In paleoanthropology, the recent single-origin hypothesis (RSOH, or Out-of-Africa model, or Replacement Hypothesis), also Recent African Origin (RAO) is one of two accounts of the origin of anatomically modern humans, Homo sapiens. Evolution of the genus ''Homo'' took place in Africa First Homo erectus migrated out of Africa across Eurasia beginning about 2 million years ago Mitochondrial DNA ( mtDNA) is the DNA located in Organelles called mitochondria. Population genetics is the study of the Allele frequency distribution and change under the influence of the four evolutionary forces Natural selection, Genetic Anthropology (/ˌænθɹəˈpɒlədʒi/ from Greek grc ἄνθρωπος anthrōpos, "human" -λογία -logia) is the study of The term Archaic Homo sapiens refers generally to the earliest members of the species Homo sapiens. According to the RSOH, anatomically modern humans evolved in Africa between 200,000 and 100,000 years ago, with members of one branch leaving Africa around 60,000 years ago.
These emigrants spread to the rest of the world, replacing other Homo species already there, such as Neanderthals and Homo erectus. The Neanderthal (neɪˈændərtɑːl also with /niː-/ and /-θɔːl/ or Neandertal, is an extinct member of the Homo genus that is known from Homo erectus ( Latin: "upright man" is an extinct species of the genus Homo, believed to have been the first hominin  The hypothesis is derived from research in several disciplines, chiefly genetics, archaeology and linguistics.
Genetic and archaeological evidence is generally interpreted as supportive of a recent single origin of modern humans in East Africa but a 2005 study using genetic data statistically rejected this hypothesis. Genetic anthropology is a new branch of scientific study which deals with combining DNA data with available physical evidence and past histories of civilizations East Africa is the Easternmost Region of the African Continent. A statistical hypothesis test is a method of making statistical decisions using experimental data  A more recent (2007) Bayesian model comparison, however, confirmed the hypothesis as the most likely. A common problem in Statistical inference is to use data to decide between two or more competing models Further evidence for the hypothesis includes the decreasing in-population genetic variability with distance from East Africa. In Biology a population is the collection of inter-breeding organisms of a particular Species; in Sociology Genetic variability is a measure of the tendency of individual genotypes in a Population to vary from one another East Africa is the Easternmost Region of the African Continent. According to Weaver and Roseman, this phenomenon is best explained by multiple founder effects rather than population bottlenecks. In Population genetics, the founder effect refers to the loss of genetic variation when a new colony is established by a very small number of individuals from a larger A population bottleneck (or genetic bottleneck) is an Evolutionary event in which a significant percentage of a population or species is killed or otherwise prevented 
Alternative scenarios claim a multiregional origin of modern humans, including claims of interbreeding of Cro-Magnon and Neanderthals or other earlier hominids (e. In paleoanthropology, the multiregional hypothesis is one of two accounts of the origin of anatomically modern humans Homo sapiens. Ever since their discovery both the Neanderthals ' place in the human family tree and their relation to modern Europeans have been hotly debated g. Homo Erectus, see Hybrid-origin). Homo erectus ( Latin: "upright man" is an extinct species of the genus Homo, believed to have been the first hominin The Hybrid -origin hypothesis of Human origins argues that all or at least some of the Genetic variation between the contemporary human races is attributable Some of these claims push back the original "out of Africa" migration to 2 million years ago.
Charles Darwin was one of the first to suggest that all humans had a common ancestor who lived in Africa. Charles Robert Darwin (February 12 1809 &ndash April 19 1882 was an English naturalist, who realised and demonstrated that all Species of life In the Descent of Man he writes:
|“||In each great region of the world the living mammals are closely related to the extinct species of the same region. The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex is a book on Evolutionary theory by English naturalist Charles Darwin, first Mammals ( class Mammalia) are a class of Vertebrate Animals characterized by the presence of Sweat glands, including sweat glands It is, therefore, probable that Africa was formerly inhabited by extinct apes closely allied to the gorilla and chimpanzee; and as these two species are now man's nearest allies, it is somewhat more probable that our early progenitors lived on the African continent than elsewhere. Gorillas, the largest of the living Primates are ground-dwelling Herbivores that inhabit the Forests of Africa. Chimpanzee (often shortened to chimp) is the common name for the two extant Species of Apes in the Genus Pan. ||”|
The prediction was highly insightful because at the time, in 1871, there were hardly any human fossils of ancient hominids available. Almost fifty years later Darwin was vindicated, as anthropologists began finding numerous fossils of ancient hominids all over Africa (list of hominina fossils). The following charts give a brief overview of several notable Primate Fossil finds relating to Human evolution.
In 19th century anthropology, "monogenism" was opposed by "polygenism", the idea that the various human races had evolved independently out of archaic hominids. Anthropology (/ˌænθɹəˈpɒlədʒi/ from Greek grc ἄνθρωπος anthrōpos, "human" -λογία -logia) is the study of Polygenism is a theory of human origins positing that the human races are of different lineages either from a scientific or a religious basis The term race or racial group usually refers to the concept of categorizing Humans into Populations or groups on the basis of various sets Such views were largely obsolete by the mid 20th century, although there were isolated proponents in the later 20th century such as Carleton Coon who hypothesized as late as 1962 that Homo sapiens arose five separate times from Homo erectus in five separate places. Carleton Stevens Coon, ( 23 June 1904 &ndash 3 June 1981) was a American physical anthropologist, Professor of Anthropology 
With the advent of archaeogenetics in the 1990s, it became possible to date the "out of Africa" migration with some confidence. Archaeogenetics, a term coined by Colin Renfrew, refers to the application of the techniques of molecular Population genetics to the study of the Human The question whether there may have been admixture (hybridization) of Homo erectus and Homo sapiens remains under debate. The Hybrid -origin hypothesis of Human origins argues that all or at least some of the Genetic variation between the contemporary human races is attributable
Homo sapiens has lived from about 250,000 years ago to the present. The term Archaic Homo sapiens refers generally to the earliest members of the species Homo sapiens. Human beings, humans or man (Origin 1590–1600 L homō man OL hemō the earthly one (see Humus Between 400,000 years ago and the second interglacial period in the Middle Pleistocene, around 250,000 years ago, the trend in cranial expansion and the elaboration of stone tool technologies developed, providing evidence for a transition from H. erectus to H. The Pleistocene ('plaɪstəsin is the epoch from 18 million to 10000 years BP covering the world's recent period Cranial capacity is a measure of the volume of the interior of the Cranium (also called the braincase or brainpan of those Vertebrates who have both a cranium and Homo erectus ( Latin: "upright man" is an extinct species of the genus Homo, believed to have been the first hominin sapiens. In the RAO scenario, migration within and out of Africa eventually replaced the earlier dispersed H. erectus. Homo sapiens idaltu, from Ethiopia, lived from about 160,000 years ago. Homo sapiens idaltu is an extinct Subspecies of Homo sapiens that lived almost 160000 years ago in Pleistocene It is the oldest known anatomically modern human.
Fossils of modern humans were found in a cave in Israel at Qafzeh and have been dated to 100,000 years ago. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. Qafzeh or Kafzeh is a paleoanthropological site at Mount Kafzeh south of Nazareth, Israel. However these humans seem to have either gone extinct or retreated back to Africa 70,000 to 80,000 years ago, possibly replaced by south bound Neanderthals escaping the colder regions of ice age Europe. All other fossils of fully modern humans outside of Africa have been dated to more recent times. The next oldest fossil of modern humans outside of Africa are those of Mungo Man found in Australia and have been dated to about 42,000 years ago. The Mungo Man (also known as Lake Mungo 3) was an early Human inhabitant of the continent of Australia, who is believed to have lived about 40000 years 
Beginning about 100,000 years ago evidence of more sophisticated technology and artwork begins to emerge and by 50,000 years ago fully modern behaviour becomes more prominent. Behavioral modernity is a term used in Anthropology, Archeology and Sociology to refer to a list of traits that distinguish present day humans and their By this time the ritual burying of the dead is noted. Stone tools show regular patterns that are reproduced or duplicated with more precision. Tools made of bone and antler appear for the first time.  These new changes are suggestive of more advanced behaviour and scientists attribute these changes to the development of language. The origin of language ( glottogony) is a topic that has attracted considerable speculation throughout human history
Two pieces of the human genome are particularly useful in deciphering human history. Archaeogenetics, a term coined by Colin Renfrew, refers to the application of the techniques of molecular Population genetics to the study of the Human Evolution of the genus ''Homo'' took place in Africa First Homo erectus migrated out of Africa across Eurasia beginning about 2 million years ago The human genome is the Genome of Homo sapiens, which is stored on 23 chromosome pairs One is the mitochondrial DNA and the other is the Y chromosome. Mitochondrial DNA ( mtDNA) is the DNA located in Organelles called mitochondria. The Y chromosome is the sex-determining Chromosome in most Mammals including Humans In mammals it contains the gene SRY, which triggers These are the only two parts of the genome that are not shuffled about by the evolutionary mechanisms which generate diversity with each generation. Hence the Mitochondrial DNA and the Y chromosome are passed down generation to generation intact. According to the hypothesis, all 6. 5 billion people alive today have inherited the same Mitochondria from one woman who lived in Africa about 200,000 years ago; she has been named Mitochondrial Eve. Mitochondrial Eve ( mt-mrca) is the name given by researchers to the woman who is defined as the Matrilineal most recent common ancestor (MRCA for all currently All men today have inherited their Y chromosomes from a man who lived 60,000 years ago, probably in Africa. He has been named Y-chromosomal Adam. In human Genetics, Y-chromosomal Adam ( Y- MRCA) is the patrilineal Human Most recent common ancestor (MRCA from whom all
The first lineage to branch off from Eve is L1. In Human genetics, a human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup is a Haplogroup defined by differences in human mitochondrial DNA. In Human genetics, Haplogroup L1 is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA haplogroup. This haplogroup is found in high proportions among the San and the Mbuti people. The Bushmen, San, Sho, Basarwa, ǃKung or Khwe are indigenous people of southern Africa that spans most areas of South Africa The Mbuti people or Bambuti as they are collectively called are one of several indigenous Hunter-gatherer groups in the Congo region of  These groups branched off early in human history and have remained relatively isolated genetically since. Haplogroups L2 and L3 are descendents of L1 and are largely confined to Africa. In Human genetics, Haplogroup L2 is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA haplogroup. In Human genetics, Haplogroup L3 is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA haplogroup. The macro haplogroups M and N, which are the lineages of the rest of the world outside Africa, descended from L3. In Human genetics, Haplogroup M is a Human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA haplogroup. In Human genetics, Haplogroup N is a Human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA haplogroup.
The mutations defining macro-haplogroup CR (all Y haplogroups except A and B) predate the "Out of Africa" migration, its descendent macro-group DE being confined to Africa. In Human genetics, a Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup is a Haplogroup defined by differences in the non- recombining portions of DNA from the In Human genetics, Haplogroup F is a Y-chromosome Haplogroup. In Human genetics, Haplogroup CT (P91 M168 M294 is a Y-chromosome Haplogroup. In Human genetics, Haplogroup A (M91 is a Y-chromosome haplogroup. In Human genetics, Haplogroup B (M60 is a Y-chromosome Haplogroup. In Human genetics, Haplogroup DE (M1 M145 M203 is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. The mutations that distinguish Haplogroup C from all other descendants of CR have occurred some 60,000 years ago, shortly after the first Out of Africa migration. In Human genetics, Haplogroup C (RPS4Y=M130 M216 is a Y-chromosome Haplogroup.
Haplogroup F originated some 45,000 years ago, either in North Africa (in which case it would point to a second wave of out-of-Africa migration) or in South Asia. In Human genetics, Haplogroup F is a Y-chromosome Haplogroup. North Africa or Northern Africa is the Northernmost Region of the African Continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan More than 90% of males not native to Africa are descended in direct male line from the first bearer of haplogroup F.
Some 70 millennia ago, a part of the bearers of mitochondrial haplogroup L3 migrated from East Africa into the Near East. The Red Sea is a Salt water Inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. In Human genetics, Haplogroup L3 is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA haplogroup. East Africa is the Easternmost Region of the African Continent. B Syria - Belka Woman from Damascus Arab from Baghdadjpg|thumb|Inhabitants of the Near East late nineteenth century
Some scientists believe that only a few people left Africa in a single migration that went on to populate the rest of the world. It has been estimated that from a population of 2,000 to 5,000 in Africa, only a small group of possibly 150 people crossed the Red Sea. This is because, of all the lineages present in Africa, only the daughters of one lineage, L3, are found outside Africa. Had there been several migrations one would expect more than one African lineage outside Africa. L3's daughters, the M and N lineages, are found in very low frequencies in Africa and appear to be recent arrivals. A possible explanation is that these mutations occurred in East Africa shortly before the exodus and by the founder effect became the dominant haplogroups after the exodus from Africa. In Population genetics, the founder effect refers to the loss of genetic variation when a new colony is established by a very small number of individuals from a larger Alternatively, the mutations may have arisen shortly after the exodus from Africa.
Other scientists propose a Multiple Dispersals Model, in which there were two migrations out of Africa, one across the Red Sea travelling along the coastal regions to India (the Coastal Route), which would be represented by Haplogroup M. Another group of migrants with Haplogroup N followed the Nile from East Africa, heading northwards and crossing into Asia through the Sinai. The Sinai Peninsula or Sinai ( Coptic: sina; Egyptian Arabic: sina سينا Arabic, sina'a سيناء This group then branched in several directions, some moving into Europe and others heading east into Asia. This hypothesis attempts to explain why Haplogroup N is predominant in Europe and why Haplogroup M is absent in Europe. Evidence of the coastal migration is hypothesized to have been destroyed by the rise in sea levels during the Holocene epoch. The Holocene is a Geological epoch which began approximately 10000 years ago (about 8000 BC 
Today at the Bab-el-Mandeb straits the Red Sea is about 12 miles (20 kilometres) wide but 50,000 years ago it was much narrower and sea levels were 70 meters lower. In Human genetics, Haplogroup M is a Human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA haplogroup. In Human genetics, Haplogroup N is a Human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA haplogroup. The Bab-el-Mandeb (variously Transliterated Mandab or Mandib, and with article "el-" given also as "al-" with or without connecting The Red Sea is a Salt water Inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. Though the straits were never completely closed, there may have been islands in between which could be reached using simple rafts. Shell middens 125,000 years old have been found in Eritrea indicating the diet of early humans was sea food obtained by beachcombing. A midden, also known as a kitchen midden, or a shell heap, is a dump for domestic waste. Eritrea () ( Ge'ez: ኤርትራ ʾErtrā, Arabic: إرتريا Iritriya) officially the State of Eritrea, is a country in Beachcombing or Beachcomber is a term with multiple but related meanings which have evolved over time
From the Near East, these populations spread east to South Asia by 50 millennia ago, and on to Australia by 40 millennia ago, Homo sapiens for the first time colonizing territory never reached by Homo erectus. Evolution of the genus ''Homo'' took place in Africa First Homo erectus migrated out of Africa across Eurasia beginning about 2 million years ago The South Asian Stone Age covers the Palaeolithic, Mesolithic and Neolithic periods in the South Asia. The prehistory of Australia is the period between the first human habitation of the Australian continent and the first definitive sighting of Australia by Europeans Europe was reached by Cro-Magnon some 40 millennia ago. Homo erectus and Neanderthals settled in Paleolithic Europe long before the emergence of modern humans Homo sapiens. Cro-Magnon ( French) is one of the main types of Homo sapiens of the European Upper Paleolithic, living approximately 40000 to 10000 years East Asia (Korea, Japan) was reached by 30 millennia ago. This article is about the prehistory of the Korean Peninsula, from circa 500000 BCE through 300 BCE The covers the period from around 100000 to 30000 BC when the earliest Stone tool implements have been found to around 14000 BC at the end of the last Ice-age, which corresponds It is disputed whether subsequent migration to North America took place around 30 millennia ago, or only considerably later, around 14 millennia ago. There are several popular models of migration to the New World proposed by the anthropological community
The group that crossed the Red Sea travelled along the coastal route around the coast of Arabia and Iran until reaching India, which appears to be the first major settling point. M is found in high frequencies along the southern coastal regions of Pakistan and India and it has the greatest diversity in India, indicating that it is here where the mutation may have occurred. Pakistan () officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country located in South Asia, Southwest Asia, Middle East and  60% of the Indian population belong to Haplogroup M. The indigenous people of the Andaman Islands also belong to the M lineage. The Andaman Islands are a group of islands in the Bay of Bengal, and are part of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands Union Territory of India. The Andamanese are thought to be offshoots of some of the earliest inhabitants in Asia because of their long isolation from mainland Asia. They are evidence of the coastal route of early settlers that extends from India along the coasts of Thailand and Indonesia all the way to Papua New Guinea. The Kingdom of Thailand (ˈtaɪlænd ราชอาณาจักรไทย, râːtɕʰa-ʔaːnaːtɕɑ̀k-tʰɑj Papua New Guinea (or ˈpæpjuːə in Tok Pisin: Papua Niugini) officially the Independent State of Papua New Guinea, is a country in Oceania Since M is found in high frequencies in highlanders from New Guinea as well, and both the Andamanese and New Guineans have dark skin and frizzy hair typically found in Africa, some scientists believe they are all part of the same wave of migrants who departed across the Red Sea. Others suggest that their physical resemblance to Africans is more likely to be an example of convergent evolution. Convergent evolution describes the acquisition of the same biological trait in unrelated lineages 
From Saudi Arabia to India the proportion of haplogroup M increases eastwards: in eastern India, M outnumbers N by a ratio of 3:1. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, KSA ( المملكة العربية السعودية, al-Mamlaka al-ʻArabiyya as-Suʻūdiyya) or Suudi However, crossing over into East Asia, Haplogroup N reappears as the dominant lineage. M is predominant in South East Asia but amongst Indigenous Australians N reemerges as the more common lineage. Indigenous Australians are descendants of the first known human inhabitants of the Australian continent and its nearby islands. This discontinuous distribution of Haplogroup N from Europe to Australia has confounded scientists attempting to trace migratory routes. 
The multi-regional (hybrid-origin) hypothesis proposes admixture of archaic Homo sapiens subspecies resulting in hybrids that gave rise to the world's races. In paleoanthropology, the multiregional hypothesis is one of two accounts of the origin of anatomically modern humans Homo sapiens. Ever since their discovery both the Neanderthals ' place in the human family tree and their relation to modern Europeans have been hotly debated In Biology, hybrid has two meanings The first meaning is the result of interbreeding between two animals or plants of different taxa. The term race or racial group usually refers to the concept of categorizing Humans into Populations or groups on the basis of various sets This means that proponents reject the assumption of a species barrier between Homo erectus and Homo sapiens and date the first "out of Africa" migration of Homo sapiens subspecies to 2 million years ago. Speciation is the Evolutionary process by which new biological Species arise Homo erectus ( Latin: "upright man" is an extinct species of the genus Homo, believed to have been the first hominin The recent migration out of Africa 60,000 years ago would then have brought previously isolated subspecies into renewed contact, resulting in a hybrid Homo sapiens sapiens, who was superior to both its ancestor subspecies due to what is commonly termed hybrid vigour. Heterosis is a term used in Genetics and Selective breeding. The term heterosis also known as hybrid vigor or outbreeding enhancement, Proponents argue that very strong genetic similarities among all humans do not prove recent common ancestry, but rather reflect the interconnectedness of human populations around the world, resulting in relatively constant gene flow (Thorne and Wolpoff 1992). Erik Trinkaus is a proponent of hybridization of Cro-Magnon H. Erik Trinkaus, PhD ( December 24, 1948) is a prominent Paleoanthropologist and expert on Neanderthal Biology and human evolution Cro-Magnon ( French) is one of the main types of Homo sapiens of the European Upper Paleolithic, living approximately 40000 to 10000 years sapiens with Homo neanderthalensis around 30,000 years ago. The Neanderthal (neɪˈændərtɑːl also with /niː-/ and /-θɔːl/ or Neandertal, is an extinct member of the Homo genus that is known from
These theories are based largely on archaeological and fossil evidence. They are not widely recognized, opponents citing the lack of DNA evidence.
While the hybrid-origin scenario at present cannot be ruled out with certainty, more extreme proposals, known as polygenism, were a topic of academic debate in later 19th century, but are obsolete today as historical examples of scientific racism. Polygenism is a theory of human origins positing that the human races are of different lineages either from a scientific or a religious basis Scientific racism denotes the use of scientific or ostensibly scientific findings and methods to support or validate racist attitudes and worldviews