 &ndash 702 was the Visigoth King of Hispania (the Iberian Peninsula) from 687 until The conquered survivors were largely allowed to keep their property and social status, but most of the local rulers in key positions were replaced by Arab Muslims. While the conversion to Islam was probably always encouraged by the Muslim elite, Christianity and Judaism were by the large tolerated. They were considered People of the Book, receiving the status of Dhimmi. This article is about the theological concept in Islam. For the novel by Geraldine Brooks see People of the Book (novel. A dhimmi ( ذمي, collectively أهل الذمة, ahl al-dhimma, the people of the dhimma or pact of protection Ottoman Turkish Submitted to a series of discriminatory laws, among them the Pact of Umar, they paid a special tax known as Jizya, higher than the Zakat paid by Muslims. According to Islamic tradition the Pact (Covenant of Umar (c 717 A Under Islamic law, jizya or jizyah (جزْية ʤɪzjæh Ottoman Turkish: cizye both derived from Pahlavi and ultimately from Aramaic This is a sub-article of Islamic economical jurisprudence. Zakaat ( زكاة zækæːh zakaat or zakāh, has the implied
After the establishment of a local Emirate, Caliph Al-Walid I, ruler of the Umayyad caliphate, removed many of the successful Muslims commanders. An emirate is a political territory that is ruled by a dynastic Arab Monarch styled Emir. The Caliph is the Head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Shari'ah Al-Walid ibn Abd al-Malik ( الوليد بن عبد الملك or Al-Walid I (668 - 715 was a wise and powerful Umayyad Caliph who ruled from 705 Tariq ibn Ziyad, the first governor of the newly conquered province of Al-Andalus, was re-called to Damascus and replaced with Musa bin Nusair, who had been his former superior. Al-Andalus (الأندلس was the Arabic name given to those parts of the Iberian Peninsula governed by Muslims or Damascus ( دمشق,, also commonly known as الشام ash-Shām) is the capital and largest city of Syria. Musa's son, Abd al-Aziz ibn Musa, apparently married Egilona, Roderic's widow, and established his regional government in Seville. Egilona was the wife of the last Visigothic King Roderic in the early years of the 8th Century during the Muslim invasion of the Iberian Peninsula. Seville ( Spanish: Sevilla, see also different names) is the artistic cultural and financial capital of southern Spain. He was suspected of being under the influence of his wife, accused of wanting to convert to Christianity, and of planning a secessionist rebellion. Apparently a concerned Al-Walid I ordered Abd al-Aziz's assassination. Caliph Al-Walid I died in 715 and was succeeded by his brother Sulayman ibn Abd al-Malik. Events By Place Europe September 26 — Battle of Compiègne: Ragenfrid defeats Theudoald, becoming mayor Sulayman bin Abd al-Malik (c 674 - 717 ( Arabic: سليمان بن عبد الملك was an Umayyad Caliph who ruled from 715 until 717 Suleiman seems to have punished the surviving Musa bin Nusair, who very soon died during a pilgrimage in 716. For the area code see Area code 716 Events By Place Byzantine Empire Theodosius III leads a revolt against Anastasius In the end Abd al-Aziz ibn Musa's cousin, Ayyub ibn Habib al-Lakhmi became the emir of Al-Andalus. Ayyub ibn Habib al-Lakhmi he was the 5th Umayyad Governor of Al-Andalus who succeeded his cousin Abd al-Aziz ibn Musa.
The Muslim conquerors had a serious weakness. The Berbers (Imazighen are an ethnic group that had until recently few links to the Arabs They have existed in ancient Mauretania, Numidia, The Great Berber Revolt of 740-43 AD (122-25 AH in the Muslim calendar) took place during the reign of the Umayyad Caliph Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik and A division existed which opposed the Berbers against the Arabs. Berbers are the indigenous peoples of North Africa west of the Nile Valley. The araB gene Promoter is a bacterial promoter activated by e L-arabinose binding The Berbers were inhabitants of North Africa who had been recently converted to Islam. For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. However they felt themselves discriminated by the Arabs. This latent internal conflict would jeopardize Muslim unity time and time again.
Around 718 Pelagius, a Visigothic noble, began a rebellion against Munuza, a local Muslim governor. The Battle of Covadonga was the first major victory by a Christian military Force in Iberia following the Muslim Moors ' conquest of The Battle of Toulouse ( 721) was a victory of a Frankish army led by Duke Odo of Aquitaine over an Umayyad army besieging the city of The Battle of Tours (October 10 732 also called the Battle of Poitiers and in معركة بلاط الشهداء (ma‘arakat Balâṭ ash-Shuhadâ’ Battle of Court For the area code see Area code 718 Events By Place Europe Tervel 's reign as monarch of Pelagius (Pelayo Pelágio died 737 was the founder of the Kingdom of Asturias, ruling from 718 until his death Munuza (8th century was the Moorish governor of northern Iberia (including the region of Asturias in modern Spain) Becoming a local rebel leader he gathered all available support and one his most important allies was Duke Pedro of Cantabria. Peter or Pedro (d 730 was the Duke of Cantabria. While various writers have attempted to name his parentage (for example making him son or brother of King
The main strength of the Moorish army was absent; under the command of Al-Samh ibn Malik al-Khawlani, emir of Al-Andalus, it had crossed the Pyrenees and overrun Septimania, located in southern France. Al-Samh ibn Malik al-Khawlani (السمح بن مالك الخولاني was the Arab governor general of the Muslim occupied region of the Iberian Peninsula called The Pyrenees (Pirineos French: Pyrénées; Catalan: Pirineus; Occitan: Pirenèus; Aragonese: Perinés Septimania was the western region of the Roman province of Gallia Narbonensis that passed under the control of the Visigoths in 462 when Septimania was ceded to This invasion force was severely defeated in 721 by Odo the Great, the Duke of Aquitaine, in the Battle of Toulouse. Events By Place Byzantine Empire Former Byzantine emperor Anastasius II leads a revolt against emperor Leo III. For the later duke of Aquitaine and also Gascony with the same name see Odo of Gascony. The Duke of Aquitaine ( French: Duc d'Aquitaine) ruled the historical region of Aquitaine under the supremacy of the Frankish and later the The Battle of Toulouse ( 721) was a victory of a Frankish army led by Duke Odo of Aquitaine over an Umayyad army besieging the city of Al-Samh was seriously wounded and died shortly afterwards. A drastic increase of taxes by the new emir Anbasa ibn Suhaym Al-Kalbi provoked several rebellions in Al-Andalus, which a series of succeeding weak emirs were unable to suppress. Anbasa ibn Suhaym al-Kalbi (Arabic: عنبسة بن سحيم الكلبي was the Muslim Wali (governor of Al-Andalus, also known as Moorish Hispania Around 722 a military expedition was sent into the north to suppress the rebellion of Pelagius, but his forces prevailed in the Battle of Covadonga. Events By Place Americas 3 January — K'inich Ahkal Mo' Naab III takes the throne of the Maya state of Palenque The Battle of Covadonga was the first major victory by a Christian military Force in Iberia following the Muslim Moors ' conquest of
Meanwhile Odo had married his daughter to Uthman ibn Naissa, a Berber and the Wāli - deputy governor of Septimania, fostering yet another rebellion. Uthman ibn Naissa was a Berber Wāli of Narbonne and effective Muslim governor of Septimania. Wāli or vali is an administrative title that was used during the Ottoman Empire to designate governors of administrative divisions However a major punitive expedition led by Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi, the latest emir of Al-Andalus, defeated and killed Uthman. Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi (died 732 Arabic: عبد الرحمن الغافقي) also known as Abd er Rahman, Abdderrahman, Abderame Abdul Rahman later managed to defeat Odo in the Battle of the River Garonne in 732. The Battle of the River Garonne was fought in 732 between an Umayyad army led by Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi, governor of Al-Andalus, and Frankish For the area code see Area code 732. Events By Place Europe October 10 — Battle of A desperate Odo turned to his rival Charles Martel, who decisively beat the Muslims in the Battle of Tours where Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi died. Charles "The Hammer" Martel (Carolus Martellus Charles "the Hammer" (ca The Battle of Tours (October 10 732 also called the Battle of Poitiers and in معركة بلاط الشهداء (ma‘arakat Balâṭ ash-Shuhadâ’ Battle of Court
Meanwhile Pelagius began raiding the city of León, the main city in the north-west of the Iberian Peninsula. History León was founded in the 1st century BC by the Roman legion Legio VI ''Victrix''. He was crowned king and successfully founded the small Kingdom of Asturias, whose initial capital seems to have been Cangas de Onís. The Kingdom of Asturias was the first Christian political entity to be established in the Iberian peninsula after the collapse of the Visigothic Cangas de Onís ( Asturian: Cangues d'Onís) is a municipality in the eastern part of the province and autonomous community of Asturias in the northwest He also established a royal dynasty, marrying his son and heir Favila to Duke Pedro's daughter. This is a list of the rulers of the Kingdom of Asturias. While their existence and dates seem plausible further verifiable details about their reigns are often scarce especially Fafila, Favila, or Favilac (died 739 was the second King of Asturias from 737 until his death
The rule of the Umayad dynasty was in decline. The Battle of the Zab took place on the banks of the Great Zab river in what is now Iraq on January 25, 750. Abd ar-Rahman I Arabic (عبد الرحمن الداخل (known as the "Falcon of Andalus" or "The Falcon of the Quraish " (born 731 ruled from 756 through The Caliphate of Córdoba (Arabic خلافة قرطبة ruled the Iberian peninsula ( Al-Andalus) and North Africa from the city of Weakened by a string of defeats, rebellions, and revolts, in the end it lost the Battle of the Zab in 750 and was overthrown and replaced by the Abbasids. The Battle of the Zab took place on the banks of the Great Zab river in what is now Iraq on January 25, 750. Events By Geography Asia Gopala is proclaimed as the first ruler of the Pala Empire. Most members of the Umayyad dynasty were killed. However Abd ar-Rahman I managed to escape and survived, fleeing for the north of Africa. Abd ar-Rahman I Arabic (عبد الرحمن الداخل (known as the "Falcon of Andalus" or "The Falcon of the Quraish " (born 731 ruled from 756 through From there he went to al-Andalus and with Berber support was able to conquer it. Later he proclaimed himself Emir of the Emirate of Cordoba. Emir ( Arabic: ar أمير;, female أميرة; emira;) ( Farsi and Urdu: امیر) Thereby he was technically acknowledging the sovereignty of the Abbasid Caliphate, but it was little more than an empty gesture. Meanwhile the Abbasid transferred the capital from Damascus to Baghdad. Damascus ( دمشق,, also commonly known as الشام ash-Shām) is the capital and largest city of Syria. Baghdad (بغداد) is the Capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate, with which it is also coterminous
Once the Franks had driven the Moors out of France, the necessity of defending the mountain passes of the Pyrenees became an important point in Charlemagne's policy. The Marca Hispanica (or Spanish March, also March of Barcelona) was a Buffer zone beyond the province of Septimania, created by Charlemagne The Franks or Frankish people (Franci or gens Francorum) were West Germanic tribes first identified in the 3rd century as an Ethnic group The Pyrenees (Pirineos French: Pyrénées; Catalan: Pirineus; Occitan: Pirenèus; Aragonese: Perinés Charlemagne (ˈʃɑrlɨmeɪn Carolus Magnus or Karolus Magnus meaning Charles the Great) (747 – 28 January 814 was King of the Franks from 768 to his Fortifications were built, and protection was given to the inhabitants of the old Roman cities, such as Jaca and Girona. Jaca ( Chaca in Aragonese) is a City of northeastern Spain near the border with France, in the midst of the Pyrenees in Girona ( Catalan: Girona ʒiˈɾonə Spanish: Gerona xeˈɾona is a city located in the northeast of Catalonia, Spain The main passes were Roncesvalles, Somport and Junquera. Roncesvalles (Roncevaux Orreaga is a small village and Municipality of northern Spain ( Navarre Cities) in the province of Navarre Somport (known also as Aspe Pass, Canfranc Pass, Puerto del Somport, and Col du Somport) (el Charlemagne settled in them the counties of Pamplona, Aragon and Catalonia (which was itself formed from a number of small counties, Pallars, Gerona, and Urgell being the most prominent) respectively. For other meanings see Pamplona (disambiguation. Pamplona ( Basque: Iruñea or Iruña) is the capital city of Navarre Aragon ( Spanish: "Aragón") is an autonomous community of Spain. Catalonia (Cataluña Catalunya Aranese: Catalonha) is an Autonomous Community in the northeast part of Spain. The County of Pallars or Pallás was a de facto independent petty state nominally within the Carolingian Empire and then West Francia during Urgell (Spanish Urgel) is one of the historical Catalan counties, bordering on the counties of Pallars and Cerdanya.
In 778, the Frankish expedition against Saragossa failed and the rearguard of the army was destroyed while retreating to France, this event being recorded in the "Chanson de Roland". Zaragoza, also called Saragossa in English, is the capital city of the Zaragoza province and of the autonomous community and former The Song of Roland (La Chanson de Roland is the oldest remaining major work of French literature. As a result the western Pyrenees were now free from both Moorish and Frankish rule. Four states appeared: the kingdom of Pamplona (later known as Navarre) and the counties of Aragon, Sobrarbe and Ribagorza. For other meanings see Pamplona (disambiguation. Pamplona ( Basque: Iruñea or Iruña) is the capital city of Navarre Aragon ( Spanish: "Aragón") is an autonomous community of Spain. Sobrarbe is one of the comarcas (counties in the northern part of the province of Huesca, part of the autonomous community of Aragon in Spain Ribagorza is an Aragonese county or Comarca, in the north-east of the province of Huesca, Spain. Navarre emerged as a kingdom around Pamplona, its capital, and controlled Roncesvalles pass. Its first king was Iñigo Arista. Íñigo Íñiguez Arista ( ونقه بن ونقه, Wannaqo ibn Wannaqo, Basque: Eneko Enekones Aritza / Haritza / Aiza He expanded his domains up to the Bay of Biscay and conquered a small number of towns beyond the Pyrenees, but never directly attacked the Carolingian armies, as he was in theory their vassal. Cantabrian Sea redirects here Not to be confused with Biscay Bay Newfoundland and Labrador or Biscayne Bay. A vassal (also called feodary or fedary) in the terminology that both preceded and accompanied the feudalism of Medieval Europe, It was not until Queen Ximena in the 9th century that Pamplona was officially recognised as an independent kingdom by the Pope. History See also History of the Papacy Catholics recognize the Pope as a successor to Saint Peter, who Jesus named as the "shepherd" and Aragon, founded in 809 by Aznar Galíndez, grew around Jaca and the high valleys of the Aragon River, protecting the old Roman road. Aznar Galíndez I (also Asnar; died 839 was the Count of Aragon and Conflent from 809 and Cerdanya and Urgell from 820 The River Aragón or Río Aragón is one of the left-hand tributaries of the river Ebro. By the end of the 10th century, Aragon was annexed by Navarre. Sobrarbe and Ribagorza were small counties and had little significance to the progress of the Reconquista.
The Catalonian counties protected the eastern Pyrenees passes and shores. They were under the direct control of the Frankish kings and were the last remains of the Iberian Marches. Catalonia included not only the southern Pyrenees counties of Girona, Pallars, Urgell, Vic and Andorra but also some which were on the northern side of the mountains, such as Perpignan and Foix. Catalonia (Cataluña Catalunya Aranese: Catalonha) is an Autonomous Community in the northeast part of Spain. Girona ( Catalan: Girona ʒiˈɾonə Spanish: Gerona xeˈɾona is a city located in the northeast of Catalonia, Spain The County of Pallars or Pallás was a de facto independent petty state nominally within the Carolingian Empire and then West Francia during Urgell (Spanish Urgel) is one of the historical Catalan counties, bordering on the counties of Pallars and Cerdanya. Vic is the capital of the comarca of Osona, in the province of Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain. Andorra, officially the Principality of Andorra ( Catalan: Principat d'Andorra) is a small Landlocked country in western Perpignan ( French: Perpignan, pɛʀpiɲɑ̃ Catalan Perpinyà,) is a commune and the Préfecture (administrative Foix (fwa is a commune, the capital of the Ariège département in France. However, the most important role was played by Barcelona, once it was conquered in 801 by Louis the Pious, son of Charlemagne. Barcelona ( Catalan bəɾsəˈlonə Spanish baɾθeˈlona is the capital and most populous city of the Autonomous Community of Catalonia Louis the Pious (778 &ndash 20 June 840) also called the Fair, and the Debonaire, was the King of Aquitaine from 781 and co-Emperor In the late 9th century under Count Wilfred, Barcelona became the de facto capital of the region. Wilfred or Wifred, called the Hairy, was Count of Urgell (870&ndash897 Cerdanya (870&ndash897 Barcelona (878&ndash897 It controlled the other counties' policies in a union, which led in 948 to the independence of Barcelona under Count Borrel II, who declared that the new dynasty in France (the Capets) were not the legitimate rulers of France nor, as a result, of his county. Borrel II (died 992 was Count of Barcelona, Girona, and Ausona from 947 and Count of Urgel from 948 For a full history of the Capetian family see Capetian dynasty.
These states were small and with the exception of Navarre did not have the same capacity for expansion as Asturias had. The Principality of Asturias ( Spanish: Principado de Asturias, Asturian: Principáu d'Asturies or Asturies) is an Their mountainous geography rendered them relatively safe from attack but also made launching attacks against a united and strong Al-Andalus impractical. Al-Andalus (الأندلس was the Arabic name given to those parts of the Iberian Peninsula governed by Muslims or In consequence, these states' borders remained stable for two centuries.
The kingdom of Asturias was located in the Cantabrian Mountains, a wet and mountainous region in the north of the Iberian Peninsula. The Kingdom of Asturias was the first Christian political entity to be established in the Iberian peninsula after the collapse of the Visigothic The repoblación ( Spanish for repopulation) was the ninth-century repopulating of a large region between the River Duero and the Cantabrian Cantabrian Mountains ( Cordillera Cantábrica in Spanish) are a Mountain range which extends for more than approximately 180  Miles (300
During the reign of King Alfonso II (791–842), the kingdom was firmly established. He is believed to have initiated diplomatic contacts with the kings of Pamplona and the Carolingians, thereby gaining official recognition of his crown from the Pope and Charlemagne. For other meanings see Pamplona (disambiguation. Pamplona ( Basque: Iruñea or Iruña) is the capital city of Navarre The Carolingian dynasty (known variously as the Carlovingians, Carolings, or Karlings) was a Frankish noble family with its origins in the History See also History of the Papacy Catholics recognize the Pope as a successor to Saint Peter, who Jesus named as the "shepherd" and Charlemagne (ˈʃɑrlɨmeɪn Carolus Magnus or Karolus Magnus meaning Charles the Great) (747 – 28 January 814 was King of the Franks from 768 to his
Alfonso II also expanded his realm westwards conquering Galicia. Galicia (occasionally Galiza) is an autonomous community in northwest Spain. There, the bones of St. A relic is an object or a personal item of religious significance carefully preserved with an air of Veneration as a tangible memorial James the Great were proclaimed to have been found in Compostela (from Latin campus stellae, literally "the star field") inside Galicia. For people and places called Saint James, see the Saint James disambiguation page Santiago de Compostela (also Saint James of Compostela is the capital of the autonomous community of Galicia and a UNESCO World Pilgrims came from all over Europe creating the Way of Saint James, a major pilgrimage route linking the Asturias with the rest of Christian Europe. The Way of St James or St James' Way ( Galician O camiño de Santiago, Spanish name El Camino de Santiago)
Alfonso’s military strategy consisted of raiding the border regions of Vardulia (which would turn into the Castile). Gallaecia (comprising modern Galicia and Northern Portugal) has had human settlers since prehistoric times, dating back to the 30th Kingdom of Castile was one of the medieval kingdoms of the Iberian Peninsula. With the gained plunder further military forces could be paid, enabling him to raid the Moorish cities of Lisbon, Zamora, and Coimbra. Lisbon (Lisboa liʒˈboɐ is the Capital and largest city of Portugal. Zamora is a city in Castile and León, Spain, the capital of the province of Zamora. Coimbra (kuˈĩbɾɐ is a city and a municipality in Portugal, former capital of the country during the first dynasty period and home to the University of Coimbra For centuries the focus of these actions was not conquest but raids, plunder, pillage and tribute. A tribute (from Latin tribulum, contribution is wealth one party gives to another as a sign of respect or as was often case in historical contexts of submission He also crushed a Basque uprising, during which he captured the Alavite Munia; their grandson is reported to be Alfonso II. Álava (Araba is a province of northern Spain in the southern part of the autonomous community of the Basque Country. Alfonso II (759-842 called the Chaste, was the King of Asturias from 791 to his death the son of Fruela I and the Basque Munia
Despite numerous battles the populations of neither the Umayyads — using the southern part of old Gallaecia (today's northern Portugal) as their base of operations — nor that of the Asturians, was sufficient to effect an occupation of these northern territories. Gallaecia or Callaecia was the name of a Roman province that comprised Under the reign of Ramiro, famed for the legendary Battle of Clavijo, the border began to slowly move southward and Asturian holdings in Castile, Galicia, and León were fortified and an intensive programme of repopulation of the countryside begun in those territories. Ramiro I (c790–850 became King of Asturias in 842 and reigned until his death Battle of Clavijo a legendary battle in 844 AD in Spain between Christians forces led by Ramiro I of Asturias and Islamic Moors led by the Emir of Cordoba A former kingdom, Castile (Castilla kasˈt̪iʎa or) gradually merged with its neighbors to become the Crown of Castile and later the Kingdom of Spain León is a province of northwestern Spain, in the northwestern part of the autonomous community of Castile and León. In 924 the Kingdom of Asturias became the Kingdom of León. Kingdom of León was an independent kingdom situated in the northwest region of the Iberian Peninsula.
In a situation of constant conflict, warfare and daily life were strongly interlinked during this period. Small, lightly equipped armies reflected how the society had to be on the alert at all times. These forces were capable of moving long distances in short times, allowing a quick return home after sacking a target. Battles which took place were mainly between clans, expelling intruder armies or sacking expeditions.
The cultural context of the Christian Kingdoms of the Iberian Peninsula was different than that of the rest of Continental Europe in the Middle Ages, due to contact with the Moorish culture and the isolation provided by the Pyrenees (an exception to this is Catalonia, where Frankish influence remained strong). The description Moors has referred to several historic and modern populations of Muslim (and earlier non-Muslim people of Berber and Arab descent The Pyrenees (Pirineos French: Pyrénées; Catalan: Pirineus; Occitan: Pirenèus; Aragonese: Perinés Catalonia (Cataluña Catalunya Aranese: Catalonha) is an Autonomous Community in the northeast part of Spain. The Franks or Frankish people (Franci or gens Francorum) were West Germanic tribes first identified in the 3rd century as an Ethnic group These cultural differences implied the use of doctrines, equipment, and tactics markedly different from those found in the rest of Europe during this period.
Medieval Iberian armies mainly comprised two types of forces: cavalry (mostly nobles, but including commoner knights from the 10th century) and infantry, or peones (peasants). Infantry only went to war if needed, which was not common.
Iberian cavalry tactics involved knights approaching the enemy and throwing javelins, before withdrawing to a safe distance before commencing another assault. Once the enemy formation was sufficiently weakened, the knights charged with thrusting spears (lances did not arrive in Hispania until the 11th century). There were three types of knights: royal knights, noble knights (caballeros hidalgos) and commoner knights (caballeros villanos). A hidalgo or fidalgo was a member of the Spanish and Portuguese Nobility. Royal knights were mainly nobles with a close relationship with the king, and thus claimed a direct Gothic inheritance. Royal knights were equipped in the same manner as their Gothic predecessors — braceplate, kite shield, a long sword (designed to fight from the horse) and as well as the javelins and spears, a Visigothic axe. The Goths ( Gothic: Gothic usvg|14px|u]]Gothic asvg|14px|a]]Gothic s The francisca (or francesca) is a Throwing axe used as a weapon during the Early Middle Ages by the Franks, among whom it was a characteristic Noble knights came from the ranks of the infanzones or lower nobles, whereas the commoner knights were not noble, but were wealthy enough to afford a horse. Uniquely in Europe, these horsemen comprised a militia cavalry force with no feudal links, being under the sole control of the king or the count of Castile because of the "charters" (or fueros) - see "Repopulating Hispania: the origin of fueros" below. Kingdom of Castile was one of the medieval kingdoms of the Iberian Peninsula. A charter is the grant of authority or rights stating that the granter formally recognizes the prerogative of the recipient to exercise the rights specified Fuero ( Spanish) is a Spanish legal term and conceptThe word comes from Latin forum, an open space used as market tribunal The Reconquista (a Spanish and Portuguese word for "Reconquest" Arabic: الاسترداد, "Recapturing" was a period Both noble and common knights wore leather armour, javelins, spears and round-tasselled shields (influenced by Moorish shields), as well as a sword.
The peones were peasants who went to battle in service of their feudal lord. A peasant is an agricultural worker who subsists by working a small plot of ground Feudalism, a term first used in the early modern period (17th century in its most classic sense refers to a Medieval Europe Political system composed Poorly equipped (bows and arrows, spears and short swords), they were mainly used as auxiliary troops. Their function in battle was to contain the enemy troops until the cavalry arrived and to block the enemy infantry from charging the knights.
Typically armour was made of leather, with iron scales; full coats of chain mail were extremely rare and horse barding completely unknown. Mail (also maille, often given as chain mail or chain maille) is a type of Armour or jewellery that consists of small metal rings linked Head protections consisted of a round helmet with nose protector (influenced by the designs used by Vikings who attacked during the 8th and 9th centuries) and a chain mail head piece. A Viking is one of the Norse ( Scandinavian Explorers Warriors Merchants, and pirates who raided and colonized wide areas Shields were often round or kidney-shaped, except for the kite-shaped designs used by the royal knights. Usually adorned with geometric designs, crosses or tassels, shields were made out of wood and had a leather cover.
Steel swords were the most common weapon. The cavalry used long double-edged swords and the infantry short, single-edged ones. Guards were either semicircular or straight, but always highly ornamented with geometrical patterns. The spears and javelins were up to 1. 5 metres long and had an iron tip. The double-axe, made of iron and 30 cm long and possessing an extremely sharp edge, was designed to be equally useful as a thrown weapon or in close combat. Maces and hammers were not common, but some specimens have remained, and are thought to have been used by members of the cavalry.
Finally, mercenaries were an important factor, as many kings did not have enough soldiers available. Norsemen, Flemish spearmen, Frankish knights, Moorish mounted archers and Berber light cavalry were the main types of mercenary available and used in the conflict. Norsemen is used to refer to the group of people as a whole who speak one of the North Germanic languages as their native language The terms Fleming and Flemings ( Vlaming and Vlamingen in Dutch) denote respectively a person and people and the Flemings or
This style of warfare remained dominant in the Iberian Peninsula until the late 11th century, when couched lance tactics entered from France and replaced the traditional horse javelin-shot techniques. In the 12th and 13th centuries, horse barding, suits of armour, double-handed swords and crossbows finally rendered the early Iberian tactics obsolete.
The Reconquista was a process not only of war and conquest, but also repopulation. Colonisation (also known as Colonization) occurs whenever any one or more species populates a new area Christian kings took their own people to locations abandoned by the Berbers, in order to have a population capable of defending the borders. The main repopulation areas were the Douro Basin (the northern plateau), the high Ebro valley (La Rioja) and central Catalonia. The Douro or Duero ( Latin: Durius, Spanish: Duero, Portuguese: Douro, pron. The Ebro ( Ebre) is Spain 's most voluminous river Its source is in Fontibre ( Cantabria) La Rioja is a province and autonomous community of northern Spain. Catalonia (Cataluña Catalunya Aranese: Catalonha) is an Autonomous Community in the northeast part of Spain.
The repopulation of the Douro Basin took place in two distinct phases. The Douro or Duero ( Latin: Durius, Spanish: Duero, Portuguese: Douro, pron. North of the river, between the 9th and 10th centuries, the "pressure" (or presura) system was employed. South of the Douro, in the 10th and 11th centuries, the presura led to the "charters" (or fueros). The Douro or Duero ( Latin: Durius, Spanish: Duero, Portuguese: Douro, pron. Fuero ( Spanish) is a Spanish legal term and conceptThe word comes from Latin forum, an open space used as market tribunal Fueros were used even south of the Central Range.
The presura referred to a group of peasants who crossed the mountains and settled in the abandoned lands of the Duero Basin. Asturian laws promoted this system with laws, for instance granting a peasant all the land he was able to work and defend as his own property. Of course, Asturian and Galician minor nobles and clergymen sent their own expeditions with the peasants they maintained. This led to very feudalised areas, such as León and Portugal, whereas Castile, an arid land with vast plains and hard climate only attracted peasants with no hope in Biscay. León is a province of northwestern Spain, in the northwestern part of the autonomous community of Castile and León. Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. As a consequence, Castile was governed by a single count, but had a largely mostly non-feudal territory with many free peasants. Presuras also appear in Catalonia, when the count of Barcelona ordered the Bishop of Urgell and the count of Gerona to repopulate the plains of Vic. Vic is the capital of the comarca of Osona, in the province of Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.
During the 10th century and onwards, cities and towns gained more importance and power, as commerce reappeared and the population kept growing. Fueros were charters documenting the privileges and usages given to all the people repopulating a town. A charter is the grant of authority or rights stating that the granter formally recognizes the prerogative of the recipient to exercise the rights specified The fueros provided a means of escape from the feudal system, as fueros were only granted by the monarch. Feudalism, a term first used in the early modern period (17th century in its most classic sense refers to a Medieval Europe Political system composed As a result, the town council (the concejo) was dependent on the monarch alone and had to help their lord (auxilium). The military force of the towns became the caballeros villanos. The first fuero was given by count Fernán González to the inhabitants of Castrojeriz in the 940 s. Ferdinand González (930–970 was the first independent count of Castile, son of Gonzalo Fernández de Lara, who had been named Count of Arlanza and the The most important towns of medieval Iberia had fueros or foros. In Navarre, fueros were the main repopulating system. Later on, in the 12th century, Aragon also employed the system; for example, the fuero of Teruel, which was one of the last fueros, in the early 13th century. Teruel is a city in Aragon, Spain, the capital of Teruel Province.
From the mid-13th century on no more charters were granted, as the demographic pressure had disappeared and other means of repopulation were created. While presuras allowed Castile to have the only non-feudal peasants in Europe other than Cossacks and Frisians, fueros remained as city charters until the 18th century in Aragon, Valencia and Catalonia and until the 19th century in Castile and Navarre. The Cossacks (Каза́ки́ Kazaki; Козаки́ Kozaki; Kozacy are a group of martial people living in the southern Steppe regions of Eastern The Frisians are an ethnic group of Germanic people living in coastal parts of The Netherlands and Germany. Fueros had an immense importance for those living under them, who were prepared to defend their rights under the charter militarily if necessary. The abolition of the fueros in Navarre was one of the causes of the Carlist Wars. The Carlist Wars in Spain were the last major European Civil wars in which pretenders fought to establish their claim to a throne In Castile disputes over the system contributed to the war against Charles I (Castilian War of the Communities).
The situation in the Moorish-ruled region of the Iberian Peninsula, Al-Andalus, during the 10th and 11th centuries played an important role in the development of the Christian kingdoms. Al-Andalus (الأندلس was the Arabic name given to those parts of the Iberian Peninsula governed by Muslims or
The 9th century saw the Berbers return to Africa in the aftermath of their revolts. During this period, many governors of large cities distant from the capital (Córdoba) planned to establish their independence. Then, in 929 the Emir of Córdoba (Abd-ar-Rahman III), the leader of the Umayyad dynasty, declared himself Caliph, independent from the Abbasids in Baghdad. The Caliphate of Córdoba (Arabic خلافة قرطبة ruled the Iberian peninsula ( Al-Andalus) and North Africa from the city of Abd-ar-Rahman III ( ʿAbd al-Raḥmān ibn Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh; Arabic: عبد الرحمن الثالث January 11 889 – October The Caliph is the Head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Shari'ah Baghdad (بغداد) is the Capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate, with which it is also coterminous He took all the military, religious and political power and reorganised the army and the bureaucracy.
After regaining control over the dissident governors, Abd-ar-Rahman III tried to conquer the remaining Christian kingdoms of the Iberian peninsula, attacking them several times and forcing them back beyond the Cantabric range. His Christian subjects were largely left in peace, however.
Christian political forces then openly accused Abd-ar-Rahman III of the pederastic abuse of a Christian boy who was later canonized Saint Pelagius of Cordova as a result of the event. Abd-ar-Rahman III ( ʿAbd al-Raḥmān ibn Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh; Arabic: عبد الرحمن الثالث January 11 889 – October Pederasty or paederasty refers to an erotic relationship sexually expressed or not between an adolescent boy and an adult male outside his immediate family Saint Pelagius of Cordova (c 912–926 is said to have been a Christian boy left by his uncle at the age of ten as a hostage with the Caliph Abd-ar-Rahman III This became a rallying cry for subsequent generations of Christian soldiers, and is reputed to have provided much political strength and popular support to the Reconquista for centuries. The episode is seen by some modern scholars as part of a pattern of demonization of Muslims, portraying Islam as a morally inferior religion. 
Later Abd-ar-Rahman's grandson became a puppet in the hands of the great Vizier Almanzor (al-Mansur, "the victorious"). A Vizier ( - wazīr) (sometimes also spelled Vazir Vizir Vasir Wazir Vesir, or Vezir - grammatical vowel changes are common in many western Asian This article is about the Andalusian Muslim general and statesman Al-Mansur (938 - 1002 Almanzor waged several campaigns attacking and sacking Burgos, Leon, Pamplona, Barcelona and Santiago de Compostela before his death in 1002.
Between Almanzor’s death and 1031, Al-Andalus suffered many civil wars which ended in the appearance of the Taifa kingdoms. A taifa (from طائفة ṭā'ifa, plural طوائف ṭawā'if) in the history of Iberia was an independent Muslim -ruled principality The taifas were small kingdoms, established by the city governors establishing their long wished-for independence. The result was many (up to 34) small kingdoms each centered upon their capital, and the governors, not subscribing to any larger-scale vision of the Moorish presence, had no qualms about attacking their neighbouring kingdoms whenever they could gain advantage by doing so.
Alfonso III of Asturias repopulated the strategically-important León and established it as his capital. Alfonso III (c 848– 20 December 910 ? called the Great, was the king of Galicia and Asturias from 866 until his death From his new capital, King Alfonso began a series of campaigns to establish control over all the lands north of the Duero. He reorganized his territories into the major duchies (Galicia and Portugal) and major counties (Saldaña and Castile), and fortified the borders with many castles. Galicia (occasionally Galiza) is an autonomous community in northwest Spain. Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. At his death in 910 the shift in regional power was completed as the kingdom became the Kingdom of León. Kingdom of León was an independent kingdom situated in the northwest region of the Iberian Peninsula. From this power base, his heir Ordoño II was able to organize attacks against Toledo and even Seville. The Caliphate of Córdoba was gaining power, and began to attack León. The Caliphate of Córdoba (Arabic خلافة قرطبة ruled the Iberian peninsula ( Al-Andalus) and North Africa from the city of Navarre and king Ordoño allied against Abd-al-Rahman but were defeated in Valdejunquera, in 920. For the next 80 years, the Kingdom of León suffered civil wars, Moorish attack, internal intrigues and assassinations, and the partial independence of Galicia and Castile, thus delaying the reconquest, and weakening the Christian forces. It was not until the following century that the Christians started to see their conquests as part of a long-term effort to restore the unity of the Visigothic kingdom.
The only point during this period when the situation became hopeful for Leon was the reign of Ramiro II. Ramiro II (c 900–951 son of Ordoño II, was King of León from 931 until his death King Ramiro, in alliance with Count Fernán González of Castile and his retinue of caballeros villanos, defeated the Caliph in Simancas in 939. Ferdinand González (930–970 was the first independent count of Castile, son of Gonzalo Fernández de Lara, who had been named Count of Arlanza and the The Battle of Simancas was a military battle that started on July 19th 939 AD in the Iberian Peninsula between the troops of the Christian king Ramiro II After this battle, when the Caliph barely escaped with his guard and the rest of the army was destroyed, King Ramiro obtained 12 years of peace, but had to give González the independence of Castile as a payment for his help in the battle. After this defeat, Moorish attacks abated until Almanzor began his campaigns.
It was Alfonso V in 1002 who finally defeated Almanzor and regained the control over his domains. Alfonso V (994-1028 called the Noble, King of León, son of Bermudo II by his second wife Elvira García of Castile, reigned from 999 Navarre, though attacked by Almanzor, remained.
In the late 10th century, under King Garcia II of Pamplona, Pamplona became the hegemonic power in medieval Iberia. García Sánchez II, sometimes García II, III, IV or V (died 1004 called the Trembling, the Tremulous, or the Trembler The Kingdom of Navarre (Reino de Navarra Nafarroako Erresuma Royaume de Navarre originally the Kingdom of Pamplona, was a European kingdom which occupied lands on either His son, Sancho the Great, who reigned between 1004 and 1035, annexed Castile due to his marriage, conquered Sobrarbe and Ribagorza and made the Kingdom of Leon his protectorate after killing the only son of king Bermudo III. Sancho III Garcés (late 10th century &ndash 18 October 1035) called the Great ( Spanish: el Mayor or el Grande) was Sobrarbe is one of the comarcas (counties in the northern part of the province of Huesca, part of the autonomous community of Aragon in Spain Ribagorza is an Aragonese county or Comarca, in the north-east of the province of Huesca, Spain. Bermudo III (1010&ndash 4 September 1037) King of León (1028&ndash 4 September 1037) son of Alfonso V of León by his But King Sancho divided his kingdom among his sons: Castile for Fernando, Pamplona for Sancho IV, Sobrarbe and Ribagorza to Gonzalo and the County of Aragon (until then part of Pamplona) for his illegitimate son Ramiro. Ramiro soon had his half-brother Gonzalo killed and annexed his domains, while Fernando (naming himself king) married the daughter of Bermudo III, becoming king of Leon and Castile.
Ferdinand I of Leon was the leading king of the mid-11th century. Ferdinand I, called the Great (in his time El Magno) (1017&ndash León, 1065 son of Sancho III of Navarre and Mayor of Castile He conquered Coimbra and attacked the taifa kingdoms, often demanding the tributes known as parias. Coimbra (kuˈĩbɾɐ is a city and a municipality in Portugal, former capital of the country during the first dynasty period and home to the University of Coimbra Ferdinand's strategy was to continue to demand parias until the taifa was greatly weakened both miltiarily and financially. He also repopulated the Borders with numerous fueros. Following the Navarrese tradition, on his death in 1064 he divided his kingdom between his sons. His son Sancho II of Castile wanted to reunite the kingdom of his father and attacked his brothers, with a young noble at his side: Rodrigo Díaz (later known as El Cid Campeador). Sancho II (1036/ 1038 - October 7, 1072) called the Strong, or in Spanish el Fuerte, was King of Castile (1065-1072 and Rodrigo (or Ruy) Díaz de Vivar (c 1040 Vivar, near Burgos &ndash 10 July 1099, Valencia) known as Sancho was killed in the siege of Zamora by the traitor Bellido Dolfos in 1072. Zamora is a city in Castile and León, Spain, the capital of the province of Zamora. His brother Alfonso VI took over Leon, Castile and Galicia. Alfonso VI (before June 1040 &ndash June 29 / July 1, 1109) nicknamed the Brave, was King of León from 1065 to 1109 and King of
Alfonso VI the Brave gave more power to the fueros and repopulated Segovia, Ávila and Salamanca. Segovia is a city in Spain, the capital of the province of Segovia in Castile-Leon. Ávila is a province of central-western Spain, in the southern part of the autonomous community of Castile and León. Geography The city lies on a mountain by the Tormes River which is crossed by a bridge 150 m long built on 26 arches fifteen of which are of Roman origin, while Then, once he had secured the Borders, king Alfonso conquered the powerful Taifa kingdom of Toledo in 1085. A taifa (from طائفة ṭā'ifa, plural طوائف ṭawā'if) in the history of Iberia was an independent Muslim -ruled principality Toledo, which was the former capital of the Visigoths was a very important landmark, and the conquest made Alfonso renowned throughout the Christian world. Toledo Spain locationpng|thumb|right|200px|Location of Toledo in Spain However, this "conquest" was conducted rather gradually, and mostly peacefully, for the course of several decades. It was not after sporadic and consistent population resettlements had taken place that Toledo was historically conquered. Alfonso VI was first and foremost a tactful monarch who chose to understand the kings of taifa and employed unprecedented diplomatic measures to attain political feats before considering the use of force. He adopted the title Imperator totius Hispaniae ("Emperor of all Hispania", referring to all the Christian kingdoms of the Iberian Peninsula, and not just the modern country of Spain). The title of Imperator (totius Hispaniae ( Latin for Emperor of Spain) was borne traditionally by the monarchs of León Hispania was the name given by the Romans to the whole of the Iberian Peninsula (modern Portugal, Spain, Andorra, Gibraltar Alfonso's more aggressive policy towards the Taifas worried the rulers of those kingdoms, who called on the African Almoravids for help. The Almoravids, was a Berber dynasty from the Sahara that spread over a wide area of North-Western Africa and the Iberian peninsula during
The Almoravids were a Muslim militia, their ranks mainly composed of African and Berber Moors, and unlike the previous Muslim rulers, they were not so tolerant towards Christians and Jews. The Almoravids, was a Berber dynasty from the Sahara that spread over a wide area of North-Western Africa and the Iberian peninsula during The Almoravids, was a Berber dynasty from the Sahara that spread over a wide area of North-Western Africa and the Iberian peninsula during Their armies entered the Iberian peninsula on several occasions (1086, 1088, 1093) and defeated king Alfonso in Battle of Sagrajas in 1086 , but initially their purpose was to unite all the Taifas into a single Almoravid Caliphate. Their actions halted the southward expansion of the Christian kingdoms. Their only defeat came at Valencia in 1094, due to the actions of El Cid. Valencia ( Valencian: València, Valencia Spanish phonology --> is the capital of the Spanish autonomous Rodrigo (or Ruy) Díaz de Vivar (c 1040 Vivar, near Burgos &ndash 10 July 1099, Valencia) known as
Meanwhile, Navarre lost all importance under king Sancho IV, for he lost Rioja to Sancho II of Castile, and nearly became the vassal of Aragon. Sancho IV Garcés (c 1039 - 4 June, 1076) called of Peñalén or the Noble ( Spanish: El de Peñalén) was Sancho II (1036/ 1038 - October 7, 1072) called the Strong, or in Spanish el Fuerte, was King of Castile (1065-1072 and At his death, the Navarrese chose as their king Sancho Ramirez, king of Aragon, who thus became Sancho V of Navarre and I of Aragon. Sancho Ramírez (c 1042 &ndash 4 June 1094, Huesca) was King of Aragon (1063-1094 not formally until 1076 and King of Navarre Sancho Ramírez gained international recognition for Aragon, uniting it with Navarre, expanding the borders south, conquering Huesca deep in the valleys in 1096 and building a fort 25 km away from Zaragoza. Huesca (Uesca Latin: Osca; Greek:, Ptol ii 6 § 68 is a city in Aragon, Spain. Zaragoza, also called Saragossa in English, is the capital city of the Zaragoza province and of the autonomous community and former
Catalonia came under intense pressure from the taifas of Zaragoza and Lérida, and also from internal disputes, as Barcelona suffered a dynastic crisis which led to open war among the smaller counties; but by the 1080s, the situation calmed, and the dominion of Barcelona over the smaller counties was restored. Lleida (Standard Central Catalan ˈʎejðə or North-Western Catalan; Spanish Lérida, though officially referred as Lleida
After a brief period of disintegration (second Taifa period), the rising power in North Africa, the Almohads, took over most of Al Andalus. The Almohad Dynasty (From Arabic الموحدون al-Muwahhidun, i A taifa (from طائفة ṭā'ifa, plural طوائف ṭawā'if) in the history of Iberia was an independent Muslim -ruled principality But they would be decissively defeated at the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa (1212) by a Christian coalition, losing almost all the remaining lands of Al Andalus in the following decades. The July 16 1212 battle of Las Navas de Tolosa ( Spanish: Batalla de Las Navas de Tolosa / Arabic: معركة العقاب By 1252 only the Kingdom of Granada remained as sovereign Muslim state in the Iberian peninsula. Granada is a city and the capital of the province of Granada, in the autonomous region of Andalusia, Spain.
In the High Middle Ages, the fight against the Moors in the Iberian Peninsula became linked to the fight of the whole of Christendom. The High Middle Ages was the period of European history in the 11th 12th and 13th centuries (AD 1000&ndash1299 Christendom usually refers to Christianity as a territorial phenomenon The Reconquista was originally a mere war of conquest. It only later underwent a significant shift in meaning toward a religiously justified war of liberation (see the Augustinian concept of a Just War). Just War theory is a Doctrine of military ethics of Roman philosophical and Catholic origin studied by moral Theologians Ethicists and international The papacy and the influential Abbey of Cluny in Burgundy not only justified the anti-Islamic acts of war but actively encouraged Christian knights to seek armed confrontation with Moorish "infidels" instead of with each other. History See also History of the Papacy Catholics recognize the Pope as a successor to Saint Peter, who Jesus named as the "shepherd" and The Abbey of Cluny (or Cluni, or Clugny, pronunciation klyˈni is an abbey in France. From the 11th century onwards indulgences were granted: In 1064 Pope Alexander II promised the participants of an expedition against Barbastro a collective indulgence 30 years before Pope Urban II called the First Crusade. An indulgence, in Roman Catholic Theology, is the full or partial Remission of temporal punishment due for Sins which have already been forgiven Alexander II (died April 21, 1073) born Anselmo da Baggio, was Pope from 1061 to 1073 The War of Barbastro (also known as the Siege of Barbastro) was an international expedition sanctioned by Pope Alexander II, to take the Spanish city of Pope The First Crusade was launched in 1095 by Pope Urban II with the dual goals of conquering the sacred city of Jerusalem and the Holy Land and freeing Not until 1095 and the Council of Clermont did the Reconquista amalgamate the conflicting concepts of a peaceful pilgrimage and armed knight-errantry. The Council of Clermont was a mixed Synod of ecclesiastics and laymen of the Catholic Church, which was held on November 27 1095 at Clermont France
But the papacy left no doubt about the heavenly reward for knights fighting for Christ (militia Christi): in a letter, Urban II tried to persuade the reconquistadores fighting at Tarragona to stay in the Peninsula and not to join the armed pilgrimage to conquer Jerusalem since their contribution for Christianity was equally important. Tarragona (tərəˈɣonə in Catalan) is a city located in the south of Catalonia and east of Spain, by the Mediterranean Sea. The pope promised them the same rewarding indulgence that awaited the first crusaders.
Later military orders like the order of Santiago, Montesa, Order of Calatrava and the Knights Templar were founded or called to fight in Iberia. military order is a Christian Order of knighthood that is founded for crusading, i This article deals with the Spanish Order of knighthood For the Portuguese Order see Order of St The Order of Montesa was a Christian Military order, territorially limited to the Kingdom of Aragón. The Order of Calatrava was the first Military order founded in Castile, but the second to receive Papal approval The Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Pauperes commilitones Christi Templique Solomonici commonly known as the Knights Templar or the Order The Popes called the knights of Europe to the Crusades in the peninsula. The Crusades were a series of military campaigns of a religious character waged by much of Christian Europe against external and internal opponents After the so called Disaster of Alarcos, French, Navarrese, Castilian, Portuguese and Aragonese armies united against the Muslim forces in the massive battle of Las Navas de Tolosa (1212). Battle of Alarcos ( July 19, 1195) was a battle between an alliance of Almohads led by Abu Yusuf Ya'qub al-Mansur and some Castilian cavalry The July 16 1212 battle of Las Navas de Tolosa ( Spanish: Batalla de Las Navas de Tolosa / Arabic: معركة العقاب The big territories awarded to military orders and nobles were the origin of the latifundia in today's Andalusia and Extremadura, in Spain, and Alentejo, in Portugal. Latifundia are pieces of property covering tremendous areas The latifundia (Latin lātifundium; lātus, "spacious" + fundus, "farm estate" Andalusia (Andalucía is an autonomous community of Spain. It is the most populous and the second largest in terms of land area Extremadura is an autonomous community of western Spain whose capital city is Mérida. Alentejo (ɐlẽˈtɛʒu is a south-central region of Portugal.
Real or legendary episodes of the Reconquista are the subject of much of Medieval Portuguese-, Spanish- and Catalan-language literature, such as the cantar de gesta. This is a survey of Portuguese literature. The Portuguese language was developed gradually from the Vulgar language (i The term Spanish literature refers to Literature written in the Spanish language, including literature composed in Spanish by writers not necessarily from Catalan literature is the name conventionally used to refer to Literature written in the Catalan language. "Gesta" redirects here For the Skipper butterfly Genus, see Gesta (butterfly.
Some noble genealogies show the close relations (although not very numerous) between Muslims and Christians. Genealogy (from Greek: el γενεά el-Latn genea, "descent" and el λόγος el-Latn logos, "knowledge" is the study of For example, Al-Mansur Ibn Abi Aamir, whose rule is considered to have marked the peak of power for Moorish Iberia, married Abda, daughter of Sancho Garcés of Navarra, who bore him a son – named Abd al-Rahman, and commonly known in pejorative sense as Sanchuelo (Little Sancho, in Arabic: Shanjoul). This article is about the Andalusian Muslim general and statesman Al-Mansur (938 - 1002 The description Moors has referred to several historic and modern populations of Muslim (and earlier non-Muslim people of Berber and Arab descent The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra Sancho II Garcés Abarca (after 935 &ndash December 994 was the Jiménez King of Pamplona and Count of Aragon from 970 until his death Abd al-Rahman Sanchuelo (983 &ndash 1009 born and died in Córdoba, was the son of Almanzor and chief minister of Hisham II, Caliph of Córdoba After his father's death, Sanchuelo/Abd al-Rahman, son of a Christian princess, was a strong contender to take over the ultimate power in Muslim Al-Anadalus. A hundred years later, King Alfonso VI of Castile, considered among the greatest of the Medieval Spanish kings, designated as his heir his son (also a Sancho) by the refugee Muslim princess Zaida of Seville. Alfonso VI (before June 1040 &ndash June 29 / July 1, 1109) nicknamed the Brave, was King of León from 1065 to 1109 and King of A Muslim (مسلم pronounced Muslim, not Muzlim) is an adherent of the Religion Princess Zaida Of Seville was a refugee Muslim princess who was a Mistress and then perhaps queen of Alfonso VI of Castile.
The word Reconquista itself should be regarded as an explanation for a long unplanned historical shift or even as Christian and European propaganda by the new reigning houses to justify their rule as inheritance. Propaganda is a concerted set of messages aimed at influencing the opinions or behaviors of large numbers of people
It has also been proposed that the war left the Iberian kingdoms with deep economic crises, leading to the expulsion of the Jews (who had lived in the Iberian Peninsula for over ten centuries) in order to confiscate their funds and property. It should be noted however that the Portuguese Reconquista ended in 1249 and that the Spanish and Portuguese kingdoms were already profiting from their maritime expansion before the Jews were expelled (see Portugal in the period of discoveries and History of Spain). For additional context see History of Portugal and Portuguese Empire. The History of Spain spans the period from Prehistoric Iberia, through the rise and fall of the first global empire, to Spain's current position
The Reconquista was a war with long periods of respite between the adversaries, partly for pragmatic reasons, and also due to infighting among the Christian kingdoms of the North spanning over seven centuries. Some populations practiced Islam or Christianity as their own religion during these centuries, so the identity of contenders changed over time.
Earlier Christians fighting the Moors, such as Pelayo, could plausibly be described as natives opposing foreign invasion and conquest; however, by the time most parts of Muslim Iberia were (re)conquered by Christian forces, the Muslim population there was centuries old, and much of it undoubtedly composed of converted Iberians rather than migrants from other Muslim lands. Granada at the time of its conquest in 1492 was as thoroughly Arab and Muslim a city as were Cairo or Damascus at the time. Granada is a city and the capital of the province of Granada, in the autonomous region of Andalusia, Spain.
Moreover, the ease with which the Reconquista in the Iberian Peninsula was directly and immediately continued by the exploits of conquistadors beyond the Atlantic clearly shows that for Spaniards at the time, conquest of non-Christian territory and its transformation into a Catholic, Spanish-speaking land were legitimate, whether or not a claim of prior possession of the land could be advanced. This article is about the Spanish explorer soldiers of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuriesfor other uses see Conquistador (disambiguation A Conquistador
Nevertheless, the expression "Reconquista" continues to be used to designate this historical period by most historians and scholars in Spain and Portugal, as well as internationally.
The battle against Moors did not keep the Christian kingdoms from battling among themselves or allying with Islamic kings. For example, the earlier kings of Navarre were close to the Banu Qasi of Tudela (who, from their part, originated in the 7th century conversion of Christian Count Cassius). This is a list of the kings of Pamplona ( Iruña in Basque), later Navarre. Banu Qasi ( Arabic: بنو قاسي ( Banū Qāsī) meaning "sons" or "heirs of Cassius" was the name of a Basque Count Cassius ( 8th century) also Count Casius, kumis Kasi or kumis Qasi, was a Hispano-Roman or Visigothic nobleman that Some Moorish kings had wives or mothers born Christians (for years the Moors demanded a yearly tribute of Christian young girls for their harems).
Also some Christian champions like El Cid were contracted by Taifa kings to fight against their neighbours. Rodrigo (or Ruy) Díaz de Vivar (c 1040 Vivar, near Burgos &ndash 10 July 1099, Valencia) known as A taifa (from طائفة ṭā'ifa, plural طوائف ṭawā'if) in the history of Iberia was an independent Muslim -ruled principality Indeed, El Cid got his first battle experience at 1063 the Battle of Graus – where he and other Castilians had taken the side of al-Muqtadir, Muslim emir of Zaragoza against the Christian forces of Ramiro I of Aragon. Rodrigo (or Ruy) Díaz de Vivar (c 1040 Vivar, near Burgos &ndash 10 July 1099, Valencia) known as The Battle of Graus ( Spanish: Batalla de Graus; also Siege of Graus) was a battle of the early Spanish Reconquista in spring 1063 Ahmad ibn Sulayman al-Muqtadir (or just Moctadir; أبو جعفر أحمد "المقتدر بالله" بن سليمان Abu Ja'far Ahmad al-Muqtadir bi-Llah Emir ( Arabic: ar أمير;, female أميرة; emira;) ( Farsi and Urdu: امیر) Zaragoza, also called Saragossa in English, is the capital city of the Zaragoza province and of the autonomous community and former Ramiro I (bef 1007 - 8 May 1063) is usually credited with being the first King of Aragon.
In the late years of Al-Andalus, Castile had the military power to conquer the remains of the kingdom of Granada, but the kings preferred to claim the tribute of the Muslim parias. Al-Andalus (الأندلس was the Arabic name given to those parts of the Iberian Peninsula governed by Muslims or The Crown of Castile, as a historic entity is usually considered to have begun in 1230 with the third and definitive union of the two kingdoms of León and Castile Granada is a city and the capital of the province of Granada, in the autonomous region of Andalusia, Spain. The trade of Granadan goods and the parias were a main way for African gold to enter medieval Europe.
For Old Arabs, the unity of race prevailed over the difference of creed and added another discriminatory system among Muslims supremacy over Christians and Jews. The Alhambra Decree (also known as the Edict of Expulsion) was an edict issued on 31 March, 1492 by the joint Catholic Monarchs of In addition to discriminatory laws as stated by the Code Of Umar, ghettos grouping respectively Christians and Jews were the regular rule of cohabitations of the communities which members also have a distinctive cloth or badge, yellow for the Jews (yellow badge), blue for the Christians. According to Islamic tradition the Pact (Covenant of Umar (c 717 A A ghetto is described as a "portion of a city in which members of a minority group live especially because of social legal or economic pressure The yellow badge (or yellow patch) also referred to as a Jewish badge, was a cloth patch that Jews were ordered to sew on their outer garments in order
The last rules of ethnic and religious purity of the Modern Age were the Spanish cleanliness of blood and the expulsion of Jews by Manuel I in Portugal. The term modern period or modern era (sometimes also modern times) is the period of history that followed the Middle Ages between c Limpieza de sangre is also a novel in the Captain Alatriste series by Arturo Pérez-Reverte. Manuel I (mɐnuˈɛɫ Archaic Portuguese: Manoel I, English: Emmanuel I) the Fortunate ( Port
Most Muslims and Jews were forced to either convert to Christianity or leave Spain and Portugal and have their assets seized. Many Muslims and Jews moved to North Africa rather than submit to forced conversion. During the Islamic administration, Christians and Jews were allowed to convert or retain their religions with rights and a tax,lower than that imposed by previous or later leaders,which was paid for a symoblic rather than a practical character, which if not paid the penalty was death, as it was considered as an attack on the supremacy of Islam,and since the Tax was for protection from outside invasions,the refusal of pay was considered to weaken the empire, although during the time of the Almoravids and especially the Almohads they were also treated badly, in contrast to the policies of the earlier Umayyad rulers. A dhimmi ( ذمي, collectively أهل الذمة, ahl al-dhimma, the people of the dhimma or pact of protection Ottoman Turkish Under Islamic law, jizya or jizyah (جزْية ʤɪzjæh Ottoman Turkish: cizye both derived from Pahlavi and ultimately from Aramaic The Almoravids, was a Berber dynasty from the Sahara that spread over a wide area of North-Western Africa and the Iberian peninsula during The Almohad Dynasty (From Arabic الموحدون al-Muwahhidun, i
The new Christian hierarchy, on the other hand, demanded heavy taxes and gave them nominal rights, but only in heavily Islamic regions, such as Granada, until their own power was sufficient, and the influence of the Inquisition strong enough, to make further expulsion both possible and economically feasible. Granada is a city and the capital of the province of Granada, in the autonomous region of Andalusia, Spain. In 1496, under Archbishop Hernando de Talavera, even the Muslim population of Granada was forced to accept Christianity. In Christianity, an archbishop is an elevated Bishop. In the Roman Catholic Church, the Anglican Communion and others this means that they lead In 1502, the king and queen declared submission to Catholicism officially compulsory in Castilian domains. Emperor Charles V did the same for the Kingdom of Aragon in 1526. Charles V (24 February 1500 &ndash 21 September 1558 was  These policies were not only officially religious in nature but also effectively seized the wealth of the vanquished.
Most of the descendants of those Muslims and Jews who submitted to compulsory conversion to Christianity rather than exile during the early periods of the Inquisition, the Moriscos and Conversos respectively, were later expelled from Spain and Portugal when the Inquisition was at its height. Ethnic cleansing is a Euphemism referring to the persecution through imprisonment expulsion or killing of members of an ethnic minority by a majority to achieve ethnic homogeneity The expulsion was carried out more severely in Eastern Spain (Valencia and Aragon), due to local animosity towards Muslims and Moriscos — mainly for economic reasons.
Because some Muslims, and Jews, shared common ancestors with Christians, it was difficult to expel all of those with non-Christian ancestors from Iberia. However the Spanish state had success in expelling the "Moriscos". Those descended from practicing Muslims or Jews at the time of the Reconquista, however, were for a long time suspected of various crimes including practicing Islam or Judaism, or crimes against the Spanish state and finally expelled from peninsula. In Law, treason is the Crime that covers some of the more serious acts of disloyalty to one's sovereign or Nation.
The advances and retreats created several social types:
Currently, the festivals of moros y cristianos (Castilian or Spanish), mors i cristians (Valencian or Catalan) and mouros e cristãos (Portuguese or Galician) these meaning "Moors and Christians" recreate the fights as colorful parades with elaborate garments and lots of fireworks, especially on the Spanish Mediterranean coast, popularly known as Levante. A morisco (Spanish " Moor -like" or mourisco (Portuguese was any Muslim of Spain or Portugal Moros y Cristianos (in Spanish) or Moros i Cristians (in Valencian) literally means Moors and Christians, and Levante, also referred to as El Levante ( Spanish) is a name used to refer to the eastern Mediterranean coastal region of the Iberian Peninsula
The Guy Gavriel Kay historical fantasy novel The Lions of Al-Rassan is set in an alternate universe version of medieval Spain, and features Rodrigo, a main character who is clearly modeled on El Cid. Guy Gavriel Kay (born November 7, 1954) is a Canadian author of Fantasy fiction. The Lions of Al-Rassan is a work of Historical fantasy by Guy Gavriel Kay. Rodrigo (or Ruy) Díaz de Vivar (c 1040 Vivar, near Burgos &ndash 10 July 1099, Valencia) known as The underlying story of the book is based on the Reconquista, though in a fictionalized and romantic form.
The Radwa Ashoor historical novel tholathey'et ghoranata, which is in Arabic, describes through the eyes of three generations the reconquista and the compulsory conversions, burning of all Arabic texts, and forced expulsion from Granada