|Roy Ram Mohan|
Raja Ram Mohan Roy is regarded as the Father of the Bengal Renaissance. The Bengal Renaissance refers to a social reform movement during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries in the region of Bengal in Undivided India during the
|Alternate name(s):||Roy Rammohun|
|Date of birth:||August 14, 1774|
|Place of birth:||Radhanagore, Bengal|
|Date of death:||September 27, 1833 (aged 59)|
|Place of death:||Stapleton, Bristol|
|Major organizations:||Brahmo Samaj|
Ram Mohan Roy, also written as Rammohun Roy, or Raja Ram Mohun Roy (Bangla: রাজা রামমোহন রায়, Raja Rammohon Rae), (August 14, 1774 – September 27, 1833) was a founder in 1828 (with Dwarkanath Tagore and other Bengali Brahmins) of the Brahma Sabha which engendered the Brahmo Samaj, an influential Indian socio-religious reform movement. Events 1183 - Taira no Munemori and the Taira clan take the young Emperor Antoku and the three sacred treasures Year 1774 ( MDCCLXXIV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a WikipediaWikiProject Indian cities for details -->Radhanagore is a village in Hooghly District of West Bengal, India. Etymology and ethnology The exact origin of the word Bangla or Bengal is unknown though it is believed to be derived from the Dravidian-speaking tribe Bang Events 489 - Odoacer attacks Theodoric at the Battle of Verona and is defeated again Year 1833 ( MDCCCXXXIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common Stapleton is an area in the north-eastern Suburbs of the City of Bristol, England. Brahmo Samaj ( Bengali ব্রাহ্ম সমাজ Bramho Shômaj) is the societal component of Brahmoism. A Brahmo is either an adherent of Brahmoism to the exclusion of all other religions or a person with at least one Brahmo parent or guardian and who has never denied his The Bengali script ( Bengali: বাংলা লিপি Bangla lipi) is a variant of the Eastern Nagari script also used for Assamese and Events 1183 - Taira no Munemori and the Taira clan take the young Emperor Antoku and the three sacred treasures Year 1774 ( MDCCLXXIV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Events 489 - Odoacer attacks Theodoric at the Battle of Verona and is defeated again Year 1833 ( MDCCCXXXIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common Dwarkanath Tagore ( Bangla, ''Darokanath Ţhakur'') (1794-1846 was one of the earliest entrepreneurs from India and founder of the Jorasanko branch of Bengali Brahmins are those Brahmins who traditionally reside in the Bengal region of the Indian subcontinent, currently comprising the Indian Brahmo Samaj ( Bengali ব্রাহ্ম সমাজ Bramho Shômaj) is the societal component of Brahmoism. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country His remarkable influence was apparent in the fields of politics, public administration and education as well as religion. Politics Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions Public administration can be broadly described as the development implementation and study of branches of government Policy. Education encompasses both the Teaching and Learning of Knowledge, proper conduct, and technical competency A religion is a set of Tenets and practices often centered upon specific Supernatural and moral claims about Reality, the Cosmos He is best known for his efforts to abolish the practice of sati, the corrupted Hindu funeral practice in which the widow were compelled to sacrificed herself on her husband’s funeral pyre. Satī ( Devanagari: सती, the feminine of sat "true" (also suttee) is a Funeral practice among some A Hindu ( Devanagari: हिन्दू is an adherent of the philosophies and scriptures of Hinduism, a set of religious, Philosophical It was he who first introduced the word "Hinduism" (or "Hindooism") into the English language in 1816. For his diverse contributions to society, Raja Ram Mohan Roy is regarded as one of the most important figures in the Bengal Renaissance and is hailed as "the father of modern India". The Bengal Renaissance refers to a social reform movement during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries in the region of Bengal in Undivided India during the
Roy was born in Radhanagore, Bengal, in 1774. His family background displayed an interesting religious diversity. His father Ramkanta was a Vaishnavite, while his mother Tarinidevi was from a Shivaite family. This in itself was unusual for Vaishanavites did not marry Shaivites at the time.
Rammohun's early education was controversial. The common version is
|The period in which the Raja was born and grew up was, perhaps, the darkest age in modern Indian history. An old society and polity had crumbled down, and a new one had not yet been built in its place. Devastation reigned in the land. All vital limbs of society were paralysed; religious institutions and schools, village and home, agriculture, industry and trade, law and administration, all were in a chaotic condition. An all-round reconstitution and renovation were necessary for the continued existence of social life and order. But what was to be the principle for organisation? For there were three bodies of culture, three bodies of civilisations, which were in conflict, - the Hindu, the Moslem, and the Christian or Occidental; and the question was, - how to find a rapport, of concord, of unity, amongst these heterogeneous, hostile and warring forces. The origin of Modern India lay there. The Raja by his finding of this point of concord and convergence became the Father and Patriarch of Modern India, an India with a composite nationality and a synthetic civilisation; and by the lines of convergence he laid down, as well by the type of personality he developed in and through his own experiences, he pointed the way to the solution of the larger problem of international culture and civilisation in human history, and became a precursor, an archetype, of coming Humanity. |
Brajendra Nath Seal
His faithful contemporary biographer writes,
During these overlapping periods, Rammohun acted as a political agitator and agent, representing Christian missionaries whilst employed by the East India Company and simultaneously pursuing his vocation as a Pandit. The Honourable East India Company ( HEIC) referred to most commonly as the East India Company, also historically and colloquially as John Company, or A paṇḍit or pundit ( Devanagari: पण्डित is a scholar a teacher particularly one skilled in Sanskrit and Hindu Law, Religion To understand fully this complex period in his life leading up to his eventual Brahmoism is not easy without reference to his peers,
"In 1792 the British Baptist shoemaker William Carey published his influential missionary tract "An Enquiry of the obligations of Christians to use means for the conversion of heathens". Brahmoism is a young non- Syncretic, Rational, Deistic religion blending Immanent Monism and Transcendant Dualism Year 1792 ( MDCCXCII) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year
In 1793 William Carey lands in India to settle here. Year 1793 ( MDCCXCIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common His objective is to translate, publish and distribute the Bible into Indic languages and convert the Hindus thereby. Astutely he realizes that the "mobile" (i. e. service class) Brahmins and Pundits are best situated to help him in this endeavour, and he begins cultivating them. He learns the Buddhist and Jain religious works that expose chinks in the armor of Hinduism's doctrine.
In 1795 Carey makes contact with a Sanskrit scholar - the Tantric Hariharananda Vidyabagish - who later introduces him to Rammohun Roy who wished to learn English. Year 1795 ( MDCCXCV) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Roy is already a colourful character in his own right.
Between 1796 and 1797 the trio of Carey, Vidyaagish and Roy fabricate a spurious religious work known as the "Maha Nirvana Tantra" (or "Book of the Great Liberation") and palm it off as an ancient religious text to "the One True God" actually the Holy Spirit of Christianity masquerading as Brahma. Year 1796 ( MDCCXCVI) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year Year 1797 ( MDCCXCVII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common (The explanation later given by Rammohun to his family concerning his whereabouts during this period is that he went to "Tibet" then as far away as "Timbuktoo"). For the next 2 decades this amazing document is regularly and conveniently added to. Its "judicious" translations are used in the law courts of the English Settlement in Bengal as Hindu Law for adjudicating upon property disputes of the zamindari. However a few British Magistrates and Collectors begin to suspect its "convenient" forgeries and its usage (as well as the reliance on Pundits as sources of Hindu Law) is quickly deprecated. Hariharananda has a brief falling out with Carey and separates from the group to go about his mendicancy but maintains lifelong personal and familial ties to Rammohun. (The Maha Nirvana Tantra's significance for Brahmoism lies in the wealth that accumulates to Rammohun Roy and Dwarkanath Tagore by its "judicious" application, and not due to any religious wisdom within although it does contain an entire chapter devoted to "the One True God" and his worship).
In 1797, Rammohun reached Calcutta to become a "banian" (ie. Year 1797 ( MDCCXCVII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common moneylender) mainly to impoverished Englishmen of the Company living beyond their means. Rammohun also continues his vocation as Pundit in the English courts and starts to make a living for himself. He begins learning the rudiments of Greek and Latin.
In 1799, Carey is joined by misisonary Joshua Marshman and the printer William Ward at the Danish settlement of Serampore, after the news of his great triumphs in India reach back home. Year 1799 ( MDCCXCIX) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a
From 1803 till 1815, Rammohun served the English Company's "Writing Service" commencing as private clerk "munshi" to Thomas Woodforde, Registrar of the Appellate Court at Murshidabad (whose distant nephew - also a Magistrate - later made a rich living off the spurious Maha Nirvana Tantra under the pseudonym Arthur Avalon). 1803 ( MDCCCIII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Year 1815 ( MDCCCXV) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Roy resigned from Woodforde's service shortly due to allegations of corruption. Later he secured employment with John Digby a Company collecor and Rammohun spent many years at Rangpur and elsewhere with Digby, where he renewed his contacts with Hariharananda. William Carey by this time is well settled at Serampore and the old trio renew their profitable association. William Carey is also aligned now with the English Company, then headquartered at Fort William, and his religious and political ambitions were increasingly intertwined. At the turn of the 19th century the Muslims, although considerably vanquished after the battles of Plassey and Buxar, still posed a formidable political threat to the Company. Rammohun was now chosen by Carey to be the agitator among them. He thus embarked on a remarkable new career described by the contemporary biographer as,
Under Carey's secret tutelage in the next 2 decades, Rammohun launched his spirited attack against the bastions of Hinduism of Bengal, namely his own Kulin Brahmin priestly clan (then in control of the many temples of Bengal) and their priestly excesses. The social and theological issues Carey chose for Rammohun were calculated to weaken the hold of the dominant Kulin class (especially their younger disinherited sons forced into service who constituted the mobile gentry or "bhadralok" of Bengal) from the Mughal zamindari system and align them to their new overlords of Company. The Kulin excesses targeted include - sati (the concremation of widows), polygamy, idolatory, child marriage, dowry. All causes equally dear to Carey's ideals.
In the final analysis of Rammohun's life in this extraordinary period, we find that Rammohun's religious reform is but a tool to implement his powerful social reform agenda which lays the foundation for modern India.
Here is what Roy's contemporary biographer records for this period,
This was Rammohun's most controversial period. Sivanath Sastri commenting on his published works alone writes:-
"The period between 1820 and 1830 was also eventful from a literary point of view, as will be manifest from the following list of his publications during that period
It is indeed a matter for wonder how, in the midst of so much active work and such furious contests, Ram Mohan Roy could make time to write such masterly treatises on such a variety of subjects !"
Rammohun is best known abroad for his agitation against suttee, the practice of burning a widow alive on her husband's pyre. Seeing his brother's widow cruelly forced to commit suttee in 1812, and unable to stop it then, Roy set his mind to abolish the practice.
In 1831 Ram Mohan Roy travelled to the United Kingdom as an ambassador of the Mughal Empire to ensure that the Lord Bentick's regulation banning the practice of Sati was not overturned. Year 1831 ( MDCCCXXXI) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The Mughal Empire ( Persian and self-designation گورکانی; مغلیہ سلطنت) was an Islamic imperial power which ruled most He also visited France. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics.
He died at Stapleton then a village to the north east of Bristol (now a suburb) on the 27th September 1833 of meningitis and is buried in Arnos Vale Cemetery in southern Bristol. Stapleton is an area in the north-eastern Suburbs of the City of Bristol, England. Bristol ( ˈbrɪstəl is a city, Unitary authority and ceremonial county in South West England, west of London Meningitis is Inflammation of the protective membranes covering the Brain and Spinal cord, known collectively as the Meninges. Arnos Vale Cemetery ( (sometimes written Arno's Vale Cemetery) located in Arno's Vale in Bristol, England, was established in 1837
"To great natural talents, he united through mastery of many languages and distinguished himself as one of the greatest scholars of his day. His unwearied labour to promote the social, moral and physical condition of the people of India, his earnest endeavours to suppress idolatry and the rite of sati and his constant zealous advocacy of whatever tended to advance the glory of God and the welfare of man live in the grateful remembrance of his countrymen. "