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Segregation in the US
Racial segregation is characterized by separation of different racial groups in daily life, such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a water fountain, using a rest room, attending school, going to the movies, or in the rental or purchase of a home. The White Australia policy is a term used to describe a collection of historical policies that intentionally restricted non-white Immigration to Australia from Antisemitism (alternatively spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism; also rarely known as judeophobia) is the Prejudice against or hostility The Pale of Settlement (Черта́ осе́длости cherta osedlosti) was the term given to a region of Imperial Russia, along its western border in which The May Laws were anti-Jewish regulations enacted on May 15 (May 3 O Racial segregation in the United States is the Racial segregation of facilities services and opportunities such as housing education employment and transportation along The Jim Crow laws were state and local laws enacted primarily but not exclusively in the Southern and border states of the United States between 1876 and 1965 Redlining is the practice of denying or increasing the cost of services such as Banking, Insurance, access to jobs access to health care or even Supermarkets Racial steering refers to the practice in which Real estate brokers guide prospective home buyers towards or away from certain Neighborhoods based on their race Blockbusting was a practice used by Real estate agents and developers in the United States to encourage white property owners to sell their homes by giving the impression that White flight is a term for the demographic trend in which working and Middle-class White people move away from Suburbs Black flight is a term recently applied to the movement of African Americans from predominately black or mixed inner city areas to Suburban areas and outlying Gentrification, or urban gentrification, is the change in an Urban area associated with the movement of more affluent individuals into a lower-class A sundown town is a Neologism invented in 2005 by James Loewen to refer to a community in the United States where non- whites — especially California Proposition 14 was an amendment to the constitution of the state of California promoted by segregationists who wanted to nullify the Rumford The Indian Appropriations Act is the name of several acts passed by the United States Congress. An Indian reservation is an area of land managed by a Native American Tribe under the United States Department of the Interior's Bureau Japanese American internment refers to the forcible relocation and Internment of approximately 110000 Japanese nationals and Japanese Americans to housing The Immigration Act of 1924, or Johnson-Reed Act, including the National Origins Act, Asian Exclusion Act, (43 Statutes-at-Large 153 was a United Separate But Equal is a 1991 American Television movie depicting the landmark Supreme Court Desegregation case A ghetto is described as a "portion of a city in which members of a minority group live especially because of social legal or economic pressure The term race or racial group usually refers to the concept of categorizing Humans into Populations or groups on the basis of various sets  Segregation may be mandated by law or exist through social norms. Segregation may be maintained by means ranging from discrimination in hiring and in the rental and sale of housing to certain races to vigilante violence such as lynchings; a situation that arises when members of different races mutually prefer to associate and do business with members of their own race would usually be described as separation or de facto separation of the races rather than segregation. Unlike most discrimination policies discrimination between, which is the discernment of qualities and recognition of the differences focused here discrimination against is A vigilante is a person who ignores Due process of law and enacts their own form of Justice in response to a perception of insufficient response by the Lynching is an Extrajudicial punishment meted out by a mob Lynching an enumerated Felony in some states in the United States, is defined by some Legal segregation in both South Africa and the United States was required and came with "anti-miscegenation laws" (prohibitions against interracial marriage) and laws against hiring people of the race that is the object of discrimination in any but menial positions. Anti-miscegenation laws, also known as miscegenation laws, were laws that banned Interracial marriage and sometimes interracial sex between whites and members of other Interracial marriage occurs when two people of differing racial groups marry, often creating Multiracial children There were laws passed againsnt discrmination and slavery in the 1960's.
Segregation in hiring practices contributes to economic imbalance between the races. Economic inequality refers to disparities in the distribution of Economic Assets and Income. Segregation, however, often allowed close contact in hierarchical situations, such as allowing a person of one race to work as a servant for a member of another race. Social hierarchy is a multi-tiered pyramid-like social or functional structure having an apex as the centralization of power Segregation can involve spatial separation of the races, and/or mandatory use of different institutions, such as schools and hospitals by people of different races. A school (from Greek σχολεῖον - scholeion) is an Institution designed to allow and encourage Students (or "pupils"
An apartheid-like system may have existed in early Anglo-Saxon England, restricting intermarriage and resulting in the displacement of the British population in favour of Germanic ones. Constructing a chronology of the early Anglo-Saxon period is highly complex and the limitations of our source material place restrictions on just how accurate any chronology can be The Germanic peoples are a historical group of Indo-European -speaking peoples originating in Northern Europe and identified by their use of the Germanic According to research led by University College London, Anglo-Saxon settlers enjoyed a substantial social and economic advantage over the native Celtic Britons who lived in what is now England, for more than 300 years from the middle of the 5th century. University College London ( UCL) is a multi-faculty university institution based in the United Kingdom and a constituent college of the University of London Celts (ˈkɛlts or /ˈsɛlts/, see Names of the Celts England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland The 5th century is the period from 401 to 500 in accordance with the Julian calendar in Anno Domini / Common Era.  However, in contradiction Stephen Oppenheimer and Bryan Sykes argue that the Anglo-Saxons had relatively little genetic impact on England. Stephen Oppenheimer (born 1947 a British physician a member of Green College Oxford and an honorary fellow of Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, performs and Bryan Sykes is Professor of Human Genetics at the University of Oxford and a Fellow of Wolfson College. 
The first part of the Visigothic period was characterised by a system of apartheid. The Visigoths (Visigothi, Wisigothi, Vesi, Visi, Wesi, or Wisi were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Intermarriage between Visigoth migrants and Roman natives was forbidden in Visigothic France and Spain in the late 5th and early 6th century. The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial The 6th century is the period from 501 to 600 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian / Common Era.  The Germanic Visigoths and Hispano-Romans were separate; each nationality had its own priests and churches, its own courts, judges, and civil services. The Germanic peoples are a historical group of Indo-European -speaking peoples originating in Northern Europe and identified by their use of the Germanic 
Jews in Western Europe generally were forced, by decree or by informal pressure, to live in highly segregated ghettos and shtetls. PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ A ghetto is described as a "portion of a city in which members of a minority group live especially because of social legal or economic pressure A shtetl (שטעטל diminutive form of Yiddish shtot שטאָט "town" pronounced very similarly to the South German diminutive "Städtle" "little  In the Russian Empire, Jews were restricted to the so-called Pale of Settlement, the Western frontier of the Russian Empire corresponding roughly to the modern-day countries of Poland, Lithuania, Belarus, Ukraine and Moldova. The Russian Empire ( Pre-reform Russian: Pоссійская Имперія Modern Russian: Российская Империя translit: Rossiyskaya The Pale of Settlement (Черта́ осе́длости cherta osedlosti) was the term given to a region of Imperial Russia, along its western border in which The Russian Empire ( Pre-reform Russian: Pоссійская Имперія Modern Russian: Российская Империя translit: Rossiyskaya . By the early 20th century, the majority of European Jews lived in the Pale of Settlement.
Jewish population were confined to mellahs in Morocco beginning from the 15th century. A mellah ( Arabic ملاح probably from the word ملح Arabic for "salt" is a walled Jewish quarter of a city in Morocco, an Morocco (المغرب "al-Maghrib" officially the Kingdom of Morocco (المملكة المغربية is a country located in North Africa In cities, a mellah was surrounded by a wall with a fortified gateway. In contrast, rural mellahs were separate villages inhabited solely by the Jews. 
"…they are obliged to live in a separate part of town…; for they are considered as unclean creatures… Under the pretext of their being unclean, they are treated with the greatest severity and should they enter a street, inhabited by Mussulmans, they are pelted by the boys and mobs with stones and dirt… For the same reason, they are prohibited to go out when it rains; for it is said the rain would wash dirt off them, which would sully the feet of the Mussulmans… If a Jew is recognized as such in the streets, he is subjected to the greatest insults. J J Benjamin (b Fălticeni, Romania, 1818 &ndash d London, May 3, 1864) was a Romanian- Jewish historian The beginnings of Jewish history in Iran date back to late biblical times The passers-by spit in his face, and sometimes beat him… unmercifully… If a Jew enters a shop for anything, he is forbidden to inspect the goods… Should his hand incautiously touch the goods, he must take them at any price the seller chooses to ask for them. . . Sometimes the Persians intrude into the dwellings of the Jews and take possession of whatever please them. Should the owner make the least opposition in defense of his property, he incurs the danger of atoning for it with his life. . . If. . . a Jew shows himself in the street during the three days of the Katel (Muharram)…, he is sure to be murdered. "
Following their conquest of China and establishment of the Qing dynasty in 1644, the Manchus were keenly aware their minority status. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National Not to be confused with Qin Dynasty, the first dynasty of Imperial China The Manchu people ( Manchu: Manju;, Mongolian: Манж Russian: Маньчжуры are a Tungusic people who originated in They implemented a strict policy of racial segregation between the Manchus and Mongols on the one hand and the Han Chinese on the other. Han Chinese ( are an Ethnic group native to China and by most modern definitions the largest single Ethnic group in the world. This ethnic segregation had cultural and economic reasons: intermarriage was forbidden to keep up the Manchurian heritage and minimize sinicization. In addition, in 1668 all Han Chinese were banned from settling in Manchuria (see Willow Palisade). Willow Palisade (柳條邊 was a system of ditches and embankments planted with Willows intended to restrict movement into Manchuria, built by the Qing Dynasty 
The policy of segregation applied directly to the Banner garrisons, most of which occupied a separate walled zone within the cities in which they were stationed. (The banners provided the basic framework for the Manchu military organization. The Eight Banners (In Manchu: jakūn gūsa, In Chinese: 八旗 baqí were administrative divisions into which all Manchu families were placed ) In cities where there were limitations of space, such as in Qingzhou (青州), a new fortified town was purposely erected to house the Banner garrison and their families. Qingzhou ( Chinese: 青州 Pinyin: Qīngzhōu is a County-level city, which is located in the west of Weifang City Shandong In Beijing, the imperial seat, the Regent Dorgon had the entire Chinese population forcibly relocated to the southern part of the city, which became known as the "Outer Citadel" (外城 wàichéng). Dorgon ( Manchu:;) ( November 17, 1612 &ndash December 31, 1650) also known as Hošoi Mergen Cin Wang, the Prince The northern walled city was called the "Inner Citadel" (內城 nèichéng) and portioned out to the remaining Manchu eight Banners, each responsible for guarding a section of the Inner Citadel around the Forbidden City palace complex (紫禁城 Zǐjìnchéng). The Forbidden City was the Chinese imperial Palace from the mid- Ming Dynasty to the end of the Qing Dynasty.
While the Manchus followed the governmental structure of the preceding Ming dynasty, their ethnic policy dictated that appointments were split between Manchu noblemen and Han officials who had passed the highest levels of the state examinations. The Ming Dynasty ( or Empire of the Great Ming ( was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644 following the collapse of the Mongol -led The Imperial examinations ( in Imperial China determined who among the population would be permitted to enter the state's Bureaucracy. The Qing emperors made sure that all important matters were decided in the "Inner Court", which was dominated by the imperial family and Manchu nobility and which was located in the northern part of the Forbidden City.
It was only in the 19th century that segregation began to break down and in the 20th century the Manchus merged into the mass of the Chinese people.
Many Latin American countries have caste systems based on classification by race and race mixture. Casta is a 17th century term used in Spanish America, which refers to the institutionalized system of social stratification based on a person's racial heritage An entire nomenclature developed, including the familiar terms "mulato", "mestizo", and "zambo" (whence "sambo"). Mestizo is a Spanish term that was coined during the Spanish Empire to refer to people of mixed European and Amerindian ancestry in Latin Sambo is a racial term for a person with mixed Amerindian and African heritage in the Caribbean, also for a black or South Asian person The caste system was imposed during colonial rule by the Spanish and Portuguese who had practiced a form of caste system in Hispania prior to the expulsion of the Jews and Muslims. Hispania was the name given by the Romans to the whole of the Iberian Peninsula (modern Portugal, Spain, Andorra, Gibraltar While many Latin American countries have long since rendered the system officially illegal through legislation, usually at the time of independence from Spain, prejudice based on degrees of perceived racial distance from Spanish ancestry combined with one's socioeconomic status remain, an echo of the colonial caste system. 
A ban of interracial marriage was part of the Nuremberg Laws enacted by the Nazis in Germany against the German Jewish community during the 1930s. The Nuremberg Laws ( German: Nürnberger Gesetze) of 1935 were denaturalization laws passed in Nazi Germany. Nazism, which was a short name for National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus refers primarily to the Ideology and practices of the National Socialist German Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ The laws prohibited marriages between Jews and Aryan Germans, which were classified as different races. Aryan is an English word derived from the Sanskrit " Ārya " meaning "noble" or "honorable" 
Under the General Government of occupied Poland in 1940, the population was divided into different groups, each with different rights, food rations, allowed strips in the cities, public transportation, etc. The General Government (Generalgouvernement refers to a part of the territories of Poland (and Ostrava Czechoslovakia under German Military occupation Poland (Polska officially the Republic of Poland
During the 1930s and 40s, Jews in Nazi-controlled states were made to wear yellow ribbons or stars of David, and were, along with Romas (Gypsies) discriminated against by the racial laws. Ukraine (Україна Ukrayina, /ukrɑˈjinɑ/ is a country in Eastern Europe. Poland (Polska officially the Republic of Poland Goralenvolk - was Germanization action of Gorals started in Occupied Poland. Kashubians/Kashubs/Kaszubians (Kaszëbi Kaszubi also called Kassubians or Cassubians, are a West Slavic Ethnic group of north-central Kaschobenvolk - Was Germanization action of Kashubians started in Occupied Poland. PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ Homosexuality refers to sexual behavior with or attraction to people of the same sex or to a Homosexual orientation. The Romani people (singular Rom, plural Roma as a Noun; also known as Romanies or Roma people) are an ethnic group with origins Jehovah's Witnesses is a restorationist, millenialist Christian denomination The Romani people (singular Rom, plural Roma as a Noun; also known as Romanies or Roma people) are an ethnic group with origins Jewish doctors and professors were not allowed to treat Aryan (effectively, gentile) patients or teach Aryan pupils, respectively. The term Gentile (from Latin, gentilis, meaning of or belonging to a clan or tribe refers to non- Israelite tribes or nations in the Bible. The Jews were also not allowed to use any public transportation, besides the ferry, and would only be able to shop from 3-5 in Jewish stores. After Kristallnacht ("The Night of Broken Glass"), the Jews were fined 1,000,000 marks for damages done by the Nazi troops and SS members. Kristallnacht ( literally "Crystal night" or the Night of Broken Glass was a Pogrom in Nazi Germany on November 9–10 1938 For a detailed discussion of the English translation of Reich, see Reich. The ( German for "Protective Squadron" abbreviated SS - or ( Runic)- was a major Nazi organization under Adolf Hitler and the Jews and Roma were subjected to genocide as "racial" groups in the Holocaust. Genocide is the deliberate and systematic destruction in whole or in part of an ethnic racial religious or national group The Holocaust (from the Greek el ''ὁλόκαυστον'' (el-Latn holókauston holos, "completely" and kaustos, "burnt" also known as
Ghettos were established by the Nazis to confine Jews and sometimes Romas into tightly packed areas of the cities of Eastern Europe turning them into de-facto concentration camps. During World War II Ghettos were established by the German Nazis to confine Jews and sometimes Gypsies into tightly packed areas of the cities Nazism, which was a short name for National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus refers primarily to the Ideology and practices of the National Socialist German Eastern Europe is a general term that refers to the Geopolitical region encompassing the easternmost part of the European continent. Internment is the imprisonment or confinement of people commonly in large groups without trial The Warsaw Ghetto was the largest of these Ghettos, with 400,000 people and the Łódź Ghetto, the second largest, holding about 160,000. The Warsaw Ghetto was the largest of the Jewish Ghettos located in the territory of General Government during World War II, established by During World War II Ghettos were established by the German Nazis to confine Jews and sometimes Gypsies into tightly packed areas of the cities The Ghetto Litzmannstadt was the second-largest Ghetto (after the Warsaw Ghetto) established for Jews and Roma in German -occupied 
Between 1939 and 1945, at least 1. 5 million Polish citizens were transported to the Reich for forced labour, against their will (in all, about 12 million forced laborers were employed in the German war economy inside the Nazi Germany). Poland (Polska officially the Republic of Poland Unfree labour is a generic or collective term for those work relations especially in modern or early modern history in which people are employed against their will Nazi Germany and the Third Reich are the common English names for Germany under the regime of Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist German Workers Although Nazi Germany also used forced laborers from Western Europe, Poles, along with other Eastern Europeans viewed as racially inferior, were subject to deeper discriminatory measures. Western Europe at its most general meaning means 'all the countries in the West of Europe ' The Polish people, or Poles, (Polacy) are a Western Slavic Ethnic group of Central Europe, living predominantly in Poland. Eastern Europe is a general term that refers to the Geopolitical region encompassing the easternmost part of the European continent. They were forced to wear identifying purple tags with P's sewn to their clothing, subjected to a curfew, and banned from public transportation. A curfew can be one of the following An order by a Government for certain persons to return home daily before a certain time While the treatment of factory workers or farm hands often varied depending on the individual employer, Polish laborers as a rule were compelled to work longer hours for lower wages than Western Europeans — and, in many cities, they were forced to live in segregated barracks behind barbed wire. Social relations with Germans outside work were forbidden, and sexual relations ("racial defilement") were punishable by death. The German people (Deutsche are an Ethnic group, in the sense of sharing a common German culture, descent and speaking the German language as 
The British colony of Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe), under Ian Smith, leader of the white minority government, declared unilateral independence in 1965. This article is about a type of political territory For other uses see Colony (disambiguation. Rhodesia was the name adopted when the formerly British colony of Southern Rhodesia declared itself independent ( Unilateral Declaration of Independence See also Great Zimbabwe National Monument. For information about the March and June 2008 presidential elections see Zimbabwean presidential election Ian Douglas Smith GCLM ID ( 8 April 1919 &ndash 20 November 2007) served as the Prime Minister of the British For the next 15 years, Rhodesia operated under white minority rule until international sanctions forced Smith to hold multiracial elections, after a brief period of British rule in 1979.
Laws enforcing segregation had been around before 1965, although many institutions simply ignored them. One highly publicized legal battle occurred in 1960 involving the opening of a new Theatre that was to be open to all races, this incident was nicknamed "The Battle of the Toilets". Reps Theatre (also known as The Repertory Players or simply Reps) is a multi-racial Zimbabwe Reps Theatre (also known as The Repertory Players or simply Reps) is a multi-racial Zimbabwe
Apartheid was a system which existed in South Africa for over forty years, although the term itself had a history going back to the 1910s and unofficially before that for many years. Afrikaans is an Indo-European language, derived from 17th century Dutch and classified as Low Franconian Germanic, mainly spoken in The Republic of South Africa (also known by other official names) is a country located at the southern tip of the continent of Africa It was formalized in the years following the victory of the National Party in the all-white national election of 1948, increased in dominancy under the rule of Prime Minister Hendrik Frensch Verwoerd and remained law until 1994. The National Party ( Afrikaans: Nasionale Party) (with its members sometimes known as Nationalists or Nats) was the governing party of Hendrik Frensch Verwoerd ( Amsterdam, 8 September 1901 &ndash Cape Town, 6 September 1966 was Prime Minister of South Africa from Examples of apartheid policy introduced are the Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Act, 1951, which made marriage between races illegal. The Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Act, Act No 55 of 1949 was an Apartheid law in South Africa prohibiting marriages between people of different races
Apartheid was abolished following a rapid change in public perception of racial segregation throughout the world, and an economic boycott against South Africa which had crippled and threatened to destroy its economy. "The world " is a proper noun for the planet Earth envisioned from an Anthropocentric or Human Worldview, as a place A boycott is a form of Consumer activism involving the act of voluntarily abstaining from using buying or dealing with someone or some other organization as an expression of
After the Thirteenth Amendment abolished slavery in America, racial discrimination became regulated by the so-called Jim Crow laws, which mandated strict segregation of the races. Slavery in the United States began soon after English colonists first settled Virginia in 1607 and lasted until the passage of the Thirteenth The Jim Crow laws were state and local laws enacted primarily but not exclusively in the Southern and border states of the United States between 1876 and 1965 Though such laws were instituted shortly after fighting ended in many cases, they only became formalized after the end of Republican-enforced Reconstruction in the 1870s and 80s during a period known as the nadir of American race relations. The nadir of American race relations refers to the period in United States history from the end of Reconstruction to the beginning of the 20th Century, This legalized segregation lasted up to the 1960s, primarily through the deep and extensive power of Southern Democrats. Southern Democrats are members of the US Democratic Party who reside in the U
While the majority in 1896 Plessy overtly upheld only "separate but equal" facilities (specifically, transportation facilities), Justice John Marshall Harlan in his dissent protested that the decision was an expression of white supremacy; he predicted that segregation would "stimulate aggressions … upon the admitted rights of colored citizens," "arouse race hate" and "perpetuate a feeling of distrust between [the] races. This is about the pre-World-War-I US Supreme Court justice for his grandson the mid-20th century holder of the same position see John Marshall Harlan II. A dissenting opinion is an Opinion of one or more Judges expressing disagreement with the Majority opinion. White supremacy is a racist ideology based on the assertion that White people are superior to other racial groups. "
Institutionalized racial segregation was ended as an official practice by the efforts of such civil rights activists as Clarence Mitchell, Jr., Rosa Parks and Martin Luther King Jr., working during the period from the end of World War II through the passage of the Voting Rights Act and the Civil Rights Act of 1964 supported by President Lyndon B. Johnson. The American Civil Rights Movement (1955–1968 refers to the reform movements in the United States aimed at abolishing racial discrimination against African Activism, in a general sense can be described as intentional action to bring about social or political change Clarence M Mitchell Jr ( March 8 1911 - March 19 1984) was a Civil rights Activist and was the chief lobbyist for the Rosa Louise McCauley Parks (February 4 1913 – October 24 2005 was an African American Civil rights activist whom the U Martin Luther King Jr ( January 15, 1929 April 4, 1968) was an American clergyman, Activist and prominent leader Background See also [[Disfranchisement after the Civil War]] The 13th Amendment, ratified in 1865 after the Civil War, abolished and prohibited Origins The bill was introduced by President John F Kennedy in his civil rights speech of June 11 1963, in which he asked for legislation "giving Many of their efforts were acts of non-violent civil disobedience aimed at disrupting the enforcement of racial segregation rules and laws, such as refusing to give up a seat in the black part of the bus to a white person (Rosa Parks), or holding sit-ins at all-white diners. Nonviolence is a philosophy and strategy for social change that rejects the use of physical Violence. Civil disobedience is the active refusal to obey certain Laws demands and commands of a Government, or of an occupying power, without resorting to physical A sit-in or sit-down is a form of direct action that involves one or more persons nonviolently occupying an area for a Protest, often to promote political social
By 1968 all forms of segregation had been declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court and by 1970, support for formal legal segregation had dissolved. Formal racial discrimination was illegal in school systems, businesses, the American military, other civil services and the government. A military is an Organization authorized by its Nation to use force usually including use of Weapons in defending its Country (or by attacking Separate bathrooms, water fountains and schools all disappeared and the civil rights movement had the public's support. 
Since then, African-Americans have played a significant role as mayors, governors, and state officials in both Southern and Northern states and on the national level have been on the Supreme Court, in the House of Representatives and the Senate, in presidential cabinets, and as head of the joint chiefs of staff. 
Not all racial segregation laws have been repealed in the United States, although Supreme Court rulings have rendered them unenforceable and illegal to carry out. For instance, the Alabama Constitution still mandates that Separate schools shall be provided for white and colored children, and no child of either race shall be permitted to attend a school of the other race. The Constitution of the State of Alabama is the basic governing document of the U  A proposal to repeal this provision was narrowly defeated in 2004.
Redlining is the practice of denying or increasing the cost of services, such as banking, insurance, access to jobs, access to health care, or even supermarkets to residents in certain, often racially determined, areas. Redlining is the practice of denying or increasing the cost of services such as Banking, Insurance, access to jobs access to health care or even Supermarkets A banker or bank is a Financial institution whose primary activity is to act as a payment agent for customers and to borrow and lend money Insurance, in Law and Economics, is a form of Risk management primarily used to hedge against the Risk of a contingent loss Customer divider barjpg|thumb|In supermarkets sellers periodically change prices for classes of goods in response to market conditions rather than negotiating the price of each good The most devastating form of redlining, and the most common use of the term, refers to mortgage discrimination. Mortgage discrimination or mortgage lending discrimination is the practice of banks governments or other lending institutions denying Loans to one or more groups Over the next twenty years, a succession of further court decisions and federal laws, including the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act and measure to end mortgage discrimination in 1975, would completely invalidate de jure racial segregation and discrimination in the U. Mortgage discrimination or mortgage lending discrimination is the practice of banks governments or other lending institutions denying Loans to one or more groups S. , although de facto segregation and discrimination have proven more resilient. According to the Civil Rights Project at Harvard University, the actual de facto desegregation of U. S. public schools peaked in the late 1980s; since that time, the schools have, in fact, become more segregated mainly due to the ethnic segregation of the nation with whites dominating the suburbs and minorities the urban centers. As of 2005, the present proportion of black students at majority white schools "are a level lower than in any year since 1968. "
haitian illegal immigrants live without recognition of Dominican Nationality, where they do not have access to education and economic services based on their lack of legality in the country. Haiti ( English: ˈheɪ·tiː or haɪ·ˈjiː·tiː French Haïti a·i·ti Haitian Creole: The Dominican Republic ( Spanish: República Dominicana;) is a nation located in the Caribbean region and shares the island of Hispaniola with According to multiple New York Times, Human Rights Groups  and Amnesty International reports, birth certificates are not issued to children born to both parents of Haitian nationality without legal residence in the Dominican Republic. Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a Western based international Non-governmental organization which defines its mission as "to  Human rights worker Solange Pierre won the 2006 Robert F. Kennedy Human Rights Award for fighting to end this problem. Solange Pierre (born 1963 known as Sonia Pierre, is a controversial human rights advocate in the Dominican Republic who works to end Antihaitianismo Robert Francis "Bobby" Kennedy (November 20 1925 – June 6 1968 also called RFK, was the United States Attorney General from 1961 to 1964 and a  Tensions between both nationals in the Dominican Republic have been reported as well as periodic fights and acts of violence by Dominicans against the Haitians.  The practice of what is described as Antihaitianismo has been another factor, due to the tension between the Dominican Republic and its neighboring nation. Antihaitianismo ( Spanish for "anti- Haitianism quot is a racist bias against Haitians and descendants of Haitians by Dominicans.   The documentary "The Price of Sugar" documents the current situation for Haitian workers living in the Dominican Republic.  In Europe there have been calls for a travel and economic boycott of the Dominican Republic. Smaller Non-Governmental organizations have called for similar boycotts in the United States.
Yet the president of Haiti and his ambassadors to the Dominican Republic and France have denied the accusations leveled by the film makers as propaganda. Since they have exposed that poor Dominicans of no Haitian ancestry or race live under the same conditions or worse than the Haitians at the Bateyes in the Dominican Republic. 
Two military coups in Fiji in 1987 removed from power a government that was led by an ethnic Fijian, but was supported principally by the Indo-Fijian (ethnic Indian) electorate. The Fiji coups of 1987 resulted in the overthrow of the elected government of Fijian Prime Minister Timoci Bavadra, the deposition of Elizabeth II Fiji (Matanitu ko Viti फ़िजी officially the Republic of the Fiji Islands (Matanitu Tu-Vaka-i-koya ko Viti फ़िजी द्वीप समूह गणराज्य Fijian people are the major indigenous people of the Fiji Islands, and live in an area informally called Melanesia. Indo-Fijians are Fijians who trace their ancestry to India. They number 311591 (37 A new constitution was promulgated in 1990, establishing Fiji as a republic, with the offices of President, Prime Minister, two-thirds of the Senate, and a clear majority of the House of Representatives reserved for ethnic Fijians, Ethnic Fijian ownership of the land was also entrenched in the constitution. Fiji 's Head of State is the President of the Republic of the Fiji Islands. As a former British colony, Fiji has largely adopted British political models and follows the Westminster, or Cabinet system of government in which the The Senate of Fiji is the upper chamber of Parliament. It is the less powerful of the two chambers it may not initiate legislation but may amend or veto it The House of Representatives is the lower chamber of Fiji's Parliament. 
Fiji's case is a situation of defacto ethnic segregation. . Fiji has a long complex history with more than 3500 years as a divided Tribal nation. Unification under the British rule as a Colony for 96 years bought other racial groups, particularly immigrants from the Indian sub-continent.
Independent Fiji's young democracy has been troubled by some tension between the Indigenous Fijians and the Indo-Fijians at a Political level along with provincial differences also and this combined has caused some challenges with the Nation moving forward clearly.
Some activists consider that the Hindu caste system is a form of racial discrimination. A Hindu ( Devanagari: हिन्दू is an adherent of the philosophies and scriptures of Hinduism, a set of religious, Philosophical Caste (Sanskrit Gyati ज्ञाति, Hindi Biradari बिरादरी samaj समाज jati जाति etc, Urdu Zat ज़ात) is an Endogamous group List of racism-related topics|Racism by country Racism, by its simplest definition is the belief that race is the primary determinant of human traits and capacities and that The participants of the United Nations Conference Against Racism in Durban, South Africa in March 2001, condemned discrimination due to the caste system, and tried to pass a resolution declaring that caste as a basis for the segregation and oppression of peoples in terms of their descent and occupation is a form of apartheid. The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security Durban (eThekwini is the third most populous city in South Africa, forming part of the EThekwini metropolitan municipality. The Republic of South Africa (also known by other official names) is a country located at the southern tip of the continent of Africa Year 2001 ( MMI) was a Common year starting on Monday according to the Gregorian calendar. Oppression is the act of using power to empower and/or privilege a group at the expense of disempowering marginalizing silencing and subordinating another group However, no formal resolution was passed to that effect
India's treatment of Dalits has been described by some authors as as "India's hidden apartheid".  Critics of such accusations point out the substantial improvements in the rights of Dalits (former "Untouchables") enshrined in the Constitution of India (primarily written by a Dalit, Ambedkar), which is the principal object of article 17 in the Constitution as implemented by the Protection of Civil rights Act, 1955  and the fact that India has had a Dalit, K.R. Narayanan, for a president, as well as the disappearance of the practise in urban public life. The Constitution of India ( Hindi: भारतीय़ संविधान see names in other Indian languages) is the supreme law of India. Dalit is a self designation for group of people of South Asian descent who were traditionally regarded as untouchables or low Caste. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar ( Marathi:डॊभीमराव रामजी आंबेडकर ( April 14, 1891 — December 6, 1956 Dalit is a self designation for group of people of South Asian descent who were traditionally regarded as untouchables or low Caste. Kocheril Raman Narayanan ( Malayalam: കോച്ചേരില് രാമന് നാരായണന് 27 October 1920 &mdash The President of India or Rashtrapati ( Hindi: राष्ट्रपति a Sanskrit Neologism, lit
Such allegations of apartheid are also regarded by academic sociologists as a political epithet, since apartheid implies state sponsored discrimination, and no such thing exists in India. An epithet (from Greek ἐπίθετον - epitheton, neut of ἐπίθετος - epithetos, "attributed added" is a India is a sovereign, secular, socialist, democratic republic, and the Constitution of India places special emphasis on outlawing caste discrimination, especially the practice of untouchability. A Gold Sovereign is a Gold coin first issued in 1489 for Henry VII of England and still in production as of 2008 Secularity ( adjective form secular) is the state of being separate from Religion. Socialism refers to a broad set of economic theories of social organization advocating state or collective ownership and administration of the Means of production and distribution Democracy is a form of government in which the supreme power is held completely by the people under a free electoral system A republic is a State or Country that is not led by a hereditary Monarch, but in which the people (or at least a part of its people have impact on its The Constitution of India ( Hindi: भारतीय़ संविधान see names in other Indian languages) is the supreme law of India. In addition, the Indian penal code inflicts severe punishments on those who discriminate on the basis of caste. Castes are Hereditary systems of occupation, Endogamy, social culture, Social class, and Political power. Anti-dalit prejudice and discrimination is a social malaise that exists primarily in rural areas, where small societies can track the caste lineage of individuals and discriminate accordingly. Sociologists Kevin Reilly, Stephen Kaufman, Angela Bodino, while being critical of casteism, conclude that modern India does not practice any "apartheid" since there is no state sanctioned discrimination.  They write that Casteism in India is presently "not apartheid. Castes are Hereditary systems of occupation, Endogamy, social culture, Social class, and Political power. In fact, untouchables, as well as tribal people and members of the lowest castes in India benefit from broad affirmative action programmes and are enjoying greater political power. Reservation in Indian law is a form of Affirmative action whereby a percentage of seats are reserved in the public sector units union and state civil services "
Such allegations have also been rejected by many sociologists such as Andre Béteille, who writes that treating caste as a form of racism is "politically mischievous" and worse, "scientifically nonsense" since there is no discernible difference in the racial characteristics between Brahmins and Scheduled Castes. Andre Béteille is one of India 's leading Sociologists and writers Brahmin ( Brāhmaṇa, sa ब्राह्मणः is the class of educators scholars and preachers in Brahminical Hinduism. Scheduled Castes ("SC"s and Scheduled Tribes ("ST"s are Indian population groupings that are explicitly recognized by the Constitution of He writes that "Every social group cannot be regarded as a race simply because we want to protect it against prejudice and discrimination".
Pakistani-American sociologist Ayesha Jalal also rejects these allegations. Pakistan () officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country located in South Asia, Southwest Asia, Middle East and Ayesha Jalal (عائشہ جلال is a Pakistani-American historian In her book, "Democracy and Authoritarianism in South Asia", she writes that "As for Hinduism, the hierarchical principles of the Brahmanical social order have always been contested from within Hindu society, suggesting that equality has been and continues to be both valued and practiced. Hinduism is a religious tradition that originated in the Indian subcontinent. A Hindu ( Devanagari: हिन्दू is an adherent of the philosophies and scriptures of Hinduism, a set of religious, Philosophical Hinduism is going through a phase of regeneration and reform through the vehicle of several contemporary movements collectively termed as Hindu reform movements. "
Malaysia has an article in its constitution which distinctly segregates the ethnic Malays and other indigenous peoples of Malaysia---i. For the biogeographical region see Malesia Malaysia (məˈleɪʒə or /məˈleɪziə/ is a country that consists of thirteen states and Article 153 of the Constitution of Malaysia grants the Yang di-Pertuan Agong (King of Malaysia responsibility for Malays (Melayu are an Ethnic group of Austronesian peoples predominantly inhabiting the Malay Peninsula, the east coast of Sumatra, the coast e bumiputra---from the non-Bumiputra under the social contract, of which by law would guarantee the former certain special rights and privileges. The social contract in Malaysia refers to the agreement made by the country's founding fathers in the Constitution. To question these rights and privileges however is strictly prohibited under the Internal Security Act, legalised by the 10th Article(IV) of the Constitution of MalaysiaThe privileges mentioned herein covers---few of which---the economical and education aspects of Malaysians, e. g the NEP; an economic policy recently criticised by Thierry Rommel---who headed a European Commission's delegation to Malaysia---as an excuse for "significant protectionism" and a quota maintaining higher access of Malays into public universities. For the Soviet New Economic Policy see New Economic Policy. The Malaysian New Economic Policy ( NEP or DEB for Dasar This system of segregation, seen as a form of apartheid by its opponentTemplate:Citefix is justified with a racial-supremacist concept of Ketuanan Melayu. Ketuanan Melayu ( Malay for Malay supremacy or Malay dominance) is a belief that the Malay people are the tuan (masters
Slavery in Mauritania was finally criminalized in August 2007 It was already abolished in 1980 though it was still affecting the descendants of black Africans abducted into slavery before generations, who live now in Mauritania as "black Moors" or haratin and who partially still serve the "white Moors", or bidhan (the name means literally white-skinned people), as slaves. Slavery in Mauritania is an entrenched phenomenon the national government has repeatedly tried to abolish banning the practice in 1905 1981 and August 2007 The description Moors has referred to several historic and modern populations of Muslim (and earlier non-Muslim people of Berber and Arab descent The number of slaves in the country was not known exactly, but is was estimated to be up to 600,000 men, women and children, or 20% of the population. 
For centuries, the so-called Haratin lower class, mostly poor black Africans living in rural areas, have been considered natural slaves by white Moors of Arab/Berber ancestry. Haratin (also transliterated Haratins, Harratins or Haratine, etc singular Hartani) is a name for black oasis-dwellers in north western Africa Many descendants of the Arab and Berber tribes today still adhere to the supremacist ideology of their ancestors. The araB gene Promoter is a bacterial promoter activated by e L-arabinose binding Berbers are the indigenous peoples of North Africa west of the Nile Valley. Supremacism is the belief that a particular race, Religion, Gender, belief system or Culture is superior to others and entitles This ideology has led to oppression, discrimination and even enslavement of other groups in the region of Sudan and Western Sahara. Sudan (officially the Republic of Sudan) ( السودان al-Sūdān is a country in northeastern Africa. The Sahara (الصحراء الكبرى aṣ-ṣaḥrā´ al-kubra, "The Great Desert" is the world's largest hot Desert and the world's second largest  In certain villages in Mauritania there are mosques for lighter-skinned nobles and mosques for black slaves, who are still buried in separate cemeteries. Mauritania (موريتانيا Mūrītāniyā officially the Islamic Republic of Mauritania, is a country A "mosque" in English refers to all types of buildings dedicated for Islamic worship although there is a distinction in Arabic between the smaller privately owned mosque and the larger 
Since the 16th century Plantation of Ulster, Loyalist Protestants and Irish Catholics have lived in a highly segregated state in northern Ireland, with large divisions existing today regarding education, housing, intermarriage and employment. Segregation in Northern Ireland is a long-running issue in the political and social history of the province The Plantation of Ulster (Irish Plandáil Uladh) was a planned process of Colonisation which took place in the northern Irish province of Ulster
In Yemen, the Arabic elite practices an unofficial form of discrimination against the lower class Akhdam people. Castes are Hereditary systems of occupation, Endogamy, social culture, Social class, and Political power. Yemen ( Arabic: اليَمَن al-Yaman officially the Republic of Yemen ( Arabic: الجمهورية اليمنية al-Jumhuuriyya 
Black-White segregation is declining fairly consistently for most metropolitan areas in the US. Despite these pervasive patterns, many changes for individual areas are small.  Racial segregation or separation can lead to social, economic and political tensions.  Thirty years after the civil rights era, the United States remains a residentially segregated society in which Blacks, Whites and Hispanics (whether black, white or yellow) inhabit different neighborhoods of vastly different quality. Hispanic and Latino Americans are Americans of Hispanic or Latino descent, which comprises ancestry or origins in Hispanic America 
Dan Immergluck writes that in 2002 small businesses in black neighborhoods still received fewer loans, even after accounting for businesses density, businesses size, industrial mix, neighborhood income, and the credit quality of local businesses.  Gregory D. Squires wrote in 2003 that it is clear that race has long affected and continues to affect the policies and practices of the insurance industry.  Workers living in American inner-cities have a harder time finding jobs than suburban workers. 
The desire of many whites to avoid having their children attend integrated schools has been a factor in white flight to the suburbs. White flight is a term for the demographic trend in which working and Middle-class White people move away from Suburbs  Recent studies in San Francisco showed that groups of homeowners tended to self-segregate in order to be with people of the same education level and race.  By 1990, the legal barriers enforcing segregation had been mostly replaced by decentralized racism, where whites pay more than blacks to live in predominantly white areas.  Today, many whites are willing, and are able, to pay a premium to live in a predominantly white neighborhood. Equivalent housing in white areas commands a higher rent.  By bidding up the price of housing, many white neighborhoods again effectively shut out blacks, because blacks are unwilling, or unable, to pay the premium to buy entry into white neighborhoods. Through the 1990s, residential segregation remained at its extreme and has been called "hypersegregation" by some sociologists or "American Apartheid"
In February 2005 U. S. Supreme Court ruled in Johnson v. California strict scrutiny, the highest level of constitutional review. Strict scrutiny is the most stringent standard of Judicial review used by United States courts reviewing federal lawthat the California Department of Corrections' unwritten practice of racially segregating prisoners in its prison reception centers — which California claimed was for inmate safety (gangs in California, as throughout the U. S. , usually organize on racial lines)— is to be subject to
In the Brown v. Board of Education decision, Chief Justice Earl Warren, made an unanimous decision, that said "in the field of public education the doctrine of 'separate but equal' has no place. Brown v Board of Education of Topeka, 347 US 483 (1954 was a Landmark decision of the United States Supreme Court, which overturned earlier Earl Warren ( March 19, 1891 July 9, 1974) was the 14th Chief Justice of the United States and the only person ever elected thrice Separate educational facilities are inherently unequal. . . To separate them from others of similar age and qualifications solely because of their race generates a feeling of inferiority as to their status in the community that may affect their hearts and minds in a way unlikely ever to be undone. "
The decision made clear that the justices were influenced in part by studies by Kenneth B. Clark showing that segregated education had a negative psychological effect upon black school children. Kenneth Bancroft Clark ( July 24, 1914 – May 1, 2005) and Mamie Phipps Clark (1917-1983 were a husband-and-wife team of African Significant doubt was subsequently cast on these studies, especially Clark's "doll study. " Black students in segregated schools were shown both black and white dolls and asked which one they liked better. A majority of black students preferred the white doll, which was believed by Clark to demonstrate lowered black self-esteem as a result of segregation. Clark, however, did not present to the court his own research which showed that black children in integrated schools were even more likely to choose the white doll than those in segregated schools. Some blacks are even now socially aware that skin color does not matter in life decisions concerning enhancement (2006-2007).
In Toronto, Canada, “Black-focused” public schools is being promoted by Canada's largest and most influential school board, the Toronto District School Board. Toronto (təˈrɒntoʊ colloquially pronounced or) is the largest city in Canada and is the provincial capital of Ontario Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page Toronto District School Board, also known as TDSB, is the English -language public school board for Toronto, Ontario, Canada.  In 2005, controversy erupted when the Toronto District School Board's Equity Officer, Lloyd McKell, who is black himself, spoke in favour of “Black-focused schools”. The proposal brought about a media backlash; the School Board claimed to have no plans to act on this proposal, however this has been proven incorrect as this very same school board is now taking a lead role in implementing this proposal . These schools will have an Afrocentric curriculum and attending one will be completely voluntary. Similar controversy had taken place in the North York Board of Education in the 1980’s when the board attempted to turn Georges Vanier Secondary School into a black-only school. The North York Board of Education (NYBE was the public School board for the former city of North York in Ontario, Canada. Georges Vanier Secondary School is a Public High school located in Toronto, Ontario.