Rambertino di Guido Buvalelli (1170/1180 – September 1221), a Bolognese judge, statesman, diplomat, and poet, was the earliest of the podestà-troubadours of thirteenth-century Lombardy. Bologna (boloɲa from Latin Bononia, Bulåggna in Bolognese dialect is the capital city of Emilia-Romagna in northern Italy For information on the phantom island of the same name see Podesta (island. A troubadour ( IPA:, originally) was a composer and performer of Occitan Lyric poetry during the High Middle Ages (1100&ndash1350 Lombardy (Lombardia Latin: Langobardia, Western Lombard: Lumbardìa, Eastern Lombard: Lombardia) is one of the He served at one time or other as podestà of Brescia, Milan, Parma, Mantua, Genoa, and Verona. Brescia ( Lombard: Brèsa) is a city in the region of Lombardy in northern Italy. Milan (Milano Milan (listen) is one of the largest cities in Italy, located in the plains of Lombardy. Parma is a City in the Italian region of Emilia-Romagna near Modena famous for its Architecture and the fine countryside around it Mantua (Màntova in the local dialect of Lombard language Mantua is a city in Lombardy, Italy and capital of the province of the Genoa ( Genova, ˈdʒɛːnova in Italian; Zena in Genoese and Ligurian; Genua in Latin and archaically in English Verona is a city and provincial capital in Veneto, Northern Italy. Ten of his Occitan poems survive, but none with an accompanying melody. Occitan ( IPA BrE: /ˈɒksɪtn/ AmE: /ˈɑksəˌtɑn/ known also as Lenga d'òc or Langue d'oc (native name occitan He is usually regarded as the first native Italian troubadour, though Cossezen and Peire de la Caravana may precede him. The earliest native Italian troubadour may be one called Cossezen (probably a nickname the subject of one stanza of the famous satire of contemporary poets by Peire d'Alvernhe Peire de la Caravana (also Cavarana, Gavarana, or Cà Varana, perhaps meaning "near Verona " was an Italian Troubadour His reputation has secured a street named in his honour in his birthplace: the Via Buvalelli Rambertino in Bologna.
Rambertino was a law student at the University of Bologna in his youth and became attached to the Este court not long after. The University of Bologna (Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna UNIBO) is one of the oldest continually operating degree-granting universities in the world "Este" redirects here For the city see Este Italy. For Tolkien's fictional character see Estë. It was there that he made the acquaintance of Beatrice d'Este, whom he celebrates in all his songs. He was patronised by Azzo VI and he had strong ties to the Guelph party in Italy. Azzo VI (Arco 1170 &ndash November 1212 known as Azzolino, was the Marquis of Este ( marchio Eystensis) from the death of his father Azzo V The Guelphs and Ghibellines were factions supporting respectively the Papacy and the Holy Roman Empire in central and northern Italy He first appears as podestà of Brescia in 1201, when the Annales Brixienses ("Annals of Brescia") record that receptus est Rembertinus potestas ("Rambertino was received as podestà"). He made peace that year with Cremona, Bergamo, and Mantua. Cremonese redirects here For the football team see US Cremonese Cremona is a City in northern Italy, situated Bergamo ( Bèrghem in Lombard, antiquated Wälsch-Bergen in German) is a town in Lombardy, Italy, about In 1203 he was again in Bologna, serving as a procurator, his term in Brescia having ended. The next five years are obscure from a distance of eight hundred, but he was podestà of Milan in 1208. He appears in Milanese documents as Lambertinus Bonarelus and Lambertinus de Bonarellis, but there is no doubt among historians that they are references to the troubadour.
In 1209 Rambertino was back in Bologna, where he was console di giustizia ("consul of justice"). Consul (abbrev cos; Latin plural consules) was the highest elected office of the Roman Republic and an appointive office under the Empire In 1212 he was serving as ambassador for Pope Innocent IV's cardinal-legate Ugo di Sessa, soon to be Bishop of Vercelli, to Modena, but by May he had returned to Bologna. Pope Innocent IV, born Sinibaldo Fieschi was Pope from June 28, 1243 to December 7, 1254. A cardinal is a senior ecclesiastical official usually a bishop, of the Catholic Church. A Papal Legate – from the Latin authentic Roman title Legatus – is a personal representative of the Pope to Foreign nations or to some part of the Catholic Modena (ˈmɔːdena Mòdna in Modenese dialect is a city and a Comune ( Municipality) on the south side of the Po valley, in the A Buvalello was procurator of Bologna again in 1212, though it is a myth that Rambertino was involved in a property dispute involving Sambuca during the guerrilla between Pistoia and Bologna that year. Sambuca is an Italian Aniseed -flavored usually colorless Liqueur. Guerrilla warfare is the unconventional warfare and combat with which a small group of combatants use mobile tactics (ambushes raids etc Pistoia is a city in the Tuscany region of Italy, the capital of a province of the same name, located about 30 km west and north of Florence He was podestà of Parma in 1213.  He resumed the office of consul in Bologna in 1214 and swore to uphold the league between Bologna and Reggio nell'Emilia that year. For the city in the southern Italy See Reggio Calabria. For the basketball club "Bipop Carire Reggio Emilia" see Pallacanestro Reggiana. Rambertino was podestà at Mantua between 1215 and 1216, his longest term yet.  In 1217 he was elected to the podesteria of Modena, to which he had formerly served briefly on an embassy.  In 1218 Rambertino was named to the podesteria of Genoa and he held it for three consecutive years through 1220.  It was probably in his three years at Genoa that he introduced Occitan lyric poetry to the city, which was later to develop a fluorishing Occitan literary culture. Lyric poetry refers to a usually short poem that expresses personal feelings which may or may not be set to music
Rambertino was again offered the podesteria of Modena in 1221 but refused it because of a papal injunction of Honorius III. An injunction is an Equitable remedy in the form of a Court order, whereby a party is required to do or interact with in certain ways all right or to refrain from Pope Honorius III (1148 &ndash March 18 1227) born Cencio, was Pope from 1216 to 1227 In that very year he was named podestà of Verona, a post he accepted, but he died in September. His obituary reads: MCCXXI. Hoc de mense septembris obit dominus Lambertus Buvalelli potestas Verone. 
Rambertino probably learned Occitan by reading anthologies (chansonniers) rather than through contact with other troubadours. A chansonnier (cançoner cançonièr Galician and cancioneiro canzoniere or canzoniéro cancionero is a Manuscript or printed book which contains a  His poetry, modest in volume, is skilled and the poet utilised difficult rhyme schemes and alliteration. Rambertino's technical proficiency is evident and his language is unadulterated by Italianisms. An Italianism is a Loan word from the Italian language into another Idiom.  As one of the earliest Italian troubadours, it is perhaps unsurprising that he stuck with the theme of courtly love and wrote only cansos. Courtly love was a Medieval European conception of ennobling love which found its genesis in the ducal and princely courts of Aquitaine, Provence The canso or canço is a Song style used by the Troubadours It consists of three parts He did have contact with other troubadours, notably Elias Cairel, whom at the end of Toz m'era de chantar gequiz he asks to bring the poem to Beatrice at the Este court. Elias Cairel (or Cayrel; fl 1204&ndash1222 was a Troubadour of international fame And perhaps it was Rambertino's deft treatment of love that prompted Peire Raimon de Tolosa to address his De fin'amor son tuit mei pessamen, described as "one of the finest descriptions of fin'amor ever written", to him. Peire Raimon de Tolosa or Toloza (fl 1180&ndash1220 was a Troubadour from the merchant class of Toulouse. 
Rambertino's surviving poems are listed alphabetically: