Raymond Vahan Damadian (born March 16, 1936) is an American practitioner of magnetic resonance imaging. Events 597 BC - Babylonians capture Jerusalem, replace Jehoiachin with Zedekiah as king Year 1936 ( MCMXXXVI) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the
Damadian was born in Melville, New York, who earned his BS in mathematics from the University of Wisconsin-Madison in 1956, and an M. Melville is a hamlet and Census-designated place in the town of Huntington in Suffolk County on Long Island, New York D. degree from the Albert Einstein College of Medicine in New York City in 1960. For the engineering company see AECOM The Albert Einstein College of Medicine (AECOM is a graduate school of Yeshiva University The City of New York He studied the violin at Juilliard for 8. The violin is a bowed String instrument with four strings usually tuned in Perfect fifths It is the smallest and highest-pitched member The Juilliard School, located in New York City, is a world renowned Performing arts conservatory. 
In a 1971 paper in the journal Science , SUNY Downstate Medical Center professor Damadian reported that tumors and normal tissue can be distinguished in vitro by nuclear magnetic resonance ("NMR"). Science is the Academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and is considered one of the world's most prestigious Scientific See also Cancer A tumor or tumour is the name for a swelling or lesion formed by an abnormal growth of cells (termed neoplastic He suggested that these differences could be used to diagnose cancer, though later research would find that these differences, while real, are too variable for diagnostic purposes. Cancer (medical term Malignant Neoplasm) is a class of Diseases in which a group of cells display uncontrolled Damadian's initial methods were flawed for practical use, relying on a point-by-point scan of the entire body and using relaxation rates, which turned out to not be an effective indicator of cancerous tissue.  Nonetheless, in 1974, he received the first patent in the field of MRI when he patented the concept of NMR for detecting cancer after filing an application in 1972. As the National Science Foundation notes, "The patent included the idea of using NMR to 'scan' the human body to locate cancerous tissue. The National Science Foundation (NSF is a United States Government agency that supports fundamental Research and Education in all the non-medical " However, it did not describe a method for generating pictures from such a scan or precisely how such a scan might be done. 
In the 1950s, Herman Carr reported  creating a one-dimensional MR image. Herman Y Carr ( November 28, 1924 - April 9, 2008) was an American physicist and pioneer of Magnetic resonance imaging. Prompted by Damadian's report on the potential medical uses of NMR, Paul Lauterbur expanded on Carr's technique and developed a way to generate the first MRI images, in 2D and 3D, using gradients. Paul Christian Lauterbur ( May 6, 1929 – March 27, 2007) was an American Chemist who shared the Nobel Prize Peter Mansfield from the University of Nottingham then developed a mathematical technique that would allow scans to take seconds rather than hours and produce clearer images than Lauterbur had. Sir Peter Mansfield, FRS, (born 9 October 1933) is a British Physicist who was awarded the 2003 Nobel Prize in Physiology or The University of Nottingham is a Public, Co-educational institution of Higher learning in the city of Nottingham, England. While Lauterbur and Mansfield focused on animals and human limbs, Damadian built the first full-body MRI machine and produced the first full magnetic resonance imaging ("MRI") scan of the human body, albeit using a "focused field" technique that differs considerably from modern imaging.
In recording the history of MRI, Mattson and Simon (1996) credit Damadian with describing the concept of whole-body NMR scanning, as well as discovering the NMR tissue relaxation differences that made this feasible.
In 1978, Damadian formed his own company, FONAR (which stood for "field focused nuclear magnetic resonance"), for the production of MRI scanners, and in 1980, he produced the first commercial one. Damadian's "focused field" technology proved less effective than Lauterbur's gradient approach. His scanner, named "Indomitable," failed to sell. FONAR eventually abandoned Damadian's technique in favour of the methods adopted by Lauterbur and Mansfield.  Damadian and FONAR aggressively enforced the royalties on patents held by Damadian. Royalties (sometimes running royalties) are usage-based payments made by one party (the "licensee" to another (the "licensor" for ongoing use of an  They settled with many large companies, but a case against General Electric went to the United States Supreme Court, which upheld a $129 million ruling against GE for violation of Damadian's patents. The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary.  Damadian says that the judgment money has all been put back into FONAR for research and development purposes; he is the company's largest shareholder, with 8% of stock worth $6. 5 million.  Despite owning only 8% of the stock, however, he mantains near 100% control of the company through a separate class of shares (Class C) that only Damadian controls (2007 shareholder proxy statement).
Damadian later collaborated with Wilson Greatbatch, one early developer of the implantable pacemaker, to develop an MRI-compatible pacemaker. Wilson Greatbatch (born September 6 1919) is an inventor who advanced the development of early implantable cardiac pacemakers. For other uses see Pacemaker (disambiguation A pacemaker (or artificial pacemaker, so as not to be confused with the heart's natural pacemaker He also invented a stand-up MRI system and has 15 MRI scanning centers across the United States.
The company conceived and built the world's first Upright Multi-Positional MRI, which was recognized as The Invention of the Year in 2007 by the Intellectual Properties Owners Association Education Foundation.
Damadian received a National Medal of Technology in 1988 and was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame in 1989. The National Medal of Technology and Innovation (formerly known as the National Medal of Technology) is an honor granted by the President of the United States to American The National Inventors Hall of Fame is an organization that recognizes Inventors and invention everywhere promotes creativity and advances the spirit of innovation and entrepreneurship His original MRI full-body scanner was given to the Smithsonian Institution in the 1980s and is now on loan and on display at the National Inventors Hall of Fame in Ohio. The Smithsonian Institution (smɪθsoʊnɪən is an educational and research institute and associated Museum complex administered and funded by the Government of 
In 2001, the Lemelson-MIT Prize Program bestowed its $100,000 Lifetime Achievement Award on Damadian as "the man who invented the MRI scanner. The $500000 Lemelson-MIT Prize, presented by the Lemelson-MIT Program (endowed in 1994 by Jerome H " The Franklin Institute in Philadelphia gave its recognition of Damadian's work on MRI with the Bower Award in Business Leadership. This article is about the science museum in Philadelphia For the Boston school see Benjamin Franklin Institute of Technology. Philadelphia (ˌfɪləˈdɛlfiə He was also named the Knights of Vartan 2003 "Man of the Year. " In September 2003, he was honored with the Innovation Award in Bioscience from The Economist. The Economist is an English-language weekly news and International affairs publication owned by The Economist Newspaper Ltd and edited in London 
In 2003, the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded to Paul Lauterbur and Sir Peter Mansfield for their discoveries related to MRI. The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (Nobelpriset i fysiologi eller medicin is awarded once a year by the Swedish Karolinska Institute. Although Nobel rules allow for the award to be shared by up to three recipients, Damadian was not given the prize.
The controversy over who played what part in the development of the MRI had gone on for years prior to the Nobel announcement, and many in the scientific community felt that the Nobel had not been awarded for the MRI for so long due to debate over Damadian's role in its development.  Damadian said that credit should go to "me, and then Lauterbur," and Lauterbur felt that only he should get credit. As an example of the debate, in 1997 the National Academy of Sciences commissioned a timeline of MRI milestones, and four of the 12 in an initial draft were attributed to Damadian. The National Academy of Sciences (NAS is a corporation in the United States whose members serve Pro bono as "advisers to the nation on science At the final publication in 2001, longer than any other publication in the series had ever been taken, none of the milestones were attributed to Damadian. The text said that Damadian's methods had "not proved clinically reliable in detecting or diagnosing cancer. Cancer (medical term Malignant Neoplasm) is a class of Diseases in which a group of cells display uncontrolled " After Damadian's lawyers sent the NAS a threatening letter, the text on the NAS website was revised, but still not to Damadian's satisfaction. A lawyer, according to Black's Law Dictionary, is "a person learned in the law as an attorney, Counsel or Solicitor; a person Damadian said in 2002, "If I had not been born, would MRI have existed? I don't think so. If Lauterbur had not been born? I would have gotten there. Eventually. "
The New York Times wrote:
The issue has been the subject of a dispute between Dr. Damadian and Dr. Lauterbur and has been known for years in academic circles, with some fearing that the Nobel committee would steer clear of magnetic resonance imaging altogether because of the Swedes' supposed distaste for controversial discoveries. Dr. Lauterbur, 74, is not in good health, and the committee may have decided that its prize, which cannot be given posthumously, needed to be awarded for the discovery now or never. ".
After the announcement of Lauterbur and Mansfield's Nobels, between October and November 2003, an ad hoc group called "The Friends of Raymond Damadian" took out full-page advertisements in The New York Times twice, The Washington Post, The Los Angeles Times and one of the largest newspapers in Sweden, Dagens Nyheter protesting his exclusion with the headline "The Shameful Wrong That Must Be Righted" in an attempt to get the Nobel Committee to change its mind and grant him a share of the Prize. The Washington Post is the largest and most circulated Newspaper in Washington D The Los Angeles Times (also known as the LA Times) is a daily Newspaper published in Los Angeles California and distributed "Sverige" redirects here For other uses see Sweden (disambiguation and Sverige (disambiguation. ( DN) ( Swedish: lit "news of the day" is a daily newspaper in Sweden.  Damadian suggested that Lauterbur and Mansfield should have rejected the Nobel Prize unless Damadian was given joint recognition. Supporting Damadian were various MRI experts including John Throck Watson, Eugene Feigelson, V. Adrian Parsegian, Dr. David Stark and James Mattson. New York Times columnist Horace Freeland Judson criticised this behavior, noting that there is "no Nobel Prize for whining" and that many deserving candidates who may have had better claims than Damadian, such as Lise Meitner, Oswald Avery and Jocelyn Bell, had been previously denied a share of the Nobel. Horace Freeland Judson (born April 21 1931 is a Historian of Molecular biology and the author of several books including The Eighth Day of Creation, Lise Meitner (7 or 17 November 1878 &ndash 27 October 1968 was an Austrian born later Swedish physicist who studied Radioactivity and Oswald Theodore Avery ( October 21, 1877 &ndash 2 February, 1955) was a Canadian -born American Physician and Dame Jocelyn Bell Burnell, DBE, FRS, FRAS (born Susan Jocelyn Bell on 15 July 1943) is an astrophysicist 
Others point out that while Damadian had hypothesized that NMR relaxation times might be used to detect cancer, he did not develop (nor did he suggest) the current way of creating images. 
Some felt that research scientists sided with Lauterbur because he was one of their own, while Damadian was a medical doctor who had profited greatly from his early patents. A physician, medical practitioner or medical doctor who practices Medicine, and is concerned with maintaining or restoring human Health  Charles Springer, an expert in MRI at Oregon Health and Science University, said that if a poll was taken of the academic community, most would agree with the Nobel Committee's conclusions.  Damadian's contributions were consistently recognized more outside of the academic community than within it. Others said that Damadian had not acted in the manner of a scientist on many occasions, which alienated the academic community, including when he held a 1977 press conference to announce that his full-body scanner could detect cancer anywhere in the body. Even in modern uses, MRI is not usually used for diagnosis but for location of tumors already diagnosed. 
Some consider Damadian to be a controversial figure in academic circles, not least for his exuberant behavior at conferences.  He is also fundamentalist Christian and a young earth creationist and a member of the 'Technical Advisory Board' of the Institute for Creation Research. Fundamentalist Christianity, also known as Christian Fundamentalism or Fundamentalist Evangelicalism, is a movement that arose mainly within British and Young Earth creationism (YEC is the religious belief that Heaven, Earth, and Life on Earth were created by a direct act of God dating The Institute for Creation Research (ICR is a Christian institution in Dallas, Texas that specializes in education research and media promotion of Creation  Philosopher Michael Ruse writing for the Metanexus Institute suggested that Damadian might have been denied a Nobel prize because of his creationist views, saying:
I cringe at the thought that Raymond Damadian was refused his just honor because of his religious beliefs. Michael Ruse (born June 21, 1940 in Birmingham England) is a philosopher of science working on the philosophy of biology and is well known The Metanexus Institute, formally named the Metanexus Institute on Religion and Science and formerly known as the Philadelphia Center for Religion and Science is a Philadelphia Having silly ideas in one field is no good reason to deny merit for great ideas in another field. Apart from the fact that this time the Creation Scientists will think that there is good reason to think that they are the objects of unfair treatment at the hands of the scientific community. | M. Ruse
Damadian himself said, "Before this happened, nobody ever said to me 'They will not give you the Nobel Prize for Medicine because you are a creation scientist. '. . . If people were actively campaigning against me because of that, I never knew it. "