Reality Television is a genre of television programming which presents purportedly unscripted dramatic or humorous situations, documents actual events, and features ordinary people instead of professional actors. Television ( TV) is a widely used Telecommunication medium for sending ( Broadcasting) and receiving moving Images, either monochromatic Although the genre has existed in some form or another since the early years of television, the term reality television is most commonly used to describe programs of this genre produced since 2000. Documentaries and nonfictional programming such as news and sports shows are usually not classified as reality shows. Documentary film is a broad category of visual expression that is based on the attempt in one fashion or another to " Document " reality
Reality television covers a wide range of programming formats, from game or quiz shows which resemble the frantic, often demeaning shows produced in Japan in the 1980s and 1990s (a modern example is Gaki no tsukai), to surveillance- or voyeurism-focused productions such as Big Brother (TV series). is a Japanese variety show hosted by the popular Japanese Owarai duo Downtown. Big Brother is a Reality television show where in each series a group of people live together in the Big Brother House isolated from the outside world but continuously
Such shows frequently portray a modified and highly influenced form of reality, with participants put in exotic locations or abnormal situations, sometimes coached to act in certain ways by off-screen handlers, and with events on screen sometimes manipulated through editing and other post-production techniques. Reality, in everyday usage means "the state of things as they actually exist"
Precedents for television that portrayed people in unscripted situations began in the 1940s. Debuting in 1948, Allen Funt's Candid Camera, (based on his previous 1947 radio show, Candid Microphone), broadcast unsuspecting ordinary people reacting to pranks. Allen Funt ( September 16, 1914 &ndash September 5 1999) was an American producer-director best known as the creator and host of Candid Camera was a Television series created and produced by Allen Funt, which initially began on Radio as Candid Microphone Radio is the transmission of signals by Modulation of electromagnetic waves with frequencies below those of visible Light. It has been called the "granddaddy of the reality TV genre. " Debuting in the 1950s, game shows Beat the Clock and Truth or Consequences involved contestants in wacky competitions, stunts, and practical jokes. Beat The Clock is also a song by Ghostface Killah from his album The Pretty Toney Album Beat the Clock is a Goodson-Todman Productions Truth or Consequences was an American quiz show, originally hosted on NBC Radio by Ralph Edwards (1940-57 and later on television
In 1948, talent search shows Ted Mack's Original Amateur Hour and Arthur Godfrey's Talent Scouts featured amateur competitors and audience voting. Ted Mack ( February 12, 1904, Greeley Colorado - July 12, 1976, North Tarrytown New York) born William Edward Maguiness The Original Amateur Hour was an American Radio and Television program Arthur Godfrey's Talent Scouts (also known as Talent Scouts) was a radio and Television Variety show which ran on CBS from The Miss America Pageant, first broadcast in 1954, was a competition where the winner achieved status as a national celebrity. The Miss America pageant is a long-standing competition which awards scholarships to young women from the 50 states plus the District of Columbia and the US Virgin Islands 
The radio series Nightwatch (1954-1955), which tape-recorded the daily activities of Culver City, California police officers, also helped pave the way for reality television. Radio is the transmission of signals by Modulation of electromagnetic waves with frequencies below those of visible Light. Culver City is a city in western Los Angeles County California. The series You Asked For It (1950-1959), in which viewer requests dictated content, was an antecedent of today's audience-participation reality TV elements, in which viewers cast votes to help determine the course of events. You Asked For It is a popular human-interest show created and hosted by Art Baker.
First broadcast in the United Kingdom in 1964, the Granada Television series Seven Up!, broadcast interviews with a dozen ordinary seven-year olds from a broad cross section of society and inquired about their reactions to everyday life. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Granada Television is the United Kingdom ITV contractor for North West England. Every seven years, a film documented the life of the same individuals in the intervening years, titled 7 Plus Seven, 21 Up, etc. The series was structured simply as a series of interviews with no element of plot. However, it did have the then-new effect of turning ordinary people into celebrities.
Andy Warhol's 1966 film Chelsea Girls showed various of Warhol's acquaintances being filmed by a camera with no direction given; the Radio Times Guide to Film 2007 stated that the film was "to blame for reality television. For the song by David Bowie, see Andy Warhol (song. Andrew Warhola (August 6 1928 &ndash February 22 1987 known as Andy Warhol Chelsea Girls is a 1966 film directed by Paul Morrissey and Andy Warhol. "
The first reality show in the modern sense may have been the 12-part 1973 PBS series An American Family, which showed a nuclear family going through a divorce. The Public Broadcasting Service ( PBS) is a Non-profit Public broadcasting Television service with 354 member TV stations in the An American Family was a documentary shot in 1971 and first aired in the United States on PBS in early 1973 The term nuclear family developed in the Western world to distinguish the Family group consisting of parents most commonly a Father and Mother Divorce or dissolution of marriage is the termination of a Marriage. In 1974 a counterpart program, The Family, was made in the UK, following the working class Wilkins family of Reading. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Working class is a term used in academic Sociology and in ordinary conversation to describe depending on context and speaker those employed in specific fields or types Reading (ˈrɛdɪŋ as Redding) is a town in England, located at the confluence of the River Thames and River Kennet, midway between Another forebear of modern reality television were the late 1970s productions of Chuck Barris: The Dating Game, The Newlywed Game, and The Gong Show, all of which featured participants who were eager to sacrifice some of their privacy and dignity in a televised competition. Chuck Barris (born Charles Hirsch Barris on June 3, 1929) is an American Game show producer and presenter who was responsible for many of The Dating Game is an ABC television show that first aired on December 20, 1965 and was the first of many shows created and packaged by The Newlywed Game was an American television Game show where newly-married couples answered questions to find out how well the husband and wife knew This article is about the show which aired in the 1970s and 1980s 
Reality television as it is currently understood can be traced directly to several television shows that began in the late 1980s and early 1990s. COPS, which first aired in the spring of 1989 and came about partly due to the need for new programming during the 1988 Writers Guild of America strike, showed police officers on duty apprehending criminals; it introduced the camcorder look and cinéma vérité feel of much of later reality television. COPS is an American Documentary television series that follows Police officers and Sheriff 's deputies during patrols and other police The 1988 Writers Guild of America strike was a Strike action taken by members of both the Writers Guild of America East (WGAE and the Writers Guild of America A camcorder is a portable Consumer electronics device for recording Video and audio using a built-in recorder unit Cinéma Vérité is the first Album by an Alternative rock group Dramarama, released in November 1985 The series Nummer 28, which aired on Dutch television in 1991, originated the concept of putting strangers together in the same environment for an extended period of time and recording the drama that ensued. Nummer 28 was a Dutch Reality soap, directed by Joost Tholens and produced by Today TV, shown as part of the youth show "1-4-U" of public broadcaster Nummer 28 also pioneered many of the stylistic conventions that have since become standard in reality television shows, including a heavy use of soundtrack music and the interspersing of events on screen with after-the-fact "confessionals" recorded by cast members, that serve as narration. One year later, the same concept was used by MTV in their new series The Real World and Nummer 28 creator Erik Latour has long claimed that The Real World was directly inspired by his show. MTV ( Music Television) is an American Cable television network based in New York City. The Real World is a Reality television program on MTV originally executive produced by Mary-Ellis Bunim and Jonathan Murray.  However, the producers of The Real World have stated that their direct inspiration was An American Family. 
According to television commentator Charlie Brooker, this type of reality television was enabled by the advent of computer-based non-linear editing systems for video (such as those produced by Avid Technology) in 1989. Charlton Brooker, commonly known as Charlie Brooker, (born 3 March 1971 Reading, Berkshire) is a British Comedy writer, Cartoonist "NLE" redirects here For the standardized test see National Latin Examination. Avid Technology Inc ( is an American company specializing in video and audio production technology specifically digital non-linear editing (NLE These systems made it easy to quickly edit hours of video footage into a usable form, something that had been very difficult to do before. (Film, which was easy to edit, was too expensive to shoot enough hours of footage with on a regular basis. )
The Swedish TV show Expedition Robinson, created by TV producer Charlie Parsons, which first aired in 1997 (and was later produced in a large number of other countries as Survivor), added to the Nummer 28/Real World template the idea of competition and elimination, in which cast members/contestants battled against each other and were removed from the show until only one winner remained. "Sverige" redirects here For other uses see Sweden (disambiguation and Sverige (disambiguation. Expedition Robinson was a popular Swedish Reality television program that debuted in 1997 Survivor is a popular Reality television Game show format produced in many countries throughout the world (These shows are now sometimes called elimination shows. )
Changing Rooms, a British TV show that began in 1996, showed couples redecorating each others' houses, and was the first reality show with a self-improvement or makeover theme. Changing Rooms was a British television entertainment DIY show broadcast on the BBC. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Self-help or self-improvement refers to self-guided improvement—economically intellectually or emotionally—most frequently with a substantial psychological or spiritual A makeover is a term applied to changing one's appearance, sometimes through Cosmetics.
Reality television saw an explosion of global popularity starting in the early 2000s. Big Brother set a trend for reality television in the UK and across the world. The series spawned a huge desire for reality television, with series such as Shipwrecked and Im a Celebrity Get Me Out Of Here becoming hugely popular series. Two other reality series - Survivor and American Idol - have been the top-rated series on American television for an entire season. Survivor led the ratings in 2001-02, and Idol has topped the ratings three consecutive years (2004-05, 2005-06, and 2006-07). The year 2002 in television involved some significant eventsBelow is a list of Television -related events in 2002. The year 2005 in television involved some significant eventsBelow is a list of Television -related events in 2005. The year 2006 in television involved some significant eventsBelow is a list of Television -related events in 2006. The year 2007 in television involves some significant eventsBelow is a list of Television -related events in 2007.
Currently there are at least two television channels devoted exclusively to reality television: Fox Reality in the United States, launched in 2005, and Zone Reality in the UK, launched in 2002. Fox Reality Channel is an all-reality television channel available on cable and Satellite television in the United States Zone Reality (formerly Reality TV) is a European Reality television channel In addition, several other cable channels, such as Viacom's MTV and NBC's Bravo, feature original reality programming as a mainstay. MTV ( Music Television) is an American Cable television network based in New York City. Bravo is a Cable television network owned by NBC Universal. It is currently seen in more than 80 million homes and was the first service dedicated to film drama  Mike Darnell, head of reality TV for the US Fox network, says that the broadcast networks (NBC, CBS, ABC and Fox) "might as well plan three or four [reality shows] each season because we're going to have them, anyway. "
During the early part of the 2000s, U. S. and foreign network executives expressed concern that reality-television programming was limited in its appeal for DVD reissue and syndication, but in fact DVDs for reality shows have sold briskly; Laguna Beach: The Real Orange County, The Amazing Race, Project Runway, and America's Next Top Model have all ranked in the top DVDs sold on Amazon.com. DVD (also known as " Digital Versatile Disc " or " Digital Video Disc " - see Etymology)is In Broadcasting, syndication is the sale of the right to broadcast Radio shows and Television shows to multiple individual stations without going through Laguna Beach The Real Orange County (often referred to as Laguna Beach) was an MTV reality show documenting the lives of The Amazing Race, sometimes referred to as TAR, is a Reality television Game show in which teams of two people (with one exception Project Runway is a Peabody Award -winning American Reality television series on the Bravo network which focuses on Fashion design. America's Next Top Model (often shortened to Top Model or abbreviated as ANTM) is a Reality television show in which a number of women compete Amazoncom Inc ( is an American electronic commerce ( E-commerce) company in Seattle Washington. DVDs of The Simple Life have outranked scripted shows like The O.C. and Desperate Housewives; additionally, many reality shows have been successfully syndicated, including Fear Factor, The Amazing Race, Survivor and America's Next Top Model. The Simple Life was a Television series broadcast from December 2, 2003 to August 5, 2007. This article is about the FOX television series For the location from which the series derives its name see Orange County California. Desperate Housewives is an American Television Dramedy series created by Marc Cherry, who also serves as Show runner, and produced The fear factor in occupational terminology refers to the increased per-worker productivity resulting from the threat of impending layoffs. The Amazing Race, sometimes referred to as TAR, is a Reality television Game show in which teams of two people (with one exception America's Next Top Model (often shortened to Top Model or abbreviated as ANTM) is a Reality television show in which a number of women compete COPS has had huge success in syndication, direct response sales and DVD. A FOX staple since 1989, COPS is, as of 2008, in its 21st season, having outlasted all competing scripted police shows.
In 2007, according to the Learning and Skills Council, one in seven UK teenagers hopes to gain fame by appearing on reality television. The Learning and Skills Council is a Non-departmental public body jointly sponsored by the Department for Innovation Universities and Skills and Department of Children 
In April 2008, the Academy of Television Arts and Sciences announced it will give its very first Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Host for a Reality Show or Reality Competition on September 21. The Academy of Television Arts & Sciences ( ATAS) is the Los Angeles - organization which awards the Primetime Emmys. The Primetime Emmy Awards are awards presented by the Academy of Television Arts & Sciences in recognition of excellence in American Primetime Television "Reality television has become such an integral part of television and our culture, so it only made sense for us to creat this new highly competitive category," TV academy Chairmen and CEO John Shaffner said in the announcement.
There are a number of sub-categories of reality television:
In many reality television shows, the viewer and the camera are passive observers following people going about their daily personal and professional activities; this style of filming is often referred to as "fly on the wall" or "Factual television". Fly on the wall is a style of documentary -making used in Film and Television. Factual Television is a genre of Television programming which documents actual events and people Often "plots" are constructed via editing or planned situations, with the results resembling soap operas — hence the term docusoap or docudrama. A soap opera is an ongoing episodic work of Fiction, usually broadcast on Television or Radio. In other shows, a cinéma vérité style is adopted, where the filmmaker is more than a passive observer—their presence and influence is greatly manifest. Cinéma Vérité is the first Album by an Alternative rock group Dramarama, released in November 1985
Within documentary-style reality television are several subcategories or variants:
Another type of reality TV is "reality-competition", or so-called "reality game shows", in which participants are filmed competing to win a prize, often while living together in a confined environment. In many cases, participants are removed until only one person or team remains, who/which is then declared the winner. Usually this is done by eliminating participants one at a time, in balloon debate style, through either disapproval voting or by voting for the most popular choice to win. A balloon debate is a Debate in which a number of speakers attempt to win the approval of an audience Disapproval voting is any Voting system that allows many voters to express formal disapproval simultaneously in a system where they all share some power Voting is done by either the viewing audience, the show's own participants, a panel of judges, or some combination of the three. (These programs have also been called "game operas," a term coined by Steve Beverly, a college professor in Tennessee and webmaster of TVGameShows.net. The meaning of the word professor ( Latin: professor, person who professes to be an expert in some art or science teacher of highest rank) varies Tennessee ( is a state located in the Southern United States. The webmaster (feminine webmistress) also called the Web architect, the Web developer, the site author, or the website )
A well-known example of a reality-competition show is the globally-syndicated Big Brother, in which cast members live together in the same house, with participants removed at regular intervals by either the viewing audience or, in the case of the American version, by the participants themselves. Big Brother is a Reality television show where in each series a group of people live together in the Big Brother House isolated from the outside world but continuously
There remains some disagreement over whether talent-search shows such as the Idol series, America's Got Talent, Dancing with the Stars, and Celebrity Duets are truly reality television, or just newer incarnations of shows such as Star Search. The British talent search television series Pop Idol has spawned spin-offs in 40 territories, in what is now referred to as the "Idols" format America's Got Talent is an American Dancing with the Stars is the name of a group of international Television series based on the format of the British series Strictly This article is about the original TV series for the Philippine edition see Celebrity Duets Philippine Edition. Star Search is a Television show that was produced from 1983 to 1995 and hosted by Ed McMahon. Although the shows involve a traditional talent search, the shows follow the reality-competition conventions of removing one or more contestants per episode and allowing the public to vote on who is removed; the Idol series also require the contestants to live together during the run of the show (though their daily life is never shown onscreen). Additionally, there is a good deal of interaction shown between contestants and judges. As a result, such shows are often considered reality television, and the American Primetime Emmy Awards have nominated both American Idol and Dancing with the Stars for the Outstanding Reality-Competition Program Emmy. The Primetime Emmy Awards are awards presented by the Academy of Television Arts & Sciences in recognition of excellence in American Primetime Television American Idol, with the full title American Idol The Search for a Superstar for the first season only is an American reality-competition Outstanding Reality-Competition Program is a Primetime Emmy Award given out during the primetime telecast since 2003
Modern game shows like Weakest Link, Greed, Who Wants to Be a Millionaire?, American Gladiators, Dog Eat Dog and Deal or No Deal also lie in a gray area: like traditional game shows, the action takes place in an enclosed TV studio over a short period of time; however, they have higher production values, more dramatic background music, and higher stakes than traditional shows (done either through putting contestants into physical danger or offering large cash prizes). The Weakest Link is a television Game show which first appeared in the United Kingdom on BBC Two on 14 August, 2000 Greed (or Greed The Series) was a Television Game show where a team of contestants answered a series of multiple-choice Who Wants to Be a Millionaire? is a Television Game show which offers very large Cash prizes for correctly answering successive multiple-choice American Gladiators (2008 TV series American Gladiators (1989-1996 was an American competition Television program that matched a cast of Dog Eat Dog was a Saturday night British Game show on BBC One hosted by Ulrika Jonsson, which ran from 14 April, Deal or No Deal is the name of several closely related Television Game shows, the first of which (launching the format was produced by Dutch producer In addition, there is more interaction between contestants and hosts, and in some cases they feature reality-style contestant competition and/or elimination as well. These factors, as well as these shows' rise in global popularity at the same time as the arrival of the reality craze, lead many people to group them under the reality TV umbrella instead of the traditional game show one. 
There are various hybrid reality-competition shows, like the worldwide-syndicated Star Academy, which combines the Big Brother and Pop Idol formats, The Biggest Loser and The Pick-up Artist which combine competition with the self-improvement format, and American Inventor, which uses the Pop Idol format for products instead of people. Star Academy is a highly successful television show format produced by Endemol, that has been broadcast in over 50 countries The Biggest Loser is an American Reality television show that began broadcasting on the NBC network on October 19, 2004 The Pick-up Artist is an American Reality show on VH1 which focuses on a group of eight male contestants who have historically been American Inventor is a Reality television series based on a search for America's best Inventor. Some shows, such as Making the Band and Project Greenlight, devote the first part of the season to selecting a winner, and the second part to showing that person or group of people working on a project. Making the Band is an ABC / MTV Reality television series that exists in separate iterations each iteration focusing on a specific music act Project Greenlight was a contest and documentary series and money making venture focusing on amateur filmmaking
Popular variants of the competition-based format include the following:
Some reality television shows cover a person or group of people improving their lives. Sometimes the same group of people are covered over an entire season (as in The Swan and Celebrity Fit Club), but usually there is a new target for improvement in each episode. The Swan was a 2004 US Reality television program broadcast on Fox in which average-looking women were given "extreme Celebrity Fit Club is a Reality television series which follows eight overweight celebrities as they try to lose weight Despite differences in the content, the format is usually the same: first the show introduces the subjects in their current, less-than-ideal environment. Then the subjects meet with a group of experts, who give the subjects instructions on how to improve things; they offer aid and encouragement along the way. Finally, the subjects are placed back in their environment and they, along with their friends and family and the experts, appraise the changes that have occurred. Other self-improvement or makeover shows include The Biggest Loser (which covers weight loss), Extreme Makeover (entire physical appearance), Queer Eye For The Straight Guy (style and grooming), Supernanny (child-rearing), Made (attaining difficult goals), What Not to Wear (fashion and grooming), Trinny & Susannah Undress (fashion makeover and marriage), The Bad Girls Club (lifestyles and actions), and Flavor of Love Girls: Charm School (manners). The Biggest Loser is an American Reality television show that began broadcasting on the NBC network on October 19, 2004 Extreme Makeover was a Television program from ABC in which individuals volunteer to receive an extensive Makeover in Hollywood. Queer Eye is an Emmy award-winning American Reality television series that premiered on the Bravo cable television network on July 15 Supernanny is a British reality Television programme about helping parents with misbehaving children MTV's MADE is a two-time Daytime Emmy Award -winning self-improvement reality television series broadcast on MTV. What Not to Wear is a BAFTA Award -nominated Makeover Reality Television show currently presented by Lisa Butcher and Trinny & Susannah Undress is a British reality Makeover and fashion-themed Television programme on ITV featuring fashion The Bad Girls Club is a reality-based series from the Oxygen Network. Flavor of Love Girls Charm School is the first season of the VH1 Reality show Charm School.
Some shows make over part or all of a person's living space, work space, or vehicle. The British show Changing Rooms, which began in 1996 (later remade in the U. Changing Rooms was a British television entertainment DIY show broadcast on the BBC. S. as Trading Spaces) was the first such show. Trading Spaces is an hour-long US television reality program that has aired since 2000 on the cable channels TLC and Discovery Home Other shows in this category include Extreme Makeover: Home Edition, Debbie Travis' Facelift, Designed to Sell, While You Were Out, and Holmes on Homes. Extreme Makeover Home Edition, sometimes shortened EMHE, is an Emmy Award -winning Reality television series providing Home renovations Debbie Travis' Facelift is a Home improvement reality Television show that ran from 2003 to 2006 Designed to Sell is an HGTV American Reality television show hosted by Clive Pearse, Shane Tallant, Michael Johnson While You Were Out is an hour-long American television reality program that aired episodes on the cable channel TLC. Holmes on Homes is a Canadian Television series airing on Home & Garden Television in Canada and also on several other Alliance Atlantis Pimp My Ride and Overhaulin' show vehicles being rebuilt. Pimp My Ride is a TV show produced by MTV. Each episode consists of taking one car in poor condition and restoring it as well as customizing Overhaulin was an Automotive Reality TV show produced for the TLC Network. Some shows, such as Restaurant Makeover and Ramsay's Kitchen Nightmares, show both the decor and the menu of a failing restaurant being remade. Restaurant Makeover is a television series which airs on Food Network Canada and HGTV Canada, as well as the Fine Living channel and Ramsay's Kitchen Nightmares is a critically-acclaimed Television programme featuring British Celebrity chef Gordon Ramsay
As with game shows, a gray area exists between such reality TV shows and more conventional formats. Some argue the key difference is the emphasis of the human story and conflicts of reality shows, versus the emphasis on process and information in more traditional format shows. The show This Old House, which began in 1979, shows people renovating a house; media critic Jeff Jarvis has speculated that it is "the original reality TV show. This Old House is an American Home improvement Magazine and Television series which is aired on the American public Jeff Jarvis (born September 12, 1954) is an American journalist. "
Unlike the aforementioned dating competition shows, some shows feature all new contestants each episode. This format was first used in the 1960s show The Dating Game. The Dating Game is an ABC television show that first aired on December 20, 1965 and was the first of many shows created and packaged by Modern examples include Blind Date, Room Raiders and Parental Control. Blind Date was a United States Reality show. It was first broadcast on first-run Television syndication in 1999 and was distributed by Universal Room Raiders is a dating / reality series on MTV. Premise On the show three single men or women have their rooms inspected Parental Control is a television program produced by MTV The two directors Brendon Carter and Bruce Klassen have also created other MTV shows
Though the traditional format of a talk show is that of a host interviewing a featured guest or discussing a chosen topic with a guest or panel of guests, the advent of trash TV shows has often made people group the entire category in with reality television. Tabloid talk shows are a genre of American television talk-shows that achieved peak viewership during the late 20th century Programs like Ricki Lake, The Jerry Springer Show and others generally recruit guests by advertising a potential topic for a future program. Ricki Lake was a daytime Tabloid talk show hosted by US actress Ricki Lake. The Jerry Springer Show is a television Tabloid talk show hosted by Jerry Springer, a former politician broadcast in the United States and other Topics are frequently outrageous and are chosen in the interest of creating on-screen drama, tension or outrageous behaviour. Though not explicitly reality television by traditional standards, this (allegedly) real depiction of someone's life, even if only in a brief interview format, is frequently considered akin to broader-scale reality TV programming.
Another type of reality programming features hidden cameras rolling when random passers-by encounter a staged situation. A hidden camera is a still or Video camera used to film people without their knowledge Candid Camera, which first aired on television in 1948, pioneered the format. Candid Camera was a Television series created and produced by Allen Funt, which initially began on Radio as Candid Microphone Modern variants of this type of production include Punk'd and Trigger Happy TV. Punk'd is an American Hidden camera Practical joke Television series on MTV, produced and hosted by Ashton Kutcher Trigger Happy TV is a Hidden camera Comedy Television programme The series Scare Tactics and Room 401 is a hidden-camera program in which the goal is to frighten contestants rather than just befuddle or amuse them. For the 1990s comic book series published by DC Comics see Scare Tactics (comics Scare Tactics is a reality show on the Room 401 is a Television series on MTV, executive produced by Ashton Kutcher and Jason Goldberg.
In hoax reality shows, the entire show is a prank played on one or more of the cast members, who think they are appearing in a legitimate reality show; the rest of the cast are actors who are in on the joke. Like hidden camera shows, these shows focus on pranks, although in these shows the hoax is more elaborate (lasting an entire season), the participants know they are appearing in a TV show (it is the true nature of the show that is kept secret from them), and the cameras are out in the open. Also, the point of such shows often is to parody the conventions of the reality TV genre. The first such show was 2003's The Joe Schmo Show. The Joe Schmo Show was a Reality TV show parody which aired on the American cable network Spike TV starting in September 2003. Other examples are My Big Fat Obnoxious Boss (modelled after The Apprentice), My Big Fat Obnoxious Fiance, Space Cadets (which convinced the hoax targets that they were being flown into space), The $25 Million Hoax (where a woman convinced her friends and family that she had won the lottery) and Invasion Iowa (in which a town was convinced that William Shatner was filming a movie there). My Big Fat Obnoxious Boss was a television show on the Fox Network that was filmed in July 2004 and aired in 2004-2005 My Big Fat Obnoxious Fiance is a one-shot television Reality show on the Fox Network during the 2003-2004 season Space Cadets was a British Television program made by Zeppotron (a division of Endemol UK) for Channel 4. Invasion Iowa is a television mini-series that aired on Spike TV beginning on March 29, 2005, on ITV4 beginning on 3 November William Alan Shatner (born March 22, 1931) is a Canadian double Emmy - Golden Globe - and Saturn Award -winning
Other shows, though not entirely hoax shows, have offered misleading information to some cast members in order to add a wrinkle to the competition. Examples include Boy Meets Boy and Joe Millionaire. Boy Meets Boy is American reality Television show in which a gay man meets and chooses a mate from a group of 15 potential male suitors Joe Millionaire was an American Reality television show broadcast on Fox beginning in January 2003
Reality television has the potential to turn its participants into national celebrities, at least for a short period. A celebrity is a widely-recognized or famous person who commands a high degree of public and media attention This is most notable in talent-search programs such as the Idol series, which has spawned music stars in many of the countries in which it has aired. Many other shows, however, such as Survivor and Big Brother, have made at least temporary celebrities out of their participants; some participants have then been able to parlay this fame into media careers. For example, Elisabeth Hasselbeck, a contestant on Survivor: The Australian Outback, later became a host on morning talk show The View; and Kristin Cavallari, who appeared on Laguna Beach: The Real Orange County, has gone on to become a television host and actress. Elisabeth Hasselbeck (née Filarski; born May 28 1977 is an American former Reality show contestant of Survivor The Australian Outback Survivor The Australian Outback was the second installment of the popular United States Reality show Survivor. The View is an Emmy Award -winning American Talk show created by Barbara Walters and Bill Geddie and broadcast on Kristin Elizabeth Cavallari (born January 14, 1987) is an American Reality show star and has appeared on United States Reality Laguna Beach The Real Orange County (often referred to as Laguna Beach) was an MTV reality show documenting the lives of Tiffany Pollard, originally a contestant on Flavor of Love, soon afterwards got her own series, the successful I Love New York and I Love New York 2. Tiffany "New York" Pollard (born January 6, 1982) is a Reality television Contestant, best known for VH1 's Flavor Flavor of Love is an American Reality television Dating game show starring Flavor Flav of the rap group Public Enemy. Main Articles I Love New York 1 & I Love New York 2 I Love New York is a reality television series on VH1. Main Articles I Love New York 1 & I Love New York 2 I Love New York is a reality television series on VH1. In Britain, Jade Goody became famous after appearing on Big Brother 3 in 2002. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Jade Cerisa Lorraine Goody (born 5 June 1981 is a British Television Celebrity. Big Brother 3 was the third series of Big Brother UK. The series started on 24 May 2002 and ended on 26 July 2002 She has since appeared on many other reality programs, and has launched bestselling books and a top-selling perfume line, among others.
Reality TV contestants are sometimes derided as "Z-list celebrities", who have done nothing to warrant their newfound fame.
Some commentators have said that the name "reality television" is an inaccurate description for several styles of program included in the genre. In competition-based programs such as Big Brother and Survivor, and other special living environment shows like The Real World, the producers design the format of the show and control the day-to-day activities and the environment, creating a completely fabricated world in which the competition plays out. Producers specifically select the participants and use carefully designed scenarios, challenges, events, and settings to encourage particular behaviors and conflicts. Mark Burnett, creator of Survivor and other reality shows, has agreed with this assessment, and avoids the word "reality" to describe his shows; he has said, "I tell good stories. Mark Burnett (born 17 July, 1960) is a British Television producer. It really is not reality TV. It really is unscripted drama. "
Even in docusoap series following people in their daily life, producers may be highly deliberate in their editing strategies, able to portray certain participants as heroes or villains, and may guide the drama through altered chronology and selective presentation of events. A Season 3 episode of Charlie Brooker's Screenwipe included a segment on the ways in which selective editing can be used to this end. Charlie Brooker's Screenwipe is a British television review programme broadcast on BBC Four by Charlie Brooker.  Some participants of reality shows have also stated afterwards that they altered their behavior to appear more crazy or emotional in order to get more camera time.
Several former reality show participants have spoken publicly about their experiences and the strategies used on reality shows. Irene McGee from The Real World Seattle has done public speaking tours about the negative and misleading aspects of reality TV. Irene McGee is a radio DJ and host of No One's Listening, a radio Podcast program about the mass media The Real World Seattle is the seventh season of MTV 's popular Reality television series The Real World, which focuses on seven diverse In 2004, VH1 aired a program called Reality TV Secrets Revealed, which detailed various misleading tricks of reality TV producers. VH1 (known as VH-1 Video Hits One from 1985 to 1994 and VH1 Music First until 2003) is an American Cable television  Among other things, it revealed that The Restaurant and Survivor had at times recreated incidents that had actually occurred but were not properly recorded by cameras to the required technical standard, or had not been recorded at all. The Restaurant is a Reality television series that aired on NBC in 2003, with a second season broadcasting in 2004. Survivor is a popular Reality television Game show format produced in many countries throughout the world In order to get the footage, the event was restaged for the cameras. Other shows (most notably Joe Millionaire) combined audio and video from different times, or from different sets of footage, to make it look like participants were doing something they were not. Joe Millionaire was an American Reality television show broadcast on Fox beginning in January 2003
Some shows have faced speculation that the participants themselves are involved in fakery, acting out storylines that have been planned in advance by producers. The Hills is one notable example; the show has long faced allegations that its plots are scripted ahead of time. With Hell's Kitchen, it has been speculated that the customers eating meals prepared by the contestants are in fact paid actors. Hell's Kitchen is an American reality-television cooking competition based on a series of the same name, broadcast in the UK.  Even the premise of shows has been called into question: during the airing of the show A Shot at Love with Tila Tequila, in which a group of both men and women vied for the heart of Tila Tequila, there were rumors that its star was not only stricly heterosexual but had a boyfriend already. For the second season see A Shot at Love II with Tila Tequila A Shot at Love with Tila Tequila is an American Reality television Tila Nguyen (legal name Thien Thanh Thi Nguyen, born October 24 1981 better known by her Stage name Tila Tequila, is an American  The show's winner, Bobby Banhart, claimed that he never saw Ms. Tequila again after the show finished taping, and that he was never even given her phone number.  Nevertheless, there has been no direct evidence presented yet that any such program has been scripted or "rigged," as with the 1950s television quiz show scandals. The American quiz show scandals of the 1950s were the result of the revelation that contestants of several popular Television Quiz shows were secretly
The newly launched TruTV in the US promotes "actuality" as opposed to usual reality shows. truTV is an American Cable Television network owned by Time Warner through its subsidiary Turner Broadcasting.
Some have claimed that the success of reality television is due to its ability to provide schadenfreude, by satisfying the desire of viewers to see others humiliated. Schadenfreude (ˈʃaːdənˌfʁɔʏ̯də) is enjoyment taken from the misfortune of someone else Entertainment Weekly wrote, "Do we watch reality television for precious insight into the human condition? Please. Entertainment Weekly (sometimes abbreviated as EW) is a Magazine published by Time Inc We watch for those awkward scenes that make us feel a smidge better about our own little unfilmed lives. " Media analyst Tom Alderman wrote, "There is a sub-set of Reality TV that can only be described as Shame TV because it uses humiliation as its core appeal. "
Reality television's global success has been, in the eyes of some analysts, an important political phenomenon. In some authoritarian countries, reality television voting represents the first time many citizens have voted in any free and fair wide-scale elections. Authoritarianism describes a Form of government characterized by an emphasis on the Authority of the State in a republic or union In addition, the frankness of the settings on some reality shows present situations that were formerly taboo in certain orthodox cultures, like the pan-Arab version of Big Brother, which shows men and women living together. Big Brother is a Reality television show where in each series a group of people live together in the Big Brother House isolated from the outside world but continuously  Journalist Matt Labash, noting both of these issues, wrote that "the best hope of little Americas developing in the Middle East could be Arab-produced reality TV. " Similarly, in China, after the finale of the 2005 season of Super Girl (the local version of Pop Idol) drew an audience of around 400 million people, and 8 million text message votes, the state-run English-language newspaper Beijing Today ran the front-page headline "Is Super Girl a Force for Democracy?" The Chinese government criticized the show, citing both its democratic nature and its excessive vulgarity, or "worldliness", and in 2006 banned it outright. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National Super Girl or Super Voice Girls ( literally "Super Female Voice" was an annual national singing contest in People's Republic of China Pop Idol was a British Television series which debuted on ITV on October 5 2001; the show was a talent contest to decide Text messaging, or texting is the common term for the sending of "short" (160 characters or fewer including spaces text messages from Mobile phones The China Youth Daily ( Chinese:中国青年报 Pinyin:Zhōngguó Qīngnián Bào) is a popular official daily Newspaper and the first independently 
Screenwriter Sheryl Longin, who describes herself as "a reality show addict", has written that based on her experiences, "we may be approaching the death of drama. " This is because, she says, seeing real people act naturally matches viewers' expectations of human body language in a way that not even the most talented actors can achieve: "Not even Sir Alec Guinness could give us the richness of body language and facial cues emanating from eliminated contestant 'Organic Josh' on this season’s Design Star. Sir Alec Guinness, CH, CBE (2 April 1914 &ndash 5 August 2000 was an English Actor. HGTV Design Star is an American reality competition show that airs on the Cable television network HGTV. The difference to the brain between watching reality television and scripted drama is like the difference to our vision between High Definition television and 1970’s quality video. High-definition television (HDTV is a Digital television Broadcasting system with higher resolution than traditional television systems (standard-definition " VH1 executive vice president Michael Hirschorn wrote that the plots and subject matters on reality television are also more authentic and more engaging than in scripted dramas, writing that scripted network television "remains dominated by variants on the police procedural. . . in which a stock group of characters (ethnically, sexually, and generationally diverse) grapples with endless versions of the same dilemma. The episodes have all the ritual predictability of Japanese Noh theater," while reality TV is "the liveliest genre on the set right now. or is a major form of classic Japanese musical Drama that has been performed since the 14th century It has engaged hot-button cultural issues—class, sex, race—that respectable television. . . rarely touches. " 
A number of fictional works since the 1930s have contained elements similar to elements of reality television. They tended to be set in a dystopian future, with subjects being recorded against their will, and often involved violence. A dystopia (from the Greek δυσ- and τόπος alternatively cacotopia, kakotopia, cackotopia, or anti-utopia) is the vision of a society
Some scripted works have used reality television as a plot device:
A number of scripted television shows have taken the form of documentary-type reality TV shows, in "mockumentary" style. Mockumentary (also known as a pseudo-documentary) a Portmanteau of Mock and documentary, is a film and TV Genre, or a single work The first such show was the BBC series Operation Good Guys, which premiered in 1997. Operation Good Guys ( OGG) is a 1997 British Mockumentary Other examples include People Like Us, Trailer Park Boys, The Office, Drawn Together and Reno 911!. People Like Us is a British comedy programme a spoof on-location documentary (or Mockumentary) written by John Morton, and starring Chris Trailer Park Boys is a popular Canadian Mockumentary Television series focusing on the misadventures of a group of Trailer park The Office is the title of multiple television Situation comedy shows Drawn Together is an American Animated television series, which ran on Comedy Central from October 27, 2004 to November Reno 911! is an American Comedy television series on Comedy Central that debuted in 2003.
Some feature films have been produced that use some of the conventions of reality television; such films are sometimes referred to as reality films, and sometimes simply as documentaries. Reality film or reality movie describes a genre of films that have resulted from Reality television, such as The Real Cancun, MTV 's Documentary film is a broad category of visual expression that is based on the attempt in one fashion or another to " Document " reality  Allen Funt's 1970 hidden camera movie What Do You Say to a Naked Lady? was based on his reality-television show Candid Camera. Allen Funt ( September 16, 1914 &ndash September 5 1999) was an American producer-director best known as the creator and host of What Do You Say to a Naked Lady? is a hidden-camera style documentary released in 1970 and directed by Candid Camera creator Allen The TV show Jackass spawned three films: Jackass: The Movie in 2001, Jackass: Number Two in 2006, and Jackass 2.5 in late 2007. Jackass is an American Television series, originally shown on MTV from 2000 to 2002 featuring people performing various dangerous crude ridiculous Jackass The Movie, is an American film directed by Jeff Tremaine and was released on October 25, 2002 with the tagline "Do not attempt Jackass Number Two is a 2006 Comedy film. It is the sequel to Jackass The Movie (2002 both based upon the MTV series Jackass Number Two is a 2006 Comedy film. It is the sequel to Jackass The Movie (2002 both based upon the MTV series A similar Finnish show, Extreme Duudsonit, was adapted for the film The Dudesons Movie  in 2006. Finland, officially the Republic of Finland ( is a Nordic country situated in the Fennoscandian region of northern Europe. The Dudesons is a Finnish television series which originally started in January 2001 under the Finnish name Extreme Duudsonit. The producers of The Real World created The Real Cancun in 2003. The Real Cancun is a 2003 American Reality film released on April 25, 2003 in the U Games People Play: New York  was released in 2004.
The mumblecore film genre, which began in the mid-2000s, and uses video cameras and relies heavily on improvisation and non-professional actors, has been described as influenced in part by what one critic called "the spring-break psychodrama of MTV's The Real World". Mumblecore is an American Independent film Movement that arose in the early 2000s Mumblecore director Joe Swanberg has said, "As annoying as reality TV is, it's been really good for filmmakers because it got mainstream audiences used to watching shaky camerawork and different kinds of situations. Joe Swanberg (born August 31, 1981 in Detroit, Michigan) is an American independent Filmmaker. "