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|Modes. The InterCityExpress or ICE (German pronunciation) is a system of high-speed trains predominantly running in Germany and neighbouring countries The BNSF Railway headquartered in Fort Worth, Texas, is one of the four remaining Transcontinental railroads and one of the largest railroad networks in Transport or transportation is the movement of people and goods from one place to another Mode of transport (or means of transport or transport mode or transport modality or form of transport) is a general term for the different . .|
|See also. (Non-human animal-powered Transport is a broad category of the Human use of non-human Working animals (also known as "beasts of burden" for the Aviation refers to activities involving man-made flying devices ( Aircraft) including the people organizations and regulatory bodies involved with them Cable transport refers to the broad class of Transport modes that rely on vehicles pulled by cables rather than having an internal power source Human-powered transport is the Transport of person(s and/or goods using Human Muscle power Pipeline transport is the transportation of goods through a pipe. Space transport is the use of Spacecraft to Transport people or cargo through Outer space. Road transport ( British English) or road transportation ( American English) is Transport on Roads of passengers or goods . .|
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Rail transport is the conveyance of passengers and goods by means of wheeled vehicles specially designed to run along railways or railroads. This is a list of Transport related topics. For more topics there is a collection of transportation related lists and a transportation category This article is about passengers in commercial transportation for other uses see Passenger (disambiguation A passenger is a term broadly used In Marketing, a product is anything that can be offered to a Market that might satisfy a want or need Rail transport is part of the logistics chain, which facilitates international trade and economic growth in most countries. Logistics is the management of the flow of Goods, Information and other resources including Energy and people between the point of origin and the point International trade is exchange of Capital, Goods, and Services across International borders or Territories. An economy is the realized social system of production exchange distribution and consumption of goods and services of a country or other area
Typical railway tracks consist of two parallel rails, normally made of steel, secured to crossbeams, termed sleepers (UK and Australia) or ties (US). A Rail profile is a Hot rolled Steel profile of a specific Shape or cross section (an asymmetrical I-beam) designed Steel is an Alloy consisting mostly of Iron, with a Carbon content between 0 A railroad tie, cross tie, or railway sleeper is a rectangular object used as a base for Railroad tracks. The sleepers maintain a constant distance between the two rails; a measurement known as the "gauge" of the track. Rail gauge is the distance between the inner sides of the two parallel rails that make up a railway track. To maintain the alignment of the track it is either laid on a bed of ballast or else secured to a solid concrete foundation. Track ballast forms the trackbed upon which Railroad ties (US or railway sleepers (UK are laid Concrete is a construction material composed of Cement (commonly Portland cement) as well as other cementitious materials such as Fly ash and Slag The whole is referred to as permanent way (UK and Australia usage) or right-of-way (North American usage). The permanent way means the physical elements of the railway line itself generally the pairs of rails typically laid on sleepers embedded in ballast intended to carry the ordinary A right-of-way is a strip of land that is granted – through an Easement or other mechanism – for Transportation purposes such as for a Rail line or
Railway rolling stock, which is fitted with metal wheels, moves with low frictional resistance when compared to road vehicles. Rolling Stock was a Newspaper of ideas and a chronicle of the 1980s published in Boulder, Colorado On the other hand, locomotives and powered cars normally rely on the point of contact of the wheel with the rail for traction and adhesion (the part of the transmitted axle load that makes the wheel "adhere" to the smooth rail). A locomotive is a railway Vehicle that provides the motive power for a Train. A power car is a Railroad vehicle that is closely related to the Locomotive. While this is usually sufficient under normal dry rail conditions, adhesion can be reduced or even lost through the presence of unwanted material on the rail surface, such as moisture, grease, ice, or dead leaves. 
Rail transport is an energy-efficient  and capital-intensive means of mechanised land transport and is a component of logistics. Stanhope (pronounced in the regional dialect "Stanup" or "Stan'ope" is a small market town in County Durham, in England. |}A train station, railway station, railroad station, or station yard is a facility at which Passengers may board and alight from Trains North-East England is one of the nine official Regions of England and comprises the combined area of Northumberland, County Durham, Tyne and Wear The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Capital intensity is the term in Economics for the amount of fixed or real capital present in relation to other Factors of production, especially labor Logistics is the management of the flow of Goods, Information and other resources including Energy and people between the point of origin and the point Along with various engineered components, rails constitute a large part of the permanent way. They provide smooth and hard surfaces on which the wheels of the train can roll with a minimum of friction. A wheel is a circular device that is capable of rotating on its axis facilitating movement or transportation whilst supporting a load ( Mass) or performing labour in machines Friction is the Force resisting the relative motion of two Surfaces in contact or a surface in contact with a fluid (e As an example, a typical modern wagon can hold up to 125 tons of freight on two four-wheel bogies/trucks (100 tons in UK). Units of mass There are three similar units of Mass called the ton: Long ton (simply ton in countries such as the United A bogie (ˈboʊgi (BŌ-gē is a Wheeled wagon or trolley In mechanics terms a bogie is a Chassis or framework carrying wheels attached to a vehicle The contact area between each wheel and the rail is tiny, a strip no more than a few millimetres wide, which minimizes friction. In addition, the track distributes the weight of the train evenly, allowing significantly greater loads per axle / wheel than in road transport, leading to less wear and tear on the permanent way. An axle is a central shaft for a rotating Wheel or Gear. In some cases the axle may be fixed in position with a bearing or Bushing Road transport ( British English) or road transportation ( American English) is Transport on Roads of passengers or goods This can save energy compared with other forms of transportation, such as road transport, which depends on the friction between rubber tires and the road. Trains also have a small frontal area in relation to the load they are carrying, which cuts down on forward air resistance and thus energy usage, although this does not necessarily reduce the effects of side winds. In Fluid dynamics, drag (sometimes called fluid resistance) is the force that resists the movement of a Solid object through a Fluid (a
Due to these various benefits, rail transport is a major form of public transport in many countries. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located In Asia, for example, many millions use trains as regular transport in India, China, South Korea and Japan. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea and often referred to as Korea ( Korean: 대한민국 tɛː For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. It is also widespread in European countries. By comparison, intercity rail transport in the United States is relatively scarce outside the Northeast Corridor, although a number of major U. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The Northeast Corridor ( NEC) is the busiest passenger rail line in the United States by ridership and service frequency S. cities have heavily-used, local rail-based passenger transport systems or light rail or commuter rail operations. For specific light rail systems many of which use the words "light rail" as part of their name see List of light-rail transit systems. Commuter rail, regional rail or suburban rail is a Passenger rail transport service between a city center and outer suburbs and Commuter towns 
The vehicles travelling on the rails, collectively known as rolling stock, are arranged in a linked series of vehicles called a train, which can include a locomotive if the vehicles are not individually powered. A train is a connected series of vehicles that move along a track ( Permanent way) to transport freight or passengers from one place to another A locomotive is a railway Vehicle that provides the motive power for a Train. A locomotive (or "engine") is a powered vehicle used to haul a train of unpowered vehicles. In the USA, individual unpowered vehicles are known generically as cars. A railroad car or railway carriage is a Vehicle on a rail transport system (railroad or railway that is used for the carrying of Cargo or These may be passenger carrying or used for freight purposes. For passenger-carrying vehicles, the term carriage or coach is used, while a freight-carrying vehicle is known as a freight car in the United States and a wagon or truck in Great Britain. A Railway coach &mdash also known especially in the UK, as a railway carriage &mdash is a passenger car designed for the conveyance of passengers An individually-powered passenger vehicle is known as a railcar or a power car; when one or more as these are coupled to one or more unpowered trailer cars as an inseparable unit, this is called a railcar set or multiple unit. The term multiple unit or MU is used to describe a self-propelling train unit capable of coupling with other units of the same or similar type and still
The earliest evidence of a railway found thus far was the 6-kilometre (3. See also Rail transport The history of rail transport dates back nearly 500 years and includes systems with man or horse power and rails of wood or stone This is a timeline of rail transport history. See also Timeline of steam power. A Rail profile is a Hot rolled Steel profile of a specific Shape or cross section (an asymmetrical I-beam) designed The Haytor Granite Tramway was a unique granite-railed tramway running down from Haytor Down Dartmoor, Devon. 7 mi) Diolkos wagonway, which transported boats across the Corinth isthmus in Greece during the 6th century BC. The Diolkos &mdashfrom the Greek dia (across and holkos (portage&mdashwas a paved trackway in Ancient Greece which enabled boats to be Wagonways are the horses equipment and tracks used for hauling wagons which preceded steam powered railways There are two styles of waggonway and two spellings Corinth, or Korinth ( Greek Κόρινθος ( is a city in Greece. An isthmus is a narrow strip of land connecting two larger land areas Greece (Ελλάδα transliterated: Elláda, historically, Ellás,) officially the Hellenic Republic (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία Trucks pushed by slaves ran in grooves in limestone, which provided the track element, preventing the wagons from leaving the intended route. Slavery is a social-economic system under which certain persons — known as slaves — are deprived of personal freedom and compelled to perform labour or services Limestone is a Sedimentary rock composed largely of the Mineral Calcite ( Calcium carbonate: CaCO3 The Diolkos ran for over 1300 years, until 900 AD. The first horse-drawn wagonways also appeared in ancient Greece, with others to be found on Malta and various parts of the Roman Empire, using cut-stone tracks. The term ancient Greece refers to the period of Greek history lasting from the Greek Dark Ages ca Malta, officially the Republic of Malta (Repubblika ta' Malta is a European Microstate, comprising an Archipelago of three islands The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial An example of stone track still exists on Dartmoor, England, where the Haytor Granite Tramway was built in 1820 using grooved granite blocks. Dartmoor is an area of Moorland in the centre of Devon, England. The Haytor Granite Tramway was a unique granite-railed tramway running down from Haytor Down Dartmoor, Devon.
Railways began reappearing in Europe after the Dark Ages following the collapse of the Roman Empire. This article is about the phrase "Dark Age(s" as a characterization of the Early Middle Ages in Western Europe The earliest known record of a railway in Europe from this period is a stained-glass window in the Minster of Freiburg im Breisgau dating from around 1350. The Freiburg Minster ( German: Freiburger Münster) is the cathedral of Freiburg, southwest Germany.  By 1550, narrow gauge railways operating with wooden rails were common in mines in Europe. A narrow gauge railway (or narrow gauge railroad) is a Railway that has a Track gauge narrower than the of Standard gauge railways  The first railways in Great Britain (also known as wagonways) were constructed in the early 17th century, mainly for transporting coal from mines to canal wharfs where it could be transferred to a boat for onward shipment. See also Kingdom of Great Britain Great Britain (Breatainn Mhòr Prydain Fawr Breten Veur Graet Breetain is the larger of the two main islands Wagonways are the horses equipment and tracks used for hauling wagons which preceded steam powered railways There are two styles of waggonway and two spellings Canals are artificial channels for water There are two types of canals water conveyance canals which are used for the conveyance and delivery of water and Waterways A wharf is a landing place or Pier where ships may tie up and load or unload A boat is a Watercraft of modest size designed to float or plane on water and provide transport over it The earliest recorded examples are the Wollaton Wagonway in Nottinghamshire and the Bourtreehill - Broomlands Wagonway in Irvine, Ayrshire. Nottinghamshire (abbreviated Notts) is an English county in the East Midlands, which borders South Yorkshire, Lincolnshire, Leicestershire Disambiguation: Bourtreehill ( Housing estate) is a separate entity from Bourtreehill House, an older Medieval estate in the vicinity There is sadly little to be known of this odd little district in North Ayrshire. Irvine ( Gaelic: Irbhinn) is a coastal New town in North Ayrshire, Scotland. Other examples can be found in Broseley in Shropshire, where wooden rails and flanged wheels were utilised, as on a modern railway. Broseley is a small town in Shropshire, England with a population of 4912 (2001 census Shropshire (ˈʃrɒpʃɪə/ /-ʃə alternatively known as Salop or abbreviated in print only Shrops, is a county in the A flange is an external or internal Rib, or Rim (lip for strength, as the flange of an Iron beam or I-beam A wheel is a circular device that is capable of rotating on its axis facilitating movement or transportation whilst supporting a load ( Mass) or performing labour in machines However, the rails were prone to wear out under the pressure, and had to be replaced regularly.
In 1768, the Coalbrookdale Iron Works laid cast iron plates on top of the wooden rails, providing a more durable load-bearing surface. Coalbrookdale is a side valley of the Ironbridge Gorge in the borough of Telford and Wrekin and ceremonial county of Shropshire, England Cast iron usually refers to grey cast iron, but identifies a large group of Ferrous Alloys which solidify with a Eutectic. These were later used by Benjamin Outram at his foundry in Ripley, Derbyshire, the first time standardised components were produced. Benjamin Outram ( 1 April 1764 - 22 May 1805) was an English Civil engineer, surveyor and industrialist History The area that is now Derbyshire was first visited probably briefly by humans 200000 years ago during the Aveley Interglacial as evidenced by a Middle It was these that led to the name "platelayer" for workers on the permanent way. The advantage was that a considerable variation in wheel spacing (gauge) could be accommodated. However, wheels would bind against the upright part of the plate, and mud and stones would accumulate. On the Little Eaton Gangway in 1799, where Outram used passing loops on the single track, moveable plates were provided, called "pointers", which became shortened to "points". The Little Eaton Gangway or to give it its official title the Derby Canal Railway was a narrow gauge industrial Plateway serving the A passing loop (or "crossing loop" is a place on a single line railway/tramway where trains/trams in opposing directions can pass each other 
From the late 18th century, iron "edge rails" began to appear. The British civil engineer William Jessop designed smooth iron edge rails, which were used in conjunction with flanged iron wheels, introducing them on a route between Loughborough and Nanpantan, Leicestershire, as an adjunct to the Charnwood Forest Canal, in 1789. A civil engineer is a person who practices Civil engineering, one of the many engineering professions William Jessop ( 23 January 1745 - 18 November 1814) was a noted English Civil engineer, particularly famed for his work Wagonways are the horses equipment and tracks used for hauling wagons which preceded steam powered railways There are two styles of waggonway and two spellings Loughborough (pronounced locally as either /lɘfbɘɹɘ/ "LUFF-burra" /lɘf Nanpantan is a settlement in the Charnwood borough of Leicestershire, England. Leicestershire (ˈlɛstəʃə(r or ˈlɛstəʃɪə(r abbreviation Leics The Charnwood Forest Canal sometimes known as the "Forest Line of the Leicester Navigation" was opened between Thringstone and Nanpantan, with a further In 1803, Jessop opened the Surrey Iron Railway in south London, arguably the world's first horse-drawn public railway. The Surrey Iron Railway (SIR was a 4 ft 2 in Narrow gauge railway that linked the Surrey towns of Wandsworth and Croydon London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom.  Being of cast iron these rails were short, around three feet long, of a "fish-bellied" design. Cast iron usually refers to grey cast iron, but identifies a large group of Ferrous Alloys which solidify with a Eutectic. They had a foot at each end by means of which they were fastened to stone blocks in the ground.
Cast iron is a brittle material and the short lengths meant that they soon became uneven. However, developments in the process of hot rolling iron meant that longer length rails could be produced. Hot rolling is a Metalworking process where large pieces of Metal, such as slabs or billets are heated above their Recrystallization temperature and In 1805, the first wrought iron rails were produced at Bedlington Ironworks near Durham. QtubIronPillarJPG|thumb|right| Iron pillar at Delhi India containing 98% wrought iron]] Wrought iron is commercially pure Iron. Bedlington Ironworks, in Blyth Dene, Northumberland, England, operated between 1736 and 1867 Durham (ˈdʌrəm in RP, locally ˈdʏrəm is a small city and main settlement of the City of Durham district of County Durham, England The first steel rails were produced by Robert Forester Mushet and laid at Derby station in 1857. Robert Forester Mushet (1811 – 1891 an English metallurgist, was born April 8 1811 in Coleford Gloucestershire. Derby Midland Station (often called Derby Station) is a main line Railway station serving the city of Derby in England. Click here for Indian Rebellion of 1857 Year 1857 ( MDCCCLVII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the Modern railways still use steel rails, but they are typically welded together to form lengths of continuous welded rail which removes the additional wear and tear on rolling stock caused by the tiny differences in rail surface height at the joint between adjacent rail sections.
The first locomotive to haul a train of wagons on rails was designed by Cornish engineer Richard Trevithick, and was demonstrated in 1804 on a plateway at Merthyr Tydfil, South Wales. This article is about the locomotive "Blücher" See also " Blücher " Blücher was an early railway Locomotive A locomotive is a railway Vehicle that provides the motive power for a Train. George Stephenson ( 9 June 1781 &ndash 12 August 1848) was an English Civil engineer and mechanical engineer A steam locomotive is a Locomotive powered by Steam. The term usually refers to its use on Railways but can also refer to a "road locomotive" Richard Trevithick ( April 13, 1771 &ndash April 22, 1833) was a British A plateway is an early kind of railway or tramway or Wagonway, with a Cast iron rail. Merthyr Tydfil today Government The current Borough boundaries date back to 1974 when the former county borough of Merthyr Tydfil expanded slightly to cover South Wales (De Cymru is an area of Wales bordered by England and the Bristol Channel to the east and south and Mid Wales and West Wales  Although the locomotive successfully hauled the train, the rail design was not a success, partly because its weight broke a number of the brittle cast-iron plates. Despite this setback, another area of South Wales pioneered rail operations, when, in 1806, a horse-drawn railway was built between Swansea and Mumbles: the Swansea-Mumbles railway started carrying fare-paying passengers in 1807 – the first in the world to do so. Swansea ( Abertawe "mouth of the Tawe " is a city and county in Wales. Mumbles (otherwise The Mumbles &ndash Welsh Y Mwmbwls) is a large village with adjacent headland stretching into Swansea Bay. 
In 1811, John Blenkinsop designed the first successful and practical railway locomotive. John Blenkinsop (1783-1831 was an English mining engineer and an Inventor in the area of Steam locomotives who designed the first practical railway locomotive  He patented a system of moving coals by a rack railway worked by a steam locomotive (patent no. A cog railway, rack-and-pinion railway or rack railway is a Railway with a toothed rack rail, usually between the running rails. 3431), and a line was built connecting the Middleton Colliery to Leeds. Leeds ( is located on the River Aire in West Yorkshire, England The locomotive (The Salamanca) was built in 1812 by Matthew Murray of Fenton, Murray and Wood. The Salamanca was the first commercially successful Steam locomotive, built in 1812 by Matthew Murray of Holbeck, for the edge Matthew Murray (1765 &mdash 20 February 1826) was a Steam engine and Machine tool manufacturer who designed and built the first commercially  The Middleton Railway was the first railway to successfully use steam locomotives on a commercial basis. The Middleton Steam Railway is the world's oldest continuously working railway It was also the first railway in Great Britain to be built under the terms laid out in an Act of Parliament. Blenkinsop's engine had double-acting cylinders and, unlike the Trevithick pattern, no flywheel. Due to previous experience with broken rails, the locomotive was made very light and this brought concerns about insufficient adhesion, so instead of driving the wheels directly, the cylinders drove a cogwheel through spur gears, the cogwheel providing traction by engaging with a rack cast into the side of the rail.
In Scotland, the Kilmarnock and Troon Railway was the first railway constructed, and was authorised by Act of Parliament in 1808. ----The Lahore Railway Station in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan was built by the British colonists ( lahor is the capital of the Pakistani province of Punjab and is the second largest city in Pakistan after Karachi. Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain. An Act of Parliament is a Law enacted as Primary legislation by a national or sub-national Parliament.  The civil engineer leading the project was William Jessop, and its 1811 construction meant that it was the first railway in Scotland to use a steam locomotive, while it was the only line in Scotland for 14 years. William Jessop ( 23 January 1745 - 18 November 1814) was a noted English Civil engineer, particularly famed for his work A steam locomotive is a Locomotive powered by Steam. The term usually refers to its use on Railways but can also refer to a "road locomotive"  Its representation appeared in the Coat of Arms of the Burgh of Troon. A coat of arms or armorial bearings (often just arms for short in European tradition is a design belonging to a particular person (or group of people A Burgh (ˈbʌʀə is an autonomous corporate entity in Scotland, usually a Town. Troon is a town in South Ayrshire, Scotland. It is situated on the west coast about eight miles north of Ayr and three miles northwest of  The line was intended to carry coal for the Duke of Portland; and ran services between Kilmarnock and Troon Harbour. William Henry Cavendish Cavendish-Scott-Bentinck 4th Duke of Portland PC ( 24 June 1768 &ndash 27 March 1854 Kilmarnock (Cill Meàrnaig locally known as Killie) is a large Burgh in East Ayrshire, Scotland, with a population of 44170 Troon railway station was a railway station serving the town of Troon, South Ayrshire, Scotland.  The line began life as a 9. 5 mile (16 km), double track 4 ft 0 in (1,219 mm) gauge, horse-drawn waggonway. It was built using cast iron plate rails with an inner flange. A George Stephenson-built locomotive, his second one from Killingworth Colliery, was tried on the main line in 1817, but the weight of the engine broke the cast iron plate rails. George Stephenson ( 9 June 1781 &ndash 12 August 1848) was an English Civil engineer and mechanical engineer Killingworth, formerly Killingworth Township, is a town north of Newcastle Upon Tyne, in North Tyneside, United Kingdom. Coal mining is the extraction or removal of Coal from the Earth by Mining. It worked better when wooden rails were used, and the locomotive remained in use until 1848.
The Stockton and Darlington Railway opened in northern England in 1825 to be followed five years later by the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, considered to be the world's first "Inter City" line. The Stockton and Darlington Railway (S&DR which opened in 1825 was the world's first permanent Steam locomotive hauled public Railway. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland The Liverpool and Manchester Railway (L&MR was the world's first inter-city passenger Railway in which all the trains were timetabled and were hauled for most of the distance The rail gauge (the distance between the two rails of the track) was used for the early wagonways, and had been adopted for the Stockton and Darlington Railway. Rail gauge is the distance between the inner sides of the two parallel rails that make up a railway track. The 4 ft 8½ in (1,435 mm) width became known as the international "standard gauge", used by about 60 percent of the world's railways. The standard gauge (also named the Stephenson gauge after George Stephenson, or Normal gauge) is a widely-used Rail gauge. The Liverpool and Manchester Railway, on the other hand, proved the viability of rail transport when, after organising the Rainhill Trials of 1829, Stephenson's Rocket successfully hauled a load of 13 tons at an average speed of 12 miles per hour. The Rainhill Trials were an important competition in the early days of steam locomotive railways run in October of 1829 in Rainhill, Merseyside (between Liverpool Replica Rocket and coachjpg|thumb|right|A replica coach and Rocket at the Rocket 150 event]] Stephenson's Rocket was an early Steam locomotive of 0-2-2 The company took the step of working its trains from its opening entirely by steam traction. Railways then soon spread throughout the United Kingdom and the world, and became the dominant means of land transport for nearly a century, until the invention of aircraft and automobiles, which prompted a gradual decline in railways.
The first railroad in the United States may have been a gravity railroad in Lewiston, New York in 1764. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the A Gravity railroad ( US) or Gravity railway ( UK) is a Railroad on a slope that allow cars carrying minerals or passengers to coast Lewiston is a village in Niagara County, New York, United States. The 1810 Leiper Railroad in Pennsylvania was intended as the first permanent railroad, and the 1826 Granite Railway in Massachusetts was the first commercial railroad to evolve through continuous operations into a common carrier. A horse drawn Railroad that operated between 1810 and 1828 in what is now Nether Providence Township Pennsylvania -- it was replaced by a canal remnants of which are still The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania ( often colloquially referred to as PA (its abbreviation by natives and Northeasterners is a state located in the Northeastern The Granite Railway was one of the First railroads in the United States, built to convey granite from Quincy Massachusetts to a dock on the Neponset River in The Commonwealth of Massachusetts ( is a state located in the New England region of the northeastern United States. A common carrier is a business that transports people goods or services and offers its services to the general public under license or authority provided by a regulatory body The Baltimore and Ohio, opened in 1830, was the first to evolve into a major system. The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad ( B&O) was one of the Oldest railroads in the United States and the first Common carrier railroad In 1867, the first elevated railroad was built in New York. In 1869, the symbolically important transcontinental railroad was completed in the United States with the driving of a golden spike at Promontory, Utah. This article refers to a railroad built in the United States between Omaha and Sacramento completed in 1869 Promontory is a location in Box Elder County, Utah, United States, centered approximately at, at an Elevation of 1494 meters (4902  The development of the railroad in the United States helped reduce transportation time and cost, which allowed migration towards the west. Railroads increased the accessibility of goods to consumers, thus allowing individuals and capital to flow westward. Railroads created national markets characterized by the 'law of one price' by lowering difference in price charged for commodity between suppliers and demanders. Railroads increased social savings, and were the largest contributors of any innovation before 1900.
The South American experience regarding railways was first achieved in 1854, when a line was laid between the Chilean towns of Caldera and Copiapo. However, the first concerted trans-Andine attempt between Argentina and Chile did not occur until the 1870s, due to the financial risks involved in such a project. It was not until 1887 that the Argentinians began to construct their part of the enterprise, with the Chileans beginning construction in 1889, though by 1893, work had ceased due to financial constraints. In 1896, the Transandine Railway Company was created in London to purchase the existing railways and construct a continuous line between Argentina and Chile that would improve transport and communication links in South America. History The Transandine Railway was first projected in 1854 However the construction of the line was the work of Juan and Mateo Clark Chilean brothers of British descent who were This was finally completed in 1908, when the Argentine and Chilean stretches of track were joined.
Dieselisation was the replacement of the steam locomotive with the diesel-electric locomotive (often referred to as a "diesel locomotive"), a process which began in the 1930s and is now substantially complete worldwide. The EMD SD70 is a series of Diesel-electric locomotives produced by the Electro-Motive Diesel beginning in 1992. Dunsmuir is a city in Siskiyou County, California, United States. Dieselisation or Dieselization (see spelling differences) is generally used for the nowadays increasingly common use of Diesel fuel in vehicles as A steam locomotive is a Locomotive powered by Steam. The term usually refers to its use on Railways but can also refer to a "road locomotive" A number of vehicles use a diesel-electric Powertrain for providing locomotion. A Diesel locomotive is a type of Railroad Locomotive in which the prime mover is a Diesel engine.
Dieselisation took place largely because of the reduction in operating costs it allowed. Steam locomotives require large pools of labour to clean, load, maintain and run. They also require extensive service, coaling and watering facilities. Diesel locomotives require significantly less time and labour to operate and maintain.
After World War II, dramatically increased labour costs in the Western World made steam an increasingly costly form of motive power. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including At the same time, the war had forced improvements in internal combustion engine technology that made diesel locomotives cheaper and more powerful. The post war world also re-aligned the business and financial markets, as did world geo-politics as in the Cold War (1947-1953). The Cold War (1947-1953 discusses the period within the Cold War from the establishment of the Truman Doctrine in 1947 to the Korean War in 1953
Robert Davidson started to experiment with an electrical railway car in Scotland in 1838. Railway electrification supplies electrical energy to railway Locomotives and Multiple units so they can operate without having a Reciprocating This article is about the city of Richmond the capital of the Commonwealth of Virginia. Frank Julian Sprague ( July 25, 1857 in Milford Connecticut - October 25, 1934) was an American naval officer The is a Network of High-speed railway lines in Japan operated by four Japan Railways Group companies is the highest Mountain in Japan at.An Active volcano that last erupted in 1707–08 it straddles the boundary of Shizuoka and Robert Davidson (1804 - 1894 was a Scottish inventor who built the first known Electric locomotive in 1837 Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain. By 1839 he had completed and presented a 4. 8 m long carriage that weighed six tons, including batteries. It reached a maximum speed of 6. 4 kilometres per hour.
Magnus Volk opened his electric railway in Brighton in 1883. Magnus Volk (1851-1937 in Brighton) was a British Electrical engineer who built Volk's Electric Railway. Brighton ( is a town on the south coast of England and with its neighbour Hove, forms the city of Brighton and Hove.
The use of overhead wires conducting electricity, invented by Granville T. Woods in 1888, among several other improvements, led to the development of electrified railways, the first of which in the United States was operated at Coney Island in 1892. Overhead lines or overhead wires are used to transmit Electrical energy to Trams Trolleybuses or Trains at a distance from the Granville T Woods ( April 23, 1856  &ndash January 30, 1910) was an African American Inventor. Coney Island is a Peninsula, formerly an island in southernmost Brooklyn, New York City, USA with a Beach on the Atlantic Ocean Richmond, Virginia had the first successful electrically-powered trolley system in the United States. This article is about the city of Richmond the capital of the Commonwealth of Virginia. A tram, tramcar, trolley, trolley car, or streetcar is a railborne vehicle, of lighter weight and construction than a Train Designed by electric power pioneer Frank J. Sprague, the trolley system opened its first line in January, 1888. Frank Julian Sprague ( July 25, 1857 in Milford Connecticut - October 25, 1934) was an American naval officer Richmond's hills, long a transportation obstacle, were considered an ideal proving ground. The new technology soon replaced horse-powered streetcars. A tram, tramcar, trolley, trolley car, or streetcar is a railborne vehicle, of lighter weight and construction than a Train
Sweden got the perhaps first fully electrified developed railway that efficiently transported commuters as well as goods, in 1895. "Sverige" redirects here For other uses see Sweden (disambiguation and Sverige (disambiguation. At the time it ran from close to central Stockholm to Rimbo, located in the countryside Roslagen. ('stɔkhɔlm is Sweden 's Capital and its largest City. It is the site of the national Swedish government, the parliament, and the Roslagen is the name of the coastal areas of Uppland province in Sweden, which also constitutes the northern part of the Stockholm archipelago. It is still in use to commuters today but runs only about a third of its biggest extent, much due to it not using the standard gauge but 3ft (891mm). The standard gauge (also named the Stephenson gauge after George Stephenson, or Normal gauge) is a widely-used Rail gauge.
In the USSR the phenomenon of children's railways was developed in the 1930s (the world's first one was opened on 24 July 1935). The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 A children's railway is an extracurricular educational institution where teenagers learn railway professions Events 1132 - Battle of Nocera between Ranulf II of Alife and Roger II of Sicily. Year 1935 ( MCMXXXV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Fully operated by children, they were extracurricular educational institutions, where teenagers learned railway professions. A lot of them are functioning in post-Soviet states and Eastern European countries.
Many countries since the 1960s have adopted high-speed railways. On 3 April 2007, the French TGV set a new train speed record. Events 1043 - Edward the Confessor is crowned King of England. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. The TGV ( t rain à g rande v itesse, French for "high-speed train" is France 's High-speed rail service Determination of the fastest railed vehicle in the world varies depending on the definition of " rail " The train, with a modified engine and wheels, reached 574. 8 km/h (357. (For the South African airport with IATA code "KMH" see Johan Pienaar Airport. 2 mph). The record attempt took place on the new LGV Est line between Paris and Strasbourg using a specially equipped TGV Duplex train. The LGV Est européenne (sometimes referred to as LGV Est) is an extension to the French high-speed TGV network connecting Paris and Strasbourg Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city Strasbourg (Strasbourg stʁazbuʁ Alsatian: Strossburi,; Straßburg) is the capital and principal City of the Alsace région The overhead lines had also been modified for the attempt to carry 31,000 V rather than the line's normal 25,000 V. Overhead lines or overhead wires are used to transmit Electrical energy to Trams Trolleybuses or Trains at a distance from the The volt (symbol V) is the SI derived unit of electric Potential difference or Electromotive force.  On 24 August 2005, the Qingzang railway became the highest railway line in the world, when track was laid through the Tanggula Mountain Pass at 5,072 meters (16,640 ft) above sea level in the Tanggula Mountains, Tibet. Events 49 BC - Julius Caesar 's General Gaius Scribonius Curio is defeated in the Second Battle of the Bagradas River Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Qingzang railway, Qinghai–Xizang railway, or Qinghai–Tibet railway ( mtsho bod lcags lam མཚོ་བོད་ལྕགས་ལམ། is a high-altitude The Tanggula Pass ( Traditional Chinese: 唐古拉山口 Simplified Chinese: 唐古拉山口 Pinyin: Tánggǔlā Shānkǒu in the Tibetan Tanggula Mountains (also called Dangla Mountains) are a mountain range in Tibet. Definitions of Tibet See also Definitions of Tibet Name In English The English word Tibet, like the word for Tibet in most European 
A railway can be broken down into two major components. A railway can be broken down into two major components Basically these are the items which "move" the Rolling stock, that is the locomotives passenger carrying vehicles (coaches Firstly, there are the items which "move", also referred to as the rolling stock, which include locomotives, passenger carrying vehicles (or coaches), freight carrying vehicles (or goods wagons). Rolling Stock was a Newspaper of ideas and a chronicle of the 1980s published in Boulder, Colorado A locomotive is a railway Vehicle that provides the motive power for a Train. A railroad car or railway carriage is a Vehicle on a rail transport system (railroad or railway that is used for the carrying of Cargo or Secondly are the "fixed" components, usually referred to as the railway's infrastructure, including the permanent way and ancillary buildings that are necessary for a railway to function. Infrastructure typically refers to the technical structures that support a society such as Roads Water supply, Wastewater, Power grids The permanent way means the physical elements of the railway line itself generally the pairs of rails typically laid on sleepers embedded in ballast intended to carry the ordinary
A locomotive is the vehicle that provides the motive power for a train. The British Rail Class 143 is a Diesel multiple unit, part of the Pacer family of Trains introduced between 1985 & 1986 A diesel multiple unit or DMU is a Multiple unit train consisting of multiple carriages powered by one or more on-board Diesel A locomotive is a railway Vehicle that provides the motive power for a Train. A railroad car or railway carriage is a Vehicle on a rail transport system (railroad or railway that is used for the carrying of Cargo or A locomotive is a railway Vehicle that provides the motive power for a Train. Vehicles, derived from the Latin word vehiculum, are non-living Means of transport. A train is a connected series of vehicles that move along a track ( Permanent way) to transport freight or passengers from one place to another A locomotive has no payload capacity of its own, and its sole purpose is to move the train along the tracks. Traditionally, locomotives pull trains from the front.
A railroad car is a vehicle used for the haulage of either passengers or freight. A railroad car or railway carriage is a Vehicle on a rail transport system (railroad or railway that is used for the carrying of Cargo or Most cars carry a "revenue" load, although "non-revenue" cars exist for the railroad's own use, such as for maintenance-of-way purposes.
Railway signalling is a system used to control railway traffic safely to prevent trains from colliding. Railway signalling is a system used to control Railway traffic safely essentially to prevent Trains from colliding. The Great Western Railway ( GWR) was a British railway company and a notable example of Civil engineering, linking London with the West A collision is an isolated event in which two or more bodies (colliding bodies exert relatively strong forces on each other for a relatively short time Being guided by fixed rails, trains are uniquely susceptible to collision since they frequently operate at speeds that do not enable them to stop quickly or, in some cases, within the driver's sighting distance.
Most forms of train control involve movement authority being passed from those responsible for each section of a rail network (e. g. , a signalman or stationmaster) to the train crew. A signalman or signaller is an employee of a Railway transport network who operates the points and signals from a Signal box in order The station master was the person in charge of railway stations in the United Kingdom and some other countries before the modern age The set of rules and the physical equipment used to accomplish this control determine what is known as the method of working (UK), method of operation (US) or safeworking (Aus. Safeworking is the application by Railways of sets of rules and physical equipment so as to avoid collisions between trains ). Not all methods require the use of signals, and some systems are specific to single track railways. A single track Railway is one where traffic in both directions shares the same track The signalling process is traditionally carried out in a signal box or interlocking tower, a small building that houses the lever frames required for the signalman to operate switches and signal equipment. Mechanical Railway signalling installations rely on lever frames for their operation to interlock the signals and points to allow the safe operation These are placed at various intervals along the route of a railway, controlling specified sections of track. More recent technological developments have made such operational doctrine superfluous, with the centralization of signalling operations to regional control rooms. This has been facilitated by the increased use of computers, allowing vast sections of track to be monitored from a single location.
Railway tracks are laid upon land owned or leased by the railway. A right-of-way is a strip of land that is granted – through an Easement or other mechanism – for Transportation purposes such as for a Rail line or Owing to the requirements for large radius turns and modest grades, rails will often be laid in circuitous routes. Public carrier railways are typically granted limited rights of eminent domain (UK:compulsory purchase). Eminent domain ( United States) compulsory purchase ( United Kingdom, New Zealand, Ireland) resumption/compulsory acquisition In many cases in the 19th century, railways were given additional incentives in the form of grants of public land. Route length and grade requirements can be reduced by the use of alternating earthen cut and fill, bridges, and tunnels, all of which can greatly increase the capital expenditures required to develop a right of way, while significantly reducing operating costs and allowing higher speeds on longer radius curves. In densely urbanized areas such as Manhattan, railways are sometimes laid out in tunnels to minimize the effects on existing properties (see condemnation). Manhattan Island, in New York Harbor, is much the largest part of the Borough of Manhattan, one of the Five Boroughs which form the City of New York
Trains can travel at very high speed; however, they are heavy, are unable to deviate from the track and require a great distance to stop. Canaan is a town in Grafton County, New Hampshire, United States. Although rail transport is considered one of the safest forms of travel, there are many possibilities for accidents to take place. These can vary from the minor derailment (jumping the track), a head-on collision with another train and collision with an automobile or other vehicle at a level crossing/grade crossing. A derailment is an accident on a railway in which a Train leaves the rails which can result in damage injury and death A head-on collision is one where the front ends of two Ships, Trains, Planes or Vehicles hit each other as opposed to a Side-collision The term level crossing (also called a railroad crossing, road through railroad, railway crossing, train crossing or grade crossing Level crossing collisions are relatively common in the United States where there are several thousand each year killing about 500 people (the comparable figures in the United Kingdom are 30 and 12 collisions and casualties, respectively). The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located For information regarding major accidents, see List of rail accidents.
The most important safety measures are railway signalling and gates at level/grade crossings. Railway signalling is a system used to control Railway traffic safely essentially to prevent Trains from colliding. Train whistles warn of the presence of a train, while trackside signals maintain the distances between trains. A train whistle or air whistle, (originally referred to as a steam trumpet) is an audible signaling device on a Steam locomotive used to warn that the In the United Kingdom, vandalism or negligence is thought responsible for about half of rail accidents. Vandalism is the behaviour attributed to the Vandals in respect of Culture: ruthless Destruction or spoiling of anything beautiful or Venerable Negligence (Lat negligentia from negligere to neglect literally "not to pick up" is a legal concept in the Common law legal systems usually used to Railway lines are zoned or divided into blocks guarded by combinations of block signals, operating rules, and automatic-control devices so that one train, at most, may be in a block at any time.
Compared with road travel, railways remain relatively safe. Annual death rates on roads are over 40,000 in the United States, about 3,000 in the United Kingdom and 900 in Australia, compared with 1,000 rail-related fatalities in the United States,under 20 in the UK and 10 in Australia.  (These figures do not account for differences in passenger-miles traveled by mode; see e. g. Transportation safety in the United States. Transportation safety has steadily improved in the United States for many decades )
A typical railway/railroad track consists of two parallel steel (or in older networks, iron) rails, generally anchored perpendicular to beams, termed sleepers or ties, of timber, concrete, or steel to maintain a consistent distance apart, or gauge. Steel is an Alloy consisting mostly of Iron, with a Carbon content between 0 Iron (ˈаɪɚn is a Chemical element with the symbol Fe (ferrum and Atomic number 26 In Geometry, two lines or planes (or a line and a plane are considered perpendicular (or orthogonal) to each other if they form congruent A railroad tie, cross tie, or railway sleeper is a rectangular object used as a base for Railroad tracks. Lumber or timber is Wood in any of its stages from felling through readiness for use as structural Material for Construction, or Concrete is a construction material composed of Cement (commonly Portland cement) as well as other cementitious materials such as Fly ash and Slag Steel is an Alloy consisting mostly of Iron, with a Carbon content between 0 Rail gauge is the distance between the inner sides of the two parallel rails that make up a railway track. The rails and perpendicular beams are usually then placed on a foundation made of concrete or compressed earth and gravel in a bed of ballast to prevent the track from buckling (bending out of its original configuration) as the ground settles over time under the weight of the vehicles passing above. Soil, often typeset as SOiL, is a four piece rock band from Chicago Illinois United States founded by Shaun Glass Tom Schofield Tim King and Adam Zadel Gravel is rock that is of a specific Particle size range In Geology, gravel is any loose rock that is larger than two millimeters (2mm Track ballast forms the trackbed upon which Railroad ties (US or railway sleepers (UK are laid In Engineering, buckling is a failure mode characterized by a sudden failure of a structural member subjected to high Compressive stresses where Vehicles, derived from the Latin word vehiculum, are non-living Means of transport. The vehicles traveling on the rails are arranged in a train; a series of individual powered or unpowered linked vehicles, displaying markers. A train is a connected series of vehicles that move along a track ( Permanent way) to transport freight or passengers from one place to another These vehicles (referred to, in general, as cars, carriages or wagons) move with much less friction than do vehicles riding on rubber tires on a paved road, and the locomotive that pulls the train tends to use energy far more efficiently as a result. A railroad car or railway carriage is a Vehicle on a rail transport system (railroad or railway that is used for the carrying of Cargo or A locomotive is a railway Vehicle that provides the motive power for a Train.
Trackage, consisting of sleepers/ties and rails, may be prefabricated or assembled in place. A railroad tie, cross tie, or railway sleeper is a rectangular object used as a base for Railroad tracks. Rails may be composed of segments welded or bolted, and may be of a length comparable to that of a railcar or two or may be many hundreds of feet long.
The surface of the ballast is sloped around curves to reduce lateral forces. This reduces the forces tending to displace the track, reduces the tendency to overturn at high speed, and makes for a more comfortable ride for standing cattle and standing or seated passengers. This will be optimal at only one particular speed, however.
Railways are highly complex feats of engineering, with many hours of planning and forethought required for a successful outcome. The first component of a railway is the route, which is planned to provide the least resistance in terms of gradient and engineering works. As such, the track bed is heavily engineered to provide, where possible, a level surface. As such, embankments are constructed to support the track and to provide a compromise in terms of the route's average elevation. To keep a Road or rail line straight and/or flat and where the comparative cost or practicality of alternate solutions (such as diversion is too prohibitive the land over With this in mind, sundry structures such as bridges and viaducts are constructed in an attempt to maintain the railway's elevation, and gradients are kept within manageable constraints. Where such structures are not always justified, such as in hilly terrain where routes may require long detours to avoid such features, a cutting or tunnel is dug or bored through the obstacle. In Civil engineering, a cutting or cut is where part of a hill or mountain is cut out to make way for a road or rail line A tunnel is an underground passageway The definition of what constitutes a tunnel is not universally agreed upon Once the sundry engineering works are completed, a bed of stone (ballast) is laid over the compacted track bed to enhance drainage around the ties and evenly distribute pressure over a wider area, locking the track-work in place. Track ballast forms the trackbed upon which Railroad ties (US or railway sleepers (UK are laid Crushed stone is firmly tamped to prevent further settling and to lock the stones. Minor water courses are channeled through pipes (culverts) before the grade is raised
The base of the trackage consists of treated wood or concrete "ties", also known as "sleepers". A culvert is a conduit used to enclose a flowing body of Water. A railroad tie, cross tie, or railway sleeper is a rectangular object used as a base for Railroad tracks. These ensure the proper distance between the rails (known as "gauge") and anchor the rail structure to the road bed through the use of plates. This article relates to the connection bar used in railways For the type of Greek pottery see Fish plate. These are attached to the top of the ties to provide a secure housing for the rails. After placement of the rail atop the plate, spikes are driven through holes in the plate and into the tie where they are held by friction. In Rail terminology, a spike is a large nail with an offset head that is used to secure rails or Fishplates (or baseplates to ties in the track The top of the spike has a head that clamps the rail. As an alternative, lag bolts can be used to retain the clamps, which is preferred since screws are less likely to loosen. A screw is a shaft with a helical groove or thread formed on its surface and provision at one end to turn the screw The space between and surrounding the ties is filled with additional ballast to stabilize the rail assembly.
Points (UK) or switches (US), technically known as turnouts, are the means of directing a train onto a diverging section of track, for example, a siding, a branch line, or a parallel running line. This article primarily uses North American terminology British and Commonwealth terms are given in parentheses A branch line is a secondary railway line which branches off a more important through route usually a main line. Laid similar to normal track, a point typically consists of a frog (common crossing), check rails and two switch rails. This article primarily uses North American terminology British and Commonwealth terms are given in parentheses The switch rails may be moved left or right, under the control of the signalling system, to determine which path the train will follow.
Spikes in wooden ties can loosen over time, while split and rotten ties may be individually replaced with a concrete substitute. MOW redirects here For other meanings see MOW (disambiguation. Should the rails settle due to soil subsidence, they can be lifted by specialized machinery and additional ballast tamped down to form a level bed. Periodically, ballast must be removed and replaced with clean ballast to ensure adequate drainage, especially if wooden ties are used. Culverts and other passages for water must be kept clear lest water is impounded by the trackbed, causing landslips. Where trackbeds are placed along rivers, additional protection is usually placed to prevent erosion during times of high water, while bridges are another important item requiring inspection and maintenance. A bridge is a Structure built to span a Gorge, Valley, Road, railroad track, River, Body of water
In the United Kingdom and most other Commonwealth of Nations countries, the term railway is used in preference to the United States term, railroad. 0-9 Note for 4-4-0 2-6-4T 0-4-4-0 etc See Whyte notation or UIC classification A B The terms Railroad and Railway generally describe the same thing a guided means of land Transport, designed to be used by Trains In Canadian speech, railway and railroad are interchangeable, although in law railway is the usual term. Railroad was used in the United Kingdom concurrently with railway until the 1850s when railway became the established term. Several American companies have railway in their names instead of railroad, the BNSF Railway being the pre-eminent modern example. The BNSF Railway headquartered in Fort Worth, Texas, is one of the four remaining Transcontinental railroads and one of the largest railroad networks in
In the United Kingdom, the term railway often refers to the whole organization of tracks, trains, stations, signalling, timetables and the operating companies that collectively make up a coordinated railway system, while permanent way or p/way refers to the tracks alone; however this terminology is generally not commonplace outside of the railway industry or those who take a keen interest in it. A train is a connected series of vehicles that move along a track ( Permanent way) to transport freight or passengers from one place to another |}A train station, railway station, railroad station, or station yard is a facility at which Passengers may board and alight from Trains Railway signalling is a system used to control Railway traffic safely essentially to prevent Trains from colliding. The permanent way means the physical elements of the railway line itself generally the pairs of rails typically laid on sleepers embedded in ballast intended to carry the ordinary
Subways, metros, elevated lines, trolley lines, and undergrounds are all specialized railways. A rapid transit, underground, subway, elevated railway or metro(politan system is an electric passenger railway A rapid transit, underground, subway, elevated railway or metro(politan system is an electric passenger railway A rapid transit, underground, subway, elevated railway or metro(politan system is an electric passenger railway A tram, tramcar, trolley, trolley car, or streetcar is a railborne vehicle, of lighter weight and construction than a Train The London Underground is a Metro system serving a large part of Greater London and neighbouring areas of Essex, Hertfordshire and Buckinghamshire
Of 236 countries and dependencies, 143 have rail transport (including several with very little), of which about 90 have passenger services. This page provides an index of articles on Rail transport by country. This article gives rail usage statistics by country according to the International Union of Railways and other sources Rail density mappng|thumb|Rail network divided by area of country]] List of countries by Rail transport network size These figures include routes which are not used
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