A rapid transit, underground, subway, elevated or metro(politan) system is a railway — usually in an urban area — with a high capacity and frequency of service and grade separation from other traffic. "Railroad" and "Railway" both redirect here For other uses see Railroad (disambiguation. Grade separation is the process of aligning a junction of two or more transport axes at different heights ( More than 160 cities have rapid transit systems, totaling more than 8,000 km (4,900 miles) of track and 7,000 stations.  Twenty-five cities have new systems under construction.
The oldest rapid transit system in the world is the London Underground, which opened in 1863 and was then called the Metropolitan Railway. The London Underground is a Metro system serving a large part of Greater London and neighbouring areas of Essex, Hertfordshire and Buckinghamshire The Metropolitan Railway (MetR and the Metropolitan District Railway (District were the first two underground railways to be built in London, creating the world's  The Underground remains one of the most extensive rapid transit systems in the world. 
The term rapid transit is used to describe a rail-based transportation system used within urban areas to transport people. Various terms are used for Passenger rail lines and equipment The Moscow Metro (Московское метро which spans almost the entire Russian capital, is the world's second most heavily used Rapid-transit  The term is often more specific, as in common definitions of metro or heavy rail, in which the transit system also must meet the following criteria:
Rapid transit systems can be elevated, on ground or underground. It is quite common for the city core network to be underground, although it varies from system to system which solution is used outside the city core.
The terms subway and underground are often used to describe a rapid transit that operates solely or primarily underground. In some cities the word subway applies to the entire system, while in others only to those parts that are actually underground, but is commonly called metro; this term is globally the most common term for specific systems. Rapid transit systems that are above street level may be called "elevated" systems in the US (often shortened to El or L, as Chicago's system is popularly referred to). The 'L' (variously and sometimes, styled "L" El EL or L) is a Rapid transit system that serves the city of In the UK, elevated systems are generally classified as light railways such as the Docklands Light Railway (DLR) in east London, although not all British light railways are elevated. Light railway refers to a Railway built at lower costs and to lower standards than typical "heavy rail" The Docklands Light Railway (DLR is a Light rail system serving the redeveloped Docklands area of East London England.
Rapid transits are generally used in metropolitan areas to transport large numbers of people at high frequency. The extent of the rapid transit system varies greatly between cities, and there are multiple transport strategies that can take advantage of a rapid transit system. In larger metropolitan areas the underground system may extend only to the limits of the central city, or to its inner ring of suburbs with trains making relatively frequent station stops. South San Jose (cropjpg||thumb|A suburban development in San Jose California. The outer suburbs may then be reached by a separate commuter-, suburban- or regional rail network, where more widely spaced stations allow higher speeds. Various terms are used for Passenger rail lines and equipment These trains are often more expensive, less frequent, and in some cities, operate only during rush hour periods. Rush hour at Shinjuku 02JPG|thumb|right|250px|Rush hour at Shinjuku Station, Yamanote Line]] A rush hour or peak hour is a part of the day during which
It is common for rapid transit systems to be supplemented with other systems, either buses, trams and/or commuter trains. A tram, tramcar, trolley, trolley car, or streetcar is a railborne vehicle, of lighter weight and construction than a Train Because of the high density structure of the rapid transit, short haul trips are often more easily performed with tram lines or buses. Many cities have chosen to operate a tram system in the city core with the metro expanding beyond it. A typical example of this is Oslo, with trams in the city core, the metro stretching beyond the core to the city limits and commuter trains serving neighbouring boroughs. Oslo T-bane is the Rapid transit system of Oslo, Norway operated by Oslo T-banedrift on contract from the transit authority Ruter.  Another common strategy is to use a bus feeding system to transport people to the transit stops and use the transits to carry them to the city centre or other bus routes. Using this system highly enhances the suburban bus system, since they are not required to drive all the way to the city centre. Vancouver utilises this strategy very efficiently. The SkyTrain is a two-line urban mass transit system in Metro Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. 
Elevated railways were a popular way to build mass transit systems in cities around the beginning of the twentieth century, but they have fallen out of favour. The SkyTrain is a two-line urban mass transit system in Metro Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Many elevated lines were later demolished and replaced by subways or buses. Elevated rail saw something of a resurgence in the late twentieth century, with the construction of a number of new lines such as the Docklands Light Railway in London and the Bangkok Skytrain; in the United States a few such lines have been built, including Miami's Metrorail New York's AirTrain JFK and the Las Vegas Monorail, but these are typically seen as more futuristic, and are not representative of the overall trends in U. The Docklands Light Railway (DLR is a Light rail system serving the redeveloped Docklands area of East London England. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. Bangkok Mass Transit System (BTS or Skytrain (รถไฟฟ้า is the elevated metro system in Bangkok, Thailand, operated by Bangkok The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Metrorail is a Rapid transit system located in Miami, Florida, USA. AirTrain JFK is an 81- Mile (13- km) People mover system in New York City that connects John F The Robert N Broadbent Las Vegas Monorail (formerly MGM Grand-Bally's Monorail) is a 3 The future is commonly understood to contain all events that have yet to occur S. transit development, predominantly because these cities are building brand new rapid transit systems.
Beyond the extent of the metro, many cities use commuter trains. Many of these regional railways were first built to operate in one direction from a city centre terminus, but some have been extended across the city centre, sometimes running in tunnels. They offer suburban passengers a choice of stations and also provide useful transportation in the city. Transport or transportation is the movement of people and goods from one place to another A notable example is the Paris RER system, where (in co-operation with the city's transit authority) several pairs of existing suburban lines running in opposite directions from the city have been extended in tunnels to join and form new routes across the city. Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city The RER ( R éseau E xpress R égional, ɛʀøɛʀ "Regional Express Network" is a Rapid transit system in France serving  They are provided with frequent service and, within the city, the same fares as the Métro are charged, providing an integrated network. The Paris style system is often called S-Bahn (in German), Linea S or Treno Suburbano (Italian) and Cercanías (Spanish). This article has been partially translated from the German Wikipedia article The German language (de ''Deutsch'') is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages. Italian ( or lingua italiana) is a Romance language spoken by about 63 million people as a First language, primarily in Italy. Cercanías (θeɾkaˈnias is the name given to the Commuter rail systems of Spain 's major metropolitan areas In Europe these systems are or have often been operated by the state railway.
In some cases the rapid transit system runs to the suburbs and effectively functions as a regional rail service as well. An electric multiple unit or EMU is a Multiple unit train consisting of many carriages using Electricity as the motive power Transperth is the brand name of the public transport system in Perth, Western Australia. Perth is the capital and largest city of the Australian state of Western Australia. The Delhi Mass Rapid Transit System ( MRTS) or Delhi Metro (दिल्ली मेट्रो is a Rapid transit system in the Indian National Indian Railways (भारतीय रेल Bhāratīya Rail) abbreviated as IR (hi भारे is a Department of the Government of India under the Ministry Examples are the San Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) and Washington Metrorail systems, though both are supplemented with other commuter train services. The City and County of San Francisco is the fourth most populous city Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D Where there are separate systems, the rapid transit system is typically a self contained service with its own dedicated tracks and stations and technologically incompatible with other railways. Suburban rail services, on the other hand, often share tracks and stations with long-distance trains (historically they were usually operated by the same company, which also owned the rails and carried freight, although this has become less common) and are subject to the same standards and regulations.
There are exceptions; some London Underground lines share tracks with suburban rail services. The London Underground is a Metro system serving a large part of Greater London and neighbouring areas of Essex, Hertfordshire and Buckinghamshire In some cases, underground railway lines have been extended by taking over existing regional rail lines, notably parts of the Central and Northern Lines in London. (It also happens the other way round, as in the case of East London Line. The East London Line was a line of the London Underground, coloured orange on the Tube map. ) The Tyne and Wear Metro in the North East of England is another metro service which shares some of its tracks with suburban rail services. The Tyne and Wear Metro is a metro system serving stations in Newcastle upon Tyne, Gateshead, South Tyneside North Tyneside and Sunderland, The extension of the system to Sunderland sees the metro sharing tracks with Northern train services between Sunderland and Pelaw. 
The Athens Metro's Blue Line shares tracks with suburban rail services in order to connect the metro to Eleftherios Venizelos International Airport but stops only at some of the suburban rail stations because the platforms of the stations are much lower than the trains' floors. The Athens Metro is the underground Public transport system of Athens, Greece, constructed by the Attiko Metro company ( Αττικό Athens International Airport (Διεθνής Αερολιμένας Αθηνών Diethnís Aeroliménas Athinón known as "Elefthérios Venizélos" Ελευθέριος  In Australia, no dedicated metro exists, but regional railways serve also within the city centres, and they operate in the city centres like metro. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics.
In Hong Kong (East Rail Line) and São Paulo, Brazil, metro-like frequent service is provided by electrifying existing railway lines, while continuing to share the tracks with the much less frequent intercity and freight trains. Hong Kong ( officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, is a territory located on China 's south coast on the Pearl River Delta, and borders The (formerly called KCR East Rail, Chinese 九廣東鐵 is one of the ten MTR lines in Hong Kong. São Paulo ( is the largest city in Brazil, with its metropolitan area ranking among the largest urban areas in the world |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld The West Rail Line in Hong Kong is designed to accommodate intercity and freight traffic in future, whilst at present provides only metro-like service. The (西鐵綫 (formerly called West Rail, Chinese: 西鐵 is one of the MTR lines in Hong Kong.  The Tung Chung Line on the MTR of Hong Kong serves between the urban centres on Hong Kong Island and Kowloon with the bedroom community of Tung Chung, yet the service is also essentially metro. The is one of the 10 lines of the MTR system in Hong Kong. It links Tung Chung with Hong Kong Island. MTR, or Mass Transit Railway, is the Rapid transit Railway system in Hong Kong. Tung Chung, namely the eastern stream is an area situated on the north-western coast of Lantau Island in Hong Kong.
In South Korea, the Seoul Subway Line 1 runs on the existing Gyeongbu, Gyeongin and Gyeongwon lines of the Korean Rail (Korail), and the subway (largely overground) shares tracks with the main line trains. South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea and often referred to as Korea ( Korean: 대한민국 tɛː Seoul Subway Line 1 of the Seoul Metropolitan Subway links central Seoul, South Korea to Soyosan Station in the northeast Incheon The Gyeongbu Line ( Gyeongbuseon) is the most important Railway line in South Korea and one of the oldest constructed by Japan in 1905 connecting The Gyeongin Line ( Gyeonginseon) was the first railway line built on the Korean peninsula, built in 1899 and connecting Noryangjin to The Gyeongwon Line is a railway line serving northeastern Gyeonggi Province in South Korea. Korail is the national railroad operator in South Korea. Korail operates passenger and freight trains throughout South Korea In Taiwan, however, the existing main line trains and stations of the Taiwan Railway are demolished and replaced by metro lines following roughly the same routes (such as the Tamsui Line, see zh:臺鐵捷運化 or ja:台鉄捷運化). REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES The Taiwan Railway Administration (abbreviated TRA is an agency of the Republic of China Ministry of Transportation and Communications responsible for managing maintaining The Danshui Line ( Tongyong Pinyin:Danshuei is a non-operational Taiwanese railroad branch line located in Taipei County and operated by the Taiwan In Tokyo and Osaka, Japanese private companies operate the world's most extensive suburban railways, each with their own fare system that integrates with the entire system. officially, is one of the 47 prefectures of Japan and located on the eastern side of the main island Honshū. is a city in Japan, located at the mouth of the Yodo River on Osaka Bay, in the Kansai region of the main island of Honshū
There has always been some crossover between rapid transit and "lighter" streetcar/tram systems. For specific light rail systems many of which use the words "light rail" as part of their name see List of light-rail transit systems. A tram, tramcar, trolley, trolley car, or streetcar is a railborne vehicle, of lighter weight and construction than a Train For example, some lines of the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company in New York City were elevated in built-up areas and ran at street level, often along streets, in less crowded areas. The Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company (BRT was a Public transit Holding company formed in 1896 to acquire and consolidate lines in Brooklyn and Queens The City of New York Similarly, trams in many German cities, such as Hanover, descend into tunnels to cross the city center. A tram, tramcar, trolley, trolley car, or streetcar is a railborne vehicle, of lighter weight and construction than a Train The Hanover Stadtbahn is a Stadtbahn light rail system in the city of Hanover, Germany that opened in September of 1975, gradually replacing
In the other direction, interurban streetcars provided rapid transit-style transit from cities to suburbs and other cities, running mainly on separate rights-of-way track (sometimes sharing tracks with intercity rail), but using streetcar equipment. In Australia "interurban" is a general term for Intercity rail. A right-of-way is a strip of land that is granted – through an Easement or other mechanism – for Transportation purposes such as for a Rail line or Inter-city rail services are express Train passenger services which cover longer distances than Commuter trains Africa Inter-city services are reasonably A tram, tramcar, trolley, trolley car, or streetcar is a railborne vehicle, of lighter weight and construction than a Train Most interurbans have been abandoned, but some (like the Norristown High Speed Line near Philadelphia) have been reconstructed to rapid transit specifications. SEPTA Route 100, also known as the Norristown High-Speed Line, is an Interurban line system operating between Upper Darby and Norristown Philadelphia (ˌfɪləˈdɛlfiə
Additionally, many streetcar/tram systems include underground and (less commonly) elevated sections, in which everything about the system except the right-of-way is built to streetcar standards. Notably, the first subway in the United States, Boston's Green Line, opened in 1897 to take streetcars off downtown streets, though it did carry elevated trains from 1901 until the Washington Street Tunnel opened. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The Green Line is a Light rail / Streetcar system run by the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (MBTA in the Boston, Massachusetts The Orange Line is one of the four subway lines of the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority. Likewise, San Francisco's Market Street Subway carries Muni Metro light rail on the upper tracks and Bay Area Rapid Transit metro trains on the lower level. The City and County of San Francisco is the fourth most populous city The Market Street Subway is a tunnel that carries both Rapid transit and Light rail traffic in San Francisco California. Muni Metro is a Mass transit system operated in the City and County of San Francisco by the San Francisco Municipal Railway, managed by the San Francisco
The coming of modern light rail in the 1970s brought new crossovers. For specific light rail systems many of which use the words "light rail" as part of their name see List of light-rail transit systems. New systems were built and old streetcar/tram systems were upgraded with higher capacity and speeds, but retaining some aspects of streetcars and trams. Some systems known as light rail, such as the Docklands Light Railway in London, Manchester Metrolink, Edmonton LRT, and New York City's AirTrain JFK, are indeed rapid transit systems but commonly described as light rail. The Docklands Light Railway (DLR is a Light rail system serving the redeveloped Docklands area of East London England. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. Manchester Metro redirects here - for the Manchester Metroshuttle free bus routes see Metroshuttle or First Manchester Manchester Metrolink Edmonton (ˈɛdmɨntɨn is the capital of the Canadian province of Alberta. Edmonton Light Rail Transit, more commonly referred to as the LRT is a Light rail system in Edmonton, Alberta. The City of New York AirTrain JFK is an 81- Mile (13- km) People mover system in New York City that connects John F In many Asian countries light rail also is generally used to refer to some sort of rapid transit system but not used to refer to street cars or trams. Other light-rail systems may use high platforms but otherwise run as streetcars. A few systems similar to interurban streetcars have come back, such as New Jersey's River Line, which operates over freight rails for most of its trip, and along streets on one end. In Australia "interurban" is a general term for Intercity rail. New Jersey ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States. The River Line (styled River LINE by NJ Transit and originally known as Southern New Jersey Light Rail Transit or SNJLRT) is a diesel Light rail The MTR Light Rail, which runs as streetcars, operates with high platforms, with some of its sections elevated or street level right-of-way, and some at ground-level by away from streets. The MTR Light Rail, also known Light Rail Transit ( LRT) used to be one of the four systems of the KCR network in Hong Kong.
The volume of passengers a metro train can carry is often quite high, and a metro system is often viewed as the backbone of a large city's public transportation system. In many cities passengers beginning their journeys on a streetcar/tram, bus, or suburban rail system must finish their journey into the city center on the metro, as their first mode of transport will terminate at a metro station to avoid congesting the city center above ground. Mode of transport (or means of transport or transport mode or transport modality or form of transport) is a general term for the different Budapest is a perfect example where the two more modern metro lines connect with feeder buses and trams and also with two circular streetcar/tram routes (one closer to and one further from the city center) that allow travel between suburbs and also into the centre of the city by changing onto the metro. The Budapest Metro (Hungarian Budapesti metró) is the metro system in the Hungarian capital Budapest.
In some cities, the urban rail system is so comprehensive and efficient that the majority of city residents use it as their primary means of transport. Berlin, Hong Kong, London, Madrid, Moscow, New York City, Osaka, Paris, Seoul and Tokyo are such examples; these cities have the most extensive and convenient metro systems in the world. Berlin is the capital city and one of sixteen states of Germany. MTR, or Mass Transit Railway, is the Rapid transit Railway system in Hong Kong. The London Underground is a Metro system serving a large part of Greater London and neighbouring areas of Essex, Hertfordshire and Buckinghamshire The Madrid Metro is the large metro system serving the city of Madrid. The Moscow Metro (Московское метро which spans almost the entire Russian capital, is the world's second most heavily used Rapid-transit The New York City Subway is a Rapid transit system owned by the City of New York and leased to the New York City Transit Authority, a subsidiary agency is a city in Japan, located at the mouth of the Yodo River on Osaka Bay, in the Kansai region of the main island of Honshū The Seoul Metropolitan Subway is one of the most heavily used Rapid transit systems in the world with well over 8 million trips daily on the system's ten lines (total figures The Tokyo subway is an integral part of the world's most extensive Rapid transit system in a single metropolitan area Greater Tokyo. With 13 lines, the Tokyo subway system (consisting of the Tokyo Metro and Toei networks) is the largest rapid transit network in the world, transporting 7 million passengers daily. The Tokyo subway is an integral part of the world's most extensive Rapid transit system in a single metropolitan area Greater Tokyo. is one of two metro systems making up the Tokyo subway system the other being Toei. The is Tokyo's Public transportation authority Its subway lines are commonly described as 都営 Toei, meaning "operated ( ei) by the metropolitan government  The majority of suburban residents in addition to city dwellers do not own automobiles and depend on rail as the primary means of travel. Osaka's is similar to Tokyo's system with a ridership exceeding that of New York City although it is about half as large. is a city in Japan, located at the mouth of the Yodo River on Osaka Bay, in the Kansai region of the main island of Honshū
London and Madrid have the first and second largest metro systems in Europe, and Moscow and Paris have the first and second busiest.
Due to a general low population density and a different urban plan, many cities in the United States have very low rates of transit usage. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the About one in every three users of mass transit in the United States and two-thirds of the nation's rail riders live in New York (see Transportation in New York City). The transportation system of New York City is a cooperation of complex systems of infrastructure Cities like Chicago, Boston, Washington, D.C., and Philadelphia also have high ridership on their networks. Chicago (ʃɪˈkɑːgoʊ is the largest City by population in the state of Illinois and the American Midwest of the United States. Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D Philadelphia (ˌfɪləˈdɛlfiə But other cities in the U. S. where automobiles dominate transportation needs tend to have partial and/or poorly used systems, especially in Sun Belt cities such as Los Angeles, San Diego, Charlotte, Dallas, Las Vegas and Houston. The Sun Belt is a region of the United States generally considered to stretch across the South and Southwest (the geographic southern United States The Los Angeles County Metro Rail is the mass transit rail system of Los Angeles County The San Diego Trolley is a trolley -style Light rail system operating in the metropolitan area of San Diego California. LYNX comprises a light rail line serviced by the Charlotte Area Transit System in Charlotte, North Carolina, United States. The Dallas Area Rapid Transit authority (or DART) is a transit agency based in Dallas, Texas ( USA) that operates Buses Light The Robert N Broadbent Las Vegas Monorail (formerly MGM Grand-Bally's Monorail) is a 3 METRORail is the Light rail line located in Houston Texas ( U 
Urban rail systems have often been used to showcase economic, social, and technological achievements of a nation, especially in the Soviet Union and other Eastern European countries. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 With their marble walls, polished granite floors and splendid mosaics, the metro systems of Moscow and St. Petersburg are widely regarded as some of the most beautiful in the world. The Moscow Metro (Московское метро which spans almost the entire Russian capital, is the world's second most heavily used Rapid-transit Saint Petersburg Metro (Петербу́ргский метрополите́н is an underground Rapid transit system in Saint Petersburg, Russia Modern metro stations in Russia are usually still built with the same emphasis on appearance. Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending Washington Metro stations such as Dupont Circle were originally envisioned as grandiose and impressive public spaces, however cost reductions led to revised and more economical station designs on lines constructed later in the project. Dupont Circle is a Washington Metro station in Washington DC, on the Red Line. 
In the former Soviet Union and in Eastern Europe metro stations were seen as a way to get art out to the public, instead of containing it for the rich. This is also part of the reason of the use of more classical art and architecture instead of the more modern, streamlined style used in the West. A lot of metros built in the USSR and Eastern European countries use quite expensive materials in the construction of the stations. 
But the art also has a practical purpose, in addition to the pure aesthetic. Beautified metro systems show higher passenger numbers than other, more plain systems. A lot of cities, faced with congestion problems, are investing large amounts of money in public transport to decrease car use, and are faced with problems encouraging increased use of rapid transit without large capital investment or operating costs. Investment or investing is a term with several closely-related meanings in Business management, Finance and Economics, related to saving By using relatively small amounts on grand architecture, art, cleanliness, accessibility, lighting and a feeling of safety, metros can get larger amounts of passengers; usually the extra investments in aesthetics are profitable for the metros. The term architecture (from Greek αρχιτεκτονικήarchitektoniki) can be used to mean a process a profession or documentation Art refers to a diverse range of Human activities creations and expressions that are appealing to the Senses or Emotions of a human individual Cleanliness is the absence of dirt including Dust, Stains bad smells and Garbage. Accessibility is a general term used to describe the degree to which a product (e Lighting includes both artificial Light sources such as lamps and natural illumination of interiors from Daylight. Safety is the state of being "safe" (from French sauf) the condition of being protected against physical social spiritual financial political Aesthetics or esthetics ( also spelled æsthetics) is commonly known as the study of sensory or sensori-emotional values sometimes called  An example of this is in Los Angeles where 0. The Los Angeles County Metro Rail is the mass transit rail system of Los Angeles County 5% of investments were used on art while in Stockholm the authorities publish a guide to the art in the stations. The Stockholm Metro (Stockholms tunnelbana is the metro system in Stockholm, Sweden. A guide book is a book for Tourists or travelers that provides details about a Geographic location, Tourist destination, or Itinerary. 
Most rapid transit trains are electric multiple units. An electric motor uses Electrical energy to produce Mechanical energy. The term multiple unit or MU is used to describe a self-propelling train unit capable of coupling with other units of the same or similar type and still Power is commonly delivered by a third rail, or in systems without much length in tunnel, by overhead wires, for example the Tyne and Wear Metro in North East England. A third rail is a method of providing Electricity to power a railway through a continuous rigid conductor alongside the railway track or between the rails Overhead lines or overhead wires are used to transmit Electrical energy to Trams Trolleybuses or Trains at a distance from the The Tyne and Wear Metro is a metro system serving stations in Newcastle upon Tyne, Gateshead, South Tyneside North Tyneside and Sunderland, Some systems use the linear motor for propulsion. A linear motor or linear induction motor is essentially a multi-phase Alternating current (AC Electric motor that has had its Stator "unrolled" Most run on conventional steel railway tracks, although some use rubber tires such as the Montreal Metro,, the Metro de Santiago (Chile) and the Mexico City Metro which rely on rubber tires to soften the effects of vibration (as the train cars are narrow) while using steel tracks to provide guidance. A rubber-tyred metro (or rubber-tired in non-British English is a form of Rapid transit system that uses a mix of road and rail technology The Montreal Metro is a Rubber-tired metro system and the main form of Public transportation in the city of Montreal, Quebec, Canada Metro de Santiago is South America's most extensive metro system The Mexico City Metro (formally Sistema de Transporte Colectivo Metro or STC Metro) is a Rubber-tyred metro system that serves Crew sizes have decreased throughout history with some modern systems now running completely unstaffed trains. On others, including in London, trains continue to have drivers (or 'Train Operators'), even if their only remaining role in normal operation is to open and close the doors of the trains at stations. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. This is the case on London Underground's Central and Victoria lines and will become the case across much of the network as signals are upgraded. The London Underground is a Metro system serving a large part of Greater London and neighbouring areas of Essex, Hertfordshire and Buckinghamshire
The method of tunnel construction used varies from place to place, depending on the situation. A tunnel is an underground passageway The definition of what constitutes a tunnel is not universally agreed upon Cut-and-cover tunnels are constructed by digging up city streets, which are then rebuilt over the tunnel. A tunnel is an underground passageway The definition of what constitutes a tunnel is not universally agreed upon Alternatively, tunnel-boring machines can be used to dig deep-bore tunnels. A tunnel boring machine ( TBM) is a machine used to excavate Tunnels with a circular cross section through a variety of soil and rock strata. Early in the 20th Century, deep-bore tunnels such as New York City Subway's Upper Broadway Line were mined by sandhogs working in dangerous high-pressure conditions 181 feet below Fort George Hill
The first underground railway in the world was the Metropolitan Railway, now part of the London Underground. The IRT Broadway–Seventh Avenue Line (also known as the Seventh Avenue Line) is a New York City Subway line Sandhog is the Slang term given to urban Miners Construction workers who work underground on a variety of excavation projects The history of rapid transit is generally considered to begin with the opening in 1863 of the Metropolitan Railway, now part of the London Underground. The Metropolitan Railway (MetR and the Metropolitan District Railway (District were the first two underground railways to be built in London, creating the world's The London Underground is a Metro system serving a large part of Greater London and neighbouring areas of Essex, Hertfordshire and Buckinghamshire  London's system was proposed by Charles Pearson, as part of a city improvement plan, after the Thames Tunnel opened. After ten years of discussion, the British Parliament authorized the construction of an underground railway. Construction began in 1860 and was complete in 1863. Steam locomotives were used on the underground route until 1905. A steam locomotive is a Locomotive powered by Steam. The term usually refers to its use on Railways but can also refer to a "road locomotive"  The first electric underground railway was the City & South London Railway, also now part of the Underground, which opened in 1890.
The first rapid transit systems in North America were elevated railways like Manhattan's Ninth Avenue Line (1868). A rapid transit, underground, subway, elevated railway or metro(politan system is an electric passenger railway Manhattan Island, in New York Harbor, is much the largest part of the Borough of Manhattan, one of the Five Boroughs which form the City of New York The IRT Ninth Avenue Line, often called the Ninth Avenue Elevated, was the first Elevated railway in New York City, first opened in 1868 as the The first underground transit line was a short piece of Boston's Green Line, opened in 1897, but this was a streetcar tunnel that only carried rapid transit trains from 1901 to 1908 (when Boston's first new rapid transit tunnel opened). The Green Line is a Light rail / Streetcar system run by the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (MBTA in the Boston, Massachusetts A tram, tramcar, trolley, trolley car, or streetcar is a railborne vehicle, of lighter weight and construction than a Train
The maps of diagrams of some of the larger rapid transit systems have themselves become cultural icons with artworks, books, websites, films and TV programmes revolving round them. The most well-known of all is the London Underground tube map, but the maps of the New York Subway, the Paris Metro, Chicago CTA, Berlin U-Bahn (among others) receive some of the most attention in the form of clothing (underwear,T-shirts and ties seem especially popular), board games and puzzles, stationery and mousemats, shower curtains, tea-towels, fan sites, blogs, works of art, official copies and contentious infringements of copyright. The tube map is the Schematic diagram representing the lines stations and zones of London 's Rapid transit rail system the London Underground The New York City Subway is a Rapid transit system owned by the City of New York and leased to the New York City Transit Authority, a subsidiary agency The 'L' (variously and sometimes, styled "L" El EL or L) is a Rapid transit system that serves the city of The Berlin de U-Bahn (de Untergrundbahn underground railway is a major part of the Public transport system of the German capital Berlin. Clothing (also called clothes, accoutrements, accouterments, or habiliments) protects the Human body from extreme Weather Undergarments are clothes worn under other clothes often next to the skin A T-shirt (or tee shirt) is a Shirt which is pulled on over the head to cover most of a person's Torso. TiE (formerly The Indus Entrepreneurs) is a global nonprofit dedicated to fostering entrepreneurship A board game is a Game in which counters or pieces that are placed on removed from or moved across a "board" (a premarked surface usually specific to that game A puzzle is a Problem or Enigma that challenges Ingenuity. In a basic puzzle one is intended to piece together objects in a logical way in order to Stationery has historically meant a wide gamut of materials Paper and Office supplies, Writing implements Greeting cards etc A mousepad (sometimes mouse pad, mousemat, or mouse mat) is a surface for enhancing the Usability of a Computer mouse. A fansite or fan site (also named fanpage is a Website created and maintained by a fan (s or devotee(s interested in a Celebrity, thing or A blog (a contraction of the term " Web log " is a Web site, usually maintained by an individual with regular entries of commentary descriptions of In Fine art, a work of art (or artwork or work) is a creation such as a Song, Book, Film, Video game, Copyright is a legal concept enacted by Governments, giving the creator of an original work of authorship Exclusive rights to control its distribution usually for