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Rafetus swinhoei, commonly known as the Shanghai soft-shell turtle, Yangtze giant soft-shell turtle (Chinese: 斑鱉; Pinyin:Bān Bīe), or Swinhoe's soft-shell turtle, is a species of soft-shell turtle. Year 1873 ( MDCCCLXXIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Pinyin, more formally Hanyu pinyin, is the most common Standard Mandarin Romanization system in use Robert Swinhoe ( September 1, 1836 - October 28, 1877) was an English naturalist. In Biology, a species is one of the basic units of Biological classification and a Taxonomic rank. Turtles are Reptiles of the Order Testudines (all living turtles belong to the Crown group Chelonia) most of It may be the largest fresh water turtle in the world. Freshwater is a word that refers to bodies of water such as Ponds lakes rivers and streams containing low concentrations of dissolved Salts and other Total dissolved It is listed as critically endangered in the IUCN Red List 2006, and is one of the rarest turtles in the world. Organisms with a conservation status of critically endangered have an extremely high risk of becoming extinct The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List or Red Data List) created in 1963 is the world's most comprehensive inventory of the global There are only two known to survive in China: an 80-year-old female in Changsha Zoo and a 100-year-old male in Suzhou Zoo. Changsha ( is the Capital city of Hunan, a province of south-central China, located on the lower reaches of Xiang river a branch of the Suzhou ( ancient name 吳) is a City on the lower reaches of the Yangtze River and on the shores of Lake Taihu in the province of Jiangsu In Vietnam, a single large individual lives in Hoan Kiem Lake in the center of Hanoi. Vietnam (ˌviːɛtˈnɑːm Việt Nam) officially Hoan Kiem Lake ( Vietnamese: Hồ Hoàn Kiếm, meaning "Lake of the Returned Sword" or "Lake of the Restored Sword", also Hanoi ( Vietnamese: Hà Nội Hán Tự: 河[[wikt 内|内]], estimated population 3398889 (2007, is the Capital of Vietnam In 2007, scientists conducting surveys west of Hanoi discovered the world's only living example of Rafetus swinhoei in the wild.
Rafetus swinhoei have been known to inhabit the Yangtze River and Lake Taihu, situated on the border of Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces, in eastern China; Gejiu in Yunnan province in southern China; and the Red River in the north of Vietnam. Lake Tai ( literally "Grand Lake") is a large Lake in the Yangtze Delta plain on the border of the Jiangsu and Zhejiang ( Postal map spelling: Kiangsu) is a province of the People's Republic of China, located along the east coast of the country Zhejiang ( is an eastern coastal province of the People's Republic of China. "Kokiu" redirects here For the Japanese instrument see Kokyu. There are also other rivers named Red River. The Red River, also known as the Hong - Red Song Cai, Song Ca In recent years a single specimen of Rafetus swinhoei was caught by fishermen in Hoa Binh Province on the Song Da tributary of the Red River. In Biology, a specimen is an individual Animal, part of an animal Plant, part of a plant or Microorganism used as a representative to Hòa Bình is a mountainous province of Vietnam, located in the nation's northwestern region There are also other rivers named Red River. The Red River, also known as the Hong - Red Song Cai, Song Ca  The last known specimen caught in the wild in China was in 1972 at Gejiu; that turtle was then transferred to the Shanghai Zoo. Year 1972 ( MCMLXXII) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Shanghai ( 上[[wikt 海|海]] is the largest city in China in terms of population and one of the largest urban areas in the world with over 20 million  A turtle in Hoan Kiem Lake in the center of Hanoi, Vietnam, has been sighted and caught on film in recent years. Hoan Kiem Lake ( Vietnamese: Hồ Hoàn Kiếm, meaning "Lake of the Returned Sword" or "Lake of the Restored Sword", also Hanoi ( Vietnamese: Hà Nội Hán Tự: 河[[wikt 内|内]], estimated population 3398889 (2007, is the Capital of Vietnam Vietnam (ˌviːɛtˈnɑːm Việt Nam) officially 
Some local scientists claim that the specimen in Hoan Kiem Lake in Hanoi, Vietnam, is a separate species named Rafetus leloii, or Hoan Kiem Turtle. The Hoan Kiem Turtle ( Rafetus leloii) is a species of Turtle from Southeast Asia.
There are only two known living specimens; one each at China's Suzhou and Changsha Zoos. Suzhou ( ancient name 吳) is a City on the lower reaches of the Yangtze River and on the shores of Lake Taihu in the province of Jiangsu Changsha ( is the Capital city of Hunan, a province of south-central China, located on the lower reaches of Xiang river a branch of the A third living specimen is at Hoan Kiem Lake; a specimen at the Beijing Zoo died in 2005. The Beijing Zoo ( lies west of Xizhimen and is in the western part of Beijing, China. Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.  One of these turtles was recently discovered in a north Vietnam lake, according to scientists. This specimen is said to still be in the lake. 
Rafetus swinhoei are noted for their deep head with pig-like snout and eyes dorsally placed. In Anatomy, the dorsum is the upper side of animals that typically run fly or swim in a horizontal position and the back side of animals (like humans that walk upright They measure over 100 cm in length and 70 cm in width and weigh approximately of 120-140 kg. Their carapace, or shell can grow larger than 50 cm in length and width. A carapace is a dorsal section of an Exoskeleton or shell in a number of animal groups Their heads can measure over 20 cm in length and 10 cm in width. Males are generally smaller than females and have longer, larger tails. 
Individuals lay from 60 to more than 100 eggs. They nest at night and during the morning. 
Includes fish, crabs, snails, water hyacinth, frogs, and leaves. Fish are aquatic Vertebrate animals that are typically ectothermic (previously Cold-blooded) covered with scales, and equipped with two Crabs are decapod Crustaceans of the infraorder Brachyura, which typically have a very short projecting "tail" (βραχύ / brachy The word snail is a Common name that can be used for almost all members of the Molluscan class Gastropoda which have coiled shells in the The seven species of water hyacinths comprise the genus Eichhornia. This article is about the block cipher algorithm For the ultrafast laser pulse measurement technique see Frequency-resolved optical gating. In Botany, a leaf is an above-ground Plant organ specialized for Photosynthesis.
Rafetus swinhoei is on the brink of extinction due to habitat loss, hunting for subsistence and local consumption, and the use of the carapace and bones in medicine. Skulls are often kept as trophies. 
Conservation efforts are concentrated on breeding captive turtles in China and searching for live specimens in the wild. Recently an agreement was made to transfer the female specimen located at the Changsha Zoo to the Suzhou Zoo to breed with the male specimen there. Also efforts are being made to improve conditions for breeding at both the Suzhou Zoo and Western Temple in Suzhou.
The specimen located in Hoan Kiem Lake in Hanoi is thought to be the legendary Kim Qui, or Golden Turtle God, who has appeared at opportune moments throughout Vietnamese history. Rafetus swinhoei, commonly known as the Shanghai soft-shell turtle, Yangtze giant soft-shell turtle ( Chinese: 斑鱉 Pinyin:Bān The golden turtle first appeared during the reign of King An Duong Vuong (257-207 BC) and assisted the king in the construction of defenses for the ancient capital of Co Loa. An Dương Vương ( Hán Việt: 安[[wikt 陽|陽]] 王; literally "Peaceful Sun King" is the ruling title of Thục Phán ( 蜀[[wikt Events By place Roman Republic The Romans attack Sardinia and try to capture it from the Carthaginians. Events By place Roman Republic The Roman general Gaius Claudius Nero fights an indecisive battle with the Carthaginian Cổ Loa Citadel ( is a Citadel built near Phong Khe, about 20km to the west of today’s Hanoi, during the end of the Hồng Bàng Dynasty When Co Loa was attacked Kim Qui assisted the king in making a magical cross-bow that rained arrows upon the invaders. When the King’s daughter conspired against her father Kim Qui emerged again to inform An Duong Vuong of the betrayal; the king consequentially killed his daughter and drowned himself in the lake. 
In the 15th century, a general named Lê Lợi obtained a magical sword that a fisherman had pulled out of the lake. Lê Lợi ( Hán tự: 黎[[wikt 利|利]] 1384 or 1385? &ndash 1433 posthumously known with the Temple name Lê Thái Tổ ( 黎[[wikt Lê Lợi used this sword to lead a rebellion against the Chinese armies that were in occupation of Vietnam. After establishing Vietnam's independence the now King Lê Lợi returned to the lake and Kim Qui caught the sword in his teeth and submerged. Lê Lợi then named the lake 'Lake of Restored Sword', or Hoan Kiem. 
In 1999, 2000, and 2005 turtles have reemerged from Hoan Kiem Lake on special occasions, when it was seen by a large audience and caught on film. Year 1999 ( MCMXCIX) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar) 2000 ( MM) was a Leap year that started on Saturday of the Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. It is believed that there is only a single turtle left in the lake.