Rabindranath Tagore in Kolkata, c. 1915
|Born||7 May 1861|
|Died||7 August 1941 (aged 80)|
|Occupation||poet, playwright, philosopher, composer, artist|
|Writing period||Bengal Renaissance|
|Notable award(s)|| Nobel Prize in Literature|
α[›] (Bengali: রবীন্দ্রনাথ ঠাকুর,β[›] IPA: ) (7 May 1861–7 August 1941),γ[›] also known by the sobriquet Gurudev,δ[›] was a Bengali poet, Brahmo religionist, visual artist, playwright, novelist, and composer whose works reshaped Bengali literature and music in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Events 558 - In Constantinople, the dome of the Hagia Sophia collapses Year 1861 ( MDCCCLXI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Events 322 BC - Battle of Crannon between Athens and Macedon following the death of Alexander the Great. Year 1941 ( MCMXLI) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (the link will display 1941 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. A sobriquet is a Nickname or a fancy name usually a familiar name given by others as distinct from a Pseudonym assumed as a disguise but a nickname which is familiar A guru (गुरु গুরু is a person who is regarded as having great knowledge wisdom and authority in a certain area and uses it to guide others The Bengali people are the ethnic community from Bengal (divided between Bangladesh and India) on the Indian subcontinent with a history dating A Brahmo is either an adherent of Brahmoism to the exclusion of all other religions or a person with at least one Brahmo parent or guardian and who has never denied his The term Bengali literature refers to literary works written in Bengali language particularly from Bangladesh and Indian province of West Bengal The music of Bengal, also referred to as Bangla music, comprises a long tradition of Religious and Secular song-writing over a period of almost a millennium He became Asia's first Nobel laureate when he won the 1913 Nobel Prize in Literature. The Nobel Prize (Nobelpriset (Nobelprisen is a Swedish prize established in the 1895 will of Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel; it was first awarded in Peace, Literature The Nobel Prize in Literature (Nobelpriset i litteratur is awarded annually since 1901 to an author from any country who has in the words from the will of Alfred
A Pirali Brahmin (a ". A Pirali Brahmin is any member of a subgrouping of Brahmins found throughout Bengal, which is split between India and Bangladesh. . supposed stigma", ". . formed a party for degrading them", ". . orthodox kind relying on hearsay for their facts") from Calcutta, Bengal, Tagore first wrote poems at the age of eight. Etymology and ethnology The exact origin of the word Bangla or Bengal is unknown though it is believed to be derived from the Dravidian-speaking tribe Bang Indian poetry, and Indian literature in general has a long history dating back to Vedic times At the age of sixteen, he published his first substantial poetry under the pseudonym Bhanushingho ("Sun Lion") and wrote his first short stories and dramas in 1877. The year 1877 in literature involved some significant new books In later life Tagore protested strongly against the British Raj and gave his support to the Indian Independence Movement. For usage see British rule in India British Raj ( rāj, lit "reign" in Hindustani) primarily refers to the British The term " Indian independence movement " is diffuse incorporating various national and regional campaigns agitations and efforts of both Nonviolent and Militant Tagore's life work endures, in the form of his poetry and the institution he founded, Visva-Bharati University. Visva Bharati University, Santiniketan is a Central University in India and is located in the Indian state of West Bengal
Tagore wrote novels, short stories, songs, dance-dramas, and essays on political and personal topics. Gitanjali (Song Offerings), Gora (Fair-Faced), and Ghare-Baire (The Home and the World) are among his best-known works. Gitanjali ( Bangla Gitanjoli) is a collection of 103 English Poems largely translations by the Bengali poet Rabindranath Tagore. The Home and the World 1916 (in the original Bengali ঘরে বাইরে Ghôre Baire) is a 1916 novel by Rabindranath Tagore. His verse, short stories, and novels, which often exhibited rhythmic lyricism, colloquial language, meditative naturalism, and philosophical contemplation, received worldwide acclaim. Naturalism is a movement in Theatre, film, and Literature that seeks to replicate a believable everyday reality, as opposed to such Tagore was also a cultural reformer and polymath who modernised Bengali art by rejecting strictures binding it to classical Indian forms. A polymath ( Greek polymathēs, πολυμαθής "having learned much" is a person whose knowledge is not restricted to one subject area Two songs from his canon are now the national anthems of Bangladesh and India: the Amar Shonar Bangla and the Jana Gana Mana respectively. ( Bengali: বাংলাদেশ inc-Latn Bangladesh) officially India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Amar Shonar Bangla (My Golden Bengal ( Bangla:আমার সোনার বাংলা is a 1906 song written and composed by the poet Rabindranath Jana Gana Mana (জন গণ মন Jôno Gôno Mono) is the National anthem of India.
Tagore (nicknamed "Rabi") was born the youngest of thirteen surviving children in the Jorasanko mansion in Calcutta (now Kolkata, India) of parents Debendranath Tagore and Sarada Devi. The Thakurbari ( Bangla: House of the Thakurs (anglicized to Tagore) in Jorasanko, north of Kolkata, West Bengal Debendranath Tagore (''Debendronath Ţhakur'') (দেবেন্দ্রনাথ ঠাকুর ( May 15, 1817 ε[›] The Tagore family were the Brahmo founding fathers of the Adi Dharm faith. The Tagore family, with over three hundred years of history has been one of the leading families of Kolkata, and is regarded as a key influence during the Bengal Renaissance A Brahmo is either an adherent of Brahmoism to the exclusion of all other religions or a person with at least one Brahmo parent or guardian and who has never denied his Adi Dharm refers to the religion of Adi Brahmo Samaj the first development of Brahmoism and includes those Sadharan Brahmo Samajists who were reintegrated into Brahmoism After undergoing his upanayan at age eleven, Tagore and his father left Calcutta on 14 February 1873 to tour India for several months, visiting his father's Santiniketan estate and Amritsar before reaching the Himalayan hill station of Dalhousie. Upanayana, sometimes known outside India by the name "sacred thread ceremony" is commonly known for being a Hindu rite-of-passage ritual Events 842 - Charles the Bald and Louis the German swear the Oaths of Strasbourg in the French and German Year 1873 ( MDCCCLXXIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common WikipediaWikiProject Indian cities for details --> Santiniketan ( Bangla: শান্তিনিকেতন Shantiniketôn) is a small town Amritsar (ਅੰਮ੍ਰਿਤਸਰ meaning The Lake of the Holy Nectar, is the administrative headquarters of the Amritsar District in the state Hill station is a term used for a town usually at somewhat higher elevations WikipediaWikiProject Indian cities for details --> Dalhousie is a city and a Municipal council in Chamba district in the state of Himachal There, Tagore read biographies, studied history, astronomy, modern science, and Sanskrit, and examined the classical poetry of Kālidāsa. Sanskrit (sa संस्कृता वाक् saṃskṛtā vāk, for short sa संस्कृतम् saṃskṛtam) is a historical "Kalidasa" redirects here For the true bug Genus, see Kalidasa (insect.  In 1877, he rose to notability when he composed several works, including a long poem set in the Maithili style pioneered by Vidyapati. Maithili (मैथिली Maithilī) is a language spoken in the eastern part of India, mainly in the Indian state of Bihar Vidyapati Thakur (1352? - 1448? also known by the sobriquet Maithil Kavi Kokil (the poet Cuckoo of Maithili) was a Maithili poet and a As a joke, he maintained that these were the lost works of Bhānusiṃha, a newly discovered 17th-century Vaiṣṇava poet. Vaishnavism is a tradition of Hinduism, distinguished from other schools by its worship of Vishnu or its associated avatars principally as Rama and  He also wrote "Bhikharini" (1877; "The Beggar Woman"—the Bengali language's first short story) and Sandhya Sangit (1882) —including the famous poem "Nirjharer Swapnabhanga" ("The Rousing of the Waterfall").
Seeking to become a barrister, Tagore enrolled at a public school in Brighton, England in 1878. Brighton ( is a town on the south coast of England and with its neighbour Hove, forms the city of Brighton and Hove. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland He studied law at University College London, but returned to Bengal in 1880 without a degree. University College London ( UCL) is a multi-faculty university institution based in the United Kingdom and a constituent college of the University of London On 9 December 1883 he married Mrinalini Devi (born Bhabatarini, 1873–1900); they had five children, two of whom later died before reaching adulthood. Events 536 - Byzantine General Belisarius enters Rome while the Ostrogothic garrison peacefully leaves the city Year 1883 ( MDCCCLXXXIII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common  In 1890, Tagore began managing his family's estates in Shilaidaha, a region now in Bangladesh; he was joined by his wife and children in 1898. Known as "Zamindar Babu", Tagore traveled across the vast estate while living out of the family's luxurious barge, the Padma, to collect (mostly token) rents and bless villagers; in return, appreciative villagers held feasts in his honour. Zamindar ( Devanagari: ज़मींदार zamīndār, Urdu: زمیندار zamīndār, Eastern Nagari: জমিদার  These years, which composed Tagore's Sadhana period (1891–1895; named for one of Tagore’s magazines), were among his most fecund. During this period, more than half the stories of the three-volume and eighty-four-story Galpaguchchha were written.  With irony and emotional weight, they depicted a wide range of Bengali lifestyles, particularly village life. 
In 1901, Tagore left Shilaidaha and moved to Santiniketan (West Bengal) to found an ashram, which would grow to include a marble-floored prayer hall ("The Mandir"), an experimental school, groves of trees, gardens, and a library. WikipediaWikiProject Indian cities for details --> Santiniketan ( Bangla: শান্তিনিকেতন Shantiniketôn) is a small town West Bengal ( Bengali: পশ্চিমবঙ্গ Poshchim Bônggo poʃtʃim bɔŋgo is a state in eastern India. An Ashram in ancient India was a Hindu hermitage where sages lived in Peace and tranquility amidst Nature. A Hindu temple or Mandir ( Sanskrit: मंदिर is a house of worship for Hindus followers of Hinduism.  There, Tagore's wife and two of his children died. His father died on 19 January 1905, and he began receiving monthly payments as part of his inheritance. Events 1419 - Hundred Years' War: Rouen surrenders to Henry V of England completing his reconquest of Normandy. Year 1905 ( MCMV) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting He received additional income from the Maharaja of Tripura, sales of his family's jewellery, his seaside bungalow in Puri, and mediocre royalties (Rs. ( Bengali script: ত্রিপুরা is a state in North-East India. WikipediaWikiProject Indian cities for details --> Puri is a city in the east Indian state of Orissa. 2,000) from his works.  By now, his work was gaining him a large following among Bengali and foreign readers alike, and he published such works as Naivedya (1901) and Kheya (1906) while translating his poems into free verse. Free verse is a term describing various styles of Poetry that are written without using strict meter or Rhyme, but that still are recognizable as poetry On 14 November 1913, Tagore learned that he had won the 1913 Nobel Prize in Literature. Events 1533 - Conquistadors from Spain under the leadership of Francisco Pizarro arrive in Cajamarca, Inca Year 1913 ( MCMXIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common According to the Swedish Academy, it was given due to the idealistic and—for Western readers—accessible nature of a small body of his translated material, including the 1912 Gitanjali: Song Offerings. The Swedish Academy (Svenska Akademien founded in 1786 by King Gustav III, is one of the Royal Academies of Sweden.  In 1915, Tagore received the knighthood from the British Crown. Knight is the English term for a social position originating in the Middle Ages. But as a mark of rebuke to the rulers, post the Jalianwalabagh massacre in 1919, he renounced the title.
In 1921, Tagore and agricultural economist Leonard Elmhirst set up the Institute for Rural Reconstruction (which Tagore later renamed Shriniketan—"Abode of Wealth") in Surul, a village near the ashram at Santiniketan. Leonard K Elmhirst 6 June, 1893 &ndash 16 April, 1974, a Yorkshire clergyman's son was an agronomist working in India and was co-founder Through it, Tagore sought to provide an alternative to Gandhi's symbol- and protest-based Swaraj movement, which he denounced. This article refers to the concept of Swaraj as propagated by Gandhi.  He recruited scholars, donors, and officials from many countries to help the Institute use schooling to "free village[s] from the shackles of helplessness and ignorance" by "vitaliz[ing] knowledge".  In the early 1930s, he also grew more concerned about India's "abnormal caste consciousness" and untouchability, lecturing on its evils, writing poems and dramas with untouchable protagonists, and appealing to authorities at the Guruvayoor Temple to admit Dalits. Dalit is a self designation for group of people of South Asian descent who were traditionally regarded as untouchables or low Caste. The Guruvayur Shri Krishna Temple (ഗുരുവായൂര് ശ്രീകൃഷ്ണ ക്ഷേത്രം is one of the most famous temples in India. 
In his last decade, Tagore remained in the public limelight, publicly upbraiding Gandhi for stating that a massive 15 January 1934 earthquake in Bihar constituted divine retribution for the subjugation of Dalits. Events 588 BC - Nebuchadrezzar II of Babylon lays siege to Jerusalem under Zedekiah 's reign Year 1934 ( MCMXXXIV) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Bihar ( Hindi:बिहार Urdu: بہار bɪhaːr) is a state in eastern India. Divine retribution is a supernatural punishment usually directed towards all or some portions of humanity by a Deity.  He also mourned the incipient socioeconomic decline of Bengal and the endemic poverty of Calcutta; he detailed the latter in an unrhymed hundred-line poem whose technique of searing double-vision would foreshadow Satyajit Ray's film Apur Sansar. Satyajit Ray (সত্যজিত রায় or সত্যজিৎ রায়) (2 May 1921–23 April 1992 was a Bengali Indian Filmmaker. The World of Apu ( Bengali: অপুর সংসার Opur Shôngshar, yr  Tagore also compiled fifteen volumes of writings, including the prose-poems works Punashcha (1932), Shes Saptak (1935), and Patraput (1936). He continued his experimentations by developing prose-songs and dance-dramas, including Chitrangada (1914), Shyama (1939), and Chandalika (1938), and wrote the novels Dui Bon (1933), Malancha (1934), and Char Adhyay (1934). Tagore took an interest in science in his last years, writing Visva-Parichay (a collection of essays) in 1937. His exploration of biology, physics, and astronomy impacted his poetry, which often contained extensive naturalism that underscored his respect for scientific laws. He also wove the process of science (including narratives of scientists) into many stories contained in such volumes as Se (1937), Tin Sangi (1940), and Galpasalpa (1941). 
Tagore's last four years were marked by chronic pain and two long periods of illness. These began when Tagore lost consciousness in late 1937; he remained comatose and near death for an extended period. This was followed three years later in late 1940 by a similar spell, from which he never recovered. The poetry Tagore wrote in these years is among his finest, and is distinctive for its preoccupation with death.  After extended suffering, Tagore died on 7 August 1941 (22 Shravan 1348) in an upstairs room of the Jorasanko mansion in which he was raised; his death anniversary is still mourned in public functions held across the Bengali-speaking world. Events 322 BC - Battle of Crannon between Athens and Macedon following the death of Alexander the Great. Year 1941 ( MCMXLI) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (the link will display 1941 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Bengali calendar ( বঙ্গাব্দ Bônggabdo or বাংলা সন Bangla Shôn) or Bangla calendar is a traditional solar Calendar
Owing to his notable wanderlust, between 1878 and 1932, Tagore visited more than thirty countries on five continents; many of these trips were crucial in familiarising non-Indian audiences to his works and spreading his political ideas. In 1912, he took a sheaf of his translated works to England, where they impressed missionary and Gandhi protégé Charles F. Andrews, Anglo-Irish poet William Butler Yeats, Ezra Pound, Robert Bridges, Ernest Rhys, Thomas Sturge Moore, and others. Events Indian poet Rabindranath Tagore takes a sheaf of his translated works to England where they impress William Butler Yeats, Ezra Weston Loomis Pound ( Hailey, Idaho Territory, United States October 30 1885 – Venice, Italy November 1 1972 was an American Expatriate Robert Seymour Bridges, OM, ( 23 October 1844 &ndash 21 April 1930) was an Ernest Percival Rhys ( July 17 1859 – May 25 1946) was a British writer best known for his role as founding editor of the Everyman's Library Thomas Sturge Moore ( March 4, 1870 – July 18, 1944) was an English poet author and artist  Indeed, Yeats wrote the preface to the English translation of Gitanjali, while Andrews joined Tagore at Santiniketan. On 10 November 1912, Tagore toured the United States and the United Kingdom, staying in Butterton, Staffordshire with Andrews’ clergymen friends. Events 1444 - Battle of Varna: The crusading forces of King Vladislaus III of Varna (aka Ulaszlo I of Hungary and Wladyslaw Year 1912 ( MCMXII) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year starting The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Butterton is a small village in the Staffordshire Peak District of England ( Staffordshire (abbreviated Staffs) is a landlocked county in the West Midlands region of England.  From 3 May 1916 until April 1917, Tagore went on lecturing circuits in Japan and the United States, during which he denounced nationalism—particularly that of the Japanese and Americans. Events 1491 - Kongo monarch Nkuwu Nzinga is baptised by Portuguese missionaries adopting the baptismal name of João Year 1916 ( MCMXVI) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. He also wrote the essay "Nationalism in India", attracting both derision and praise (the latter from pacifists, including Romain Rolland). Romain Rolland ( 29 January 1866 – 30 December 1944) was a French Dramatist, Essayist, Art historian  Shortly after returning to India, the 63-year-old Tagore visited Peru at the invitation of the Peruvian government, and took the opportunity to visit Mexico as well. Peru (Perú Piruw Piruw officially the Republic of Peru ( reˈpuβlika del peˈɾu is a country in western South America. The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America. Both governments pledged donations of $100,000 to the school at Shantiniketan (Visva-Bharati) in commemoration of his visits.  A week after his November 6, 1924 arrival in Buenos Aires, Argentina, an ill Tagore moved into the Villa Miralrío at the behest of Victoria Ocampo. Events 355 - Roman Emperor Constantius II promotes his cousin Julian to the rank of Caesar, entrusting him with Year 1924 ( MCMXXIV) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Buenos Aires is the Capital and largest city of Argentina. It is geographically located on the southern shore of the Río de la Plata, on the southeastern For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Argentina topics. Victoria Ocampo ( Buenos Aires, April 7, 1890 - Buenos Aires January 27, 1979) was an Argentine intellectual described He left for India in January 1925. On 30 May 1926, Tagore reached Naples, Italy; he met fascist dictator Benito Mussolini in Rome the next day. Events 1416 - The Council of Constance, called by the Emperor Sigismund a supporter of Antipope John XXIII burns Jerome of Prague following Year 1926 ( MCMXXVI) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Naples ( Napoli, Neapolitan: Nàpule) is a historic City in southern Italy, the Capital of the Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2  Their initially warm rapport lasted until Tagore spoke out against Mussolini on 20 July 1926. Events 1304 - Wars of Scottish Independence: Fall of Stirling Castle - King Edward I of England takes the last rebel stronghold Year 1926 ( MCMXXVI) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. 
On 14 July 1927, Tagore and two companions began a four-month tour of Southeast Asia, visiting Bali, Java, Kuala Lumpur, Malacca, Penang, Siam, and Singapore. Events 1223 - Louis VIII becomes King of France upon the death of his father Philip II of France. Year 1927 ( MCMXXVII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Bali is an Indonesian Island located at, the westernmost of the Lesser Sunda Islands, lying between Java to the west and Lombok to Java (Jawa is an Island of Indonesia and the site of its Capital city Jakarta. Kuala Lumpur (ˈkwɑːləlʊmˈpʊər Malay /kwɑlɑlʊmpʊ/ and locally /kwɑləlʊmpɔ/ or even /kɔlɔmpɔ/ or often abbreviated as K Penang (pəˈnæŋ Malay: Pulau Pinang) is a state in Malaysia, located on the northwest coast of Peninsular Malaysia The Kingdom of Thailand (ˈtaɪlænd ราชอาณาจักรไทย, râːtɕʰa-ʔaːnaːtɕɑ̀k-tʰɑj Singapore Tagore's travelogues from the tour were collected into the work "Jatri".  In early 1930 he left Bengal for a nearly year-long tour of Europe and the United States. Once he returned to the UK, while his paintings were being exhibited in Paris and London, he stayed at a Friends settlement in Birmingham. Birmingham ( ˈbɜːmɪŋəm Ber -ming-um There, he wrote his Hibbert Lectures for the University of Oxford (which dealt with the "idea of the humanity of our God, or the divinity of Man the Eternal") and spoke at London's annual Quaker gathering. The Hibbert Lectures are an annual series of non-sectarian lectures on theological issues The University of Oxford (informally "Oxford University" or simply "Oxford" located in the city of Oxford, Oxfordshire, England is the  There (addressing relations between the British and Indians, a topic he would grapple with over the next two years), Tagore spoke of a "dark chasm of aloofness".  He later visited Aga Khan III, stayed at Dartington Hall, then toured Denmark, Switzerland, and Germany from June to mid-September 1930, then the Soviet Union. Sultan Mahommed Shah Aga Khan III, GCSI, GCMG, GCIE, GCVO, PC ( November 2, 1877 &ndash July 11, Dartington Hall, near Totnes, Devon, United Kingdom, is a medieval Hall built between 1388 and 1400 for John Holand Earl of Huntingdon The Kingdom of Denmark ( ˈd̥ænmɑɡ̊ (archaic ˈd̥anmɑːɡ̊ commonly known as Denmark, is a country in the Scandinavian region of northern Europe Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991  Lastly, in April 1932, Tagore—who was acquainted with the legends and works of the Persian mystic Hafez—was invited as a personal guest of Shah Reza Shah Pahlavi of Iran. The Persian Empire was a series of Iranian empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the original Persian homeland and beyond in Western Asia Khwāja Šamsu d-Dīn Muḥammad Hāfez-e Šīrāzī, or simply Hāfez ( was a Persian mystic and Poet. Shah is an Iranian term for a Monarch (leader that has been adopted in many other languages For the Afghan serial killer see Reza Khan (Taliban. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics.  Such extensive travels allowed Tagore to interact with many notable contemporaries, including Henri Bergson, Albert Einstein, Robert Frost, Thomas Mann, George Bernard Shaw, H.G. Wells and Romain Rolland. Albert Einstein ( German: ˈalbɐt ˈaɪ̯nʃtaɪ̯n; English: ˈælbɝt ˈaɪnstaɪn (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955 was a German -born theoretical Robert Lee Frost (March 26 1874 &ndash January 29 1963 was an American Poet. Paul Thomas Mann ( June George Bernard Shaw ( (26 July 1856 &ndash 2 November 1950 was an Irish Playwright. Herbert George Wells (21 September 1866 &ndash 13 August 1946 He was an outspoken socialist and a pacifist, his later works becoming increasingly political Romain Rolland ( 29 January 1866 – 30 December 1944) was a French Dramatist, Essayist, Art historian  Tagore's last travels abroad, including visits to Persia and Iraq (in 1932) and Ceylon in 1933, only sharpened his opinions regarding human divisions and nationalism. The Persian Empire was a series of Iranian empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the original Persian homeland and beyond in Western Asia For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iraq topics. Sri Lanka, officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka ( Sinhalese:, இலங்கை known as Ceylon before 1972 is an Island 
Tagore's literary reputation is disproportionately influenced by regard for his poetry; however, he also wrote novels, essays, short stories, travelogues, dramas, and thousands of songs. Of Tagore's prose, his short stories are perhaps most highly regarded; indeed, he is credited with originating the Bengali-language version of the genre. His works are frequently noted for their rhythmic, optimistic, and lyrical nature. Such stories mostly borrow from deceptively simple subject matter: the lives of ordinary people.
Tagore wrote eight novels and four novellas, including Chaturanga, Shesher Kobita, Char Odhay, and Noukadubi. Shesher Kobita is a novel by Rabindranath Tagore. It was first published in book form in 1929 Ghare Baire (The Home and the World)—through the lens of the idealistic zamindar protagonist Nikhil—excoriates rising Indian nationalism, terrorism, and religious zeal in the Swadeshi movement; a frank expression of Tagore's conflicted sentiments, it emerged out of a 1914 bout of depression. The Home and the World 1916 (in the original Bengali ঘরে বাইরে Ghôre Baire) is a 1916 novel by Rabindranath Tagore. The Home and the World 1916 (in the original Bengali ঘরে বাইরে Ghôre Baire) is a 1916 novel by Rabindranath Tagore. The Swadeshi ( Hindi: स्वदेशी movement, part of the Indian independence movement, was a successful economic strategy to remove the British Indeed, the novel bleakly ends with Hindu-Muslim sectarian violence and Nikhil's being (probably mortally) wounded. Sectarianism is Bigotry, Discrimination, Prejudice or Hatred arising from attaching importance to perceived differences between subdivisions  In some sense, Gora shares the same theme, raising controversial questions regarding the Indian identity. As with Ghore Baire, matters of self-identity (jāti), personal freedom, and religion are developed in the context of a family story and love triangle. Jātis (in Devanagari: जाति (the word literally means births) is the term used to denote communities and sub-communities in India  Another powerful story is Jogajog (Relationships), where the heroine Kumudini—bound by the ideals of Shiva-Sati, exemplified by Dākshāyani—is torn between her pity for the sinking fortunes of her progressive and compassionate elder brother and his foil: her exploitative, rakish, and patriarchical husband. Jogajog is a novel by Rabindranath Tagore. It was published in book form in 1929 ( Asharh 1336 Shiva:(pronunciation; Sanskrit: शिव Śiva, lit "Auspicious one" One of the Trimurtis Shiva is the supreme God in the Shaiva Satī (Devanagari सती the feminine of sat "true" or Dākshāyani is a Hindu goddess of marital felicity and longevity she is worshipped particularly Satī (Devanagari सती the feminine of sat "true" or Dākshāyani is a Hindu goddess of marital felicity and longevity she is worshipped particularly Progressivism is a term that refers to a broad school of international social and political philosophies. A foil is a character that contrasts with another character usually the protagonist and so highlights various facets of the main character's personality A rake is defined as a man habituated to immoral conduct Rakes are frequently Stock characters in novels In it, Tagore demonstrates his feminist leanings, using pathos to depict the plight and ultimate demise of Bengali women trapped by pregnancy, duty, and family honour; simultaneously, he treats the decline of Bengal's landed oligarchy. Pathos (ˈpeɪːθɒs ( πάθος) is one of the three Modes of persuasion in Rhetoric (along with Ethos and Logos) 
Other novels were more uplifting: Shesher Kobita (translated twice—Last Poem and Farewell Song) is his most lyrical novel, with poems and rhythmic passages written by the main character (a poet). It also contains elements of satire and postmodernism; stock characters gleefully attack the reputation of an old, outmoded, oppressively renowned poet who, incidentally, goes by the name of Rabindranath Tagore. Postmodernism literally means 'after the modernist movement' While " Modern " itself refers to something "related to the present" the movement of modernism A stock character is one which relies heavily on cultural types or names for his or her personality manner of speech and other characteristics Though his novels remain among the least-appreciated of his works, they have been given renewed attention via film adaptations by such directors as Satyajit Ray; these include Chokher Bali and Ghare Baire; many have soundtracks featuring selections from Tagore's own rabindrasangit. A film director, or filmmaker, is a person who directs the making of a Film. Satyajit Ray (সত্যজিত রায় or সত্যজিৎ রায়) (2 May 1921–23 April 1992 was a Bengali Indian Filmmaker. Ghare Baire ( The Home and the World) is a 1984 film by Bengali director Satyajit Ray, based upon the novel Ghare Baire Rabindra Sangeet ( Bengali: রবীন্দ্র সংগীত IPA: rabindra sŋgit also known as Tagore Songs in English Tagore wrote many non-fiction books, writing on topics ranging from Indian history to linguistics. This article is about the history of South Asia prior to the Partition of British India in 1947 Aside from autobiographical works, his travelogues, essays, and lectures were compiled into several volumes, including Iurop Jatrir Patro (Letters from Europe) and Manusher Dhormo (The Religion of Man).
Tagore was a prolific musician and painter, writing around 2,230 songs. They comprise rabindrasangit (Bengali: রবীন্দ্র সংগীত—"Tagore Song"), now an integral part of Bengali culture. Rabindra Sangeet ( Bengali: রবীন্দ্র সংগীত IPA: rabindra sŋgit also known as Tagore Songs in English Tagore's music is inseparable from his literature, most of which—poems or parts of novels, stories, or plays alike—became lyrics for his songs. Primarily influenced by the thumri style of Hindustani classical music, they ran the entire gamut of human emotion, ranging from his early dirge-like Brahmo devotional hymns to quasi-erotic compositions. Thumri ( Devnagari: ठुमरी, Nastaliq: ٹھمری) is a common genre of semi classical Indian music from the Hindustani Classical Music ( Hindi: हिन्दुस्तानी शास्त्रीय संगीत Urdu: ہندوستانی شاستریے سنگیت For the Transformers character see Dirge (Transformers For the Xombie character see Xombie For The American comic book writer/artist  They emulated the tonal color of classical ragas to varying extents. Rāga ( Sanskrit, lit "colour" or "mood" or rāgam in Carnatic music) refers to melodic modes used Though at times his songs mimicked a given raga's melody and rhythm faithfully, he also blended elements of different ragas to create innovative works. 
For Bengalis, their appeal, stemming from the combination of emotive strength and beauty described as surpassing even Tagore's poetry, was such that the Modern Review observed that "[t]here is in Bengal no cultured home where Rabindranath's songs are not sung or at least attempted to be sung . Modern Review was the name of a London-based magazine reviewing popular arts and culture founded by Julie Burchill, Cosmo Landesman and its editor Toby Young . . Even illiterate villagers sing his songs". Music critic Arthur Strangways of The Observer first introduced non-Bengalis to rabindrasangeet with his book The Music of Hindostan, which described it as a "vehicle of a personality . Arthur Henry Fox Strangways (1859–1948 was a music critic who wrote for The Observer. The Observer is a British Newspaper published on Sundays In about the same place on the political spectrum as its daily sister paper The . . [that] go behind this or that system of music to that beauty of sound which all systems put out their hands to seize. " Among them are Bangladesh's national anthem Amar Shonar Bangla (Bengali: আমার সোনার বাঙলা) and India's national anthem Jana Gana Mana (Bengali: জন গণ মন); Tagore thus became the only person ever to have written the national anthems of two nations. In turn, rabindrasangeet influenced the styles of such musicians as sitar maestro Vilayat Khan, and the sarodiyas Buddhadev Dasgupta and Amjad Ali Khan. The sitar ( Hindi: सितार Urdu: ستار Persian: سی تار) is a Plucked stringed instrument. Ustad Vilayat Khan ( Bangla: বিলায়েত খাঁ Bilaeet Khã) (August 8 1928 –March 13 2004 was one of India 's well known The sarod is a stringed musical instrument used mainly in Indian classical music. Ustad Amjad Ali Khan is a highly acclaimed Indian Sarod player and Composer. 
At age sixty, Tagore took up drawing and painting; successful exhibitions of his many works—which made a debut appearance in Paris upon encouragement by artists he met in the south of France—were held throughout Europe. Tagore—who likely exhibited protanopia ("color blindness"), or partial lack of (red-green, in Tagore's case) colour discernment—painted in a style characterised by peculiarities in aesthetics and colouring schemes. Color blindness, a Color vision deficiency is the inability to perceive differences between some of the Colors that others can distinguish Nevertheless, Tagore took to emulating numerous styles, including that of craftwork by the Malanggan people of northern New Ireland, Haida carvings from the west coast of Canada (British Columbia), and woodcuts by Max Pechstein. New Ireland ( Tok Pisin: Niu Ailan) is a large Island in Papua New Guinea, approximately 8650 km² in area The Haida (19th C-early 20th C Indigenous nation of the west coast of North America. Max Hermann Pechstein ( December 31, 1881 &ndash June 29, 1955) was a German Expressionist painter and  Tagore also had an artist's eye for his own handwriting, embellishing the scribbles, cross-outs, and word layouts in his manuscripts with simple artistic leitmotifs, including simple rhythmic designs. A leitmotif (ˌlaɪtmoʊˈtiːf (also leitmotiv; lit "leading motif" is a recurring Musical theme, associated with a particular person place
Tagore's experience in theatre began at age sixteen, when he played the lead role in his brother Jyotirindranath's adaptation of Molière's Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme. Jean-Baptiste Poquelin, also known by his Stage name, Molière, ( January 15, 1622 – February 17 1673) was a French At age twenty, he wrote his first drama-opera—Valmiki Pratibha (The Genius of Valmiki)—which describes how the bandit Valmiki reforms his ethos, is blessed by Saraswati, and composes the Rāmāyana. Valmiki ( Sanskrit: वाल्मीकि vālmīki) (ca 400 BCE northern India is celebrated as the poet harbinger in Sanskrit literature Saraswati (pronounced as; Sanskrit: sa सरस्वती sarasvatī; Malay: Saraswati Thai: สุรัสวดี is the The Rāmāyaṇa ( Devanāgarī: sa रामायण is an ancient Sanskrit epic attributed to the Hindu sage ( Maharishi) Valmiki  Through it, Tagore vigorously explores a wide range of dramatic styles and emotions, including usage of revamped kirtans and adaptation of traditional English and Irish folk melodies as drinking songs. Kirtan ( Sanskrit - "to repeat" is call-and-response chanting performed in India's devotional traditions Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world A drinking song is a song sung while drinking that is consuming Alcohol.  Another notable play, Dak Ghar (The Post Office), describes how a child—striving to escape his stuffy confines—ultimately "fall[s] asleep" (which suggests his physical death). A story with worldwide appeal (it received rave reviews in Europe), Dak Ghar dealt with death as, in Tagore's words, "spiritual freedom" from "the world of hoarded wealth and certified creeds". 
His other works—emphasizing fusion of lyrical flow and emotional rhythm tightly focused on a core idea—were unlike previous Bengali dramas. His works sought to articulate, in Tagore's words, "the play of feeling and not of action". In 1890 he wrote Visarjan (Sacrifice), regarded as his finest drama.  The Bengali-language originals included intricate subplots and extended monologues. A subplot, sometimes referred to as a "B story" or a "C story" and so on is a secondary plot strand that is auxiliary to the main plot A monologue is an extended uninterrupted speech or poem by a single person Later, his dramas probed more philosophical and allegorical themes; these included Dak Ghar. Another is Tagore's Chandalika (Untouchable Girl), which was modeled on an ancient Buddhist legend describing how Ananda—the Gautama Buddha's disciple—asks water of an Adivasi ("untouchable") girl. Buddhism is a family of beliefs and practices Ānanda was one of many principal disciples and a devout attendant of the Buddha. Siddhārtha Gautama ( Sanskrit; Pali: Siddhattha Gotama) was a spiritual Teacher from Ancient India and the founder Ādivāsīs (in Devanagari script: आदिवासी literally "original inhabitants" comprise a substantial indigenous minority of the population  Lastly, among his most famous dramas is Raktakaravi (Red Oleanders), which tells of a kleptocratic king who enriches himself by forcing his subjects to mine. The heroine, Nandini, eventually rallies the common people to destroy these symbols of subjugation. Tagore's other plays include Chitrangada, Raja, and Mayar Khela. Dance dramas based on Tagore's plays are commonly referred to as rabindra nritya natyas. Rabindra nritya natya is the term given to the three dance-dramas composed by Bengal's poet laureate Rabindranath Tagore: Chitrangada, Chandalika
Tagore’s "Sadhana" period, comprising the four years from 1891 to 1895, was named for one of Tagore’s magazines. This period was among Tagore 's most fecund, yielding more than half the stories contained in the three-volume Galpaguchchha, which itself is a collection of eighty-four stories.  Such stories usually showcase Tagore’s reflections upon his surroundings, on modern and fashionable ideas, and on interesting mind puzzles (which Tagore was fond of testing his intellect with). Tagore typically associated his earliest stories (such as those of the "Sadhana" period) with an exuberance of vitality and spontaneity; these characteristics were intimately connected with Tagore’s life in the common villages of, among others, Patisar, Shajadpur, and Shilaida while managing the Tagore family’s vast landholdings.  There, he beheld the lives of India’s poor and common people; Tagore thereby took to examining their lives with a penetrative depth and feeling that was singular in Indian literature up to that point. 
In "The Fruitseller from Kabul", Tagore speaks in first person as town-dweller and novelist who chances upon the Afghani seller. Afghanistan /æfˈgænɪstæn/ officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan ( Pashto: د افغانستان اسلامي جمهوریت, He attempts to distil the sense of longing felt by those long trapped in the mundane and hardscrabble confines of Indian urban life, giving play to dreams of a different existence in the distant and wild mountains: "There were autumn mornings, the time of year when kings of old went forth to conquest; and I, never stirring from my little corner in Calcutta, would let my mind wander over the whole world. At the very name of another country, my heart would go out to it . . . I would fall to weaving a network of dreams: the mountains, the glens, the forest . . . . ".  Many of the other Galpaguchchha stories were written in Tagore’s Sabuj Patra period (1914–1917; also named for one of Tagore's magazines). 
Tagore's Golpoguchchho (Bunch of Stories) remains among Bengali literature's most popular fictional works, providing subject matter for many successful films and theatrical plays. Satyajit Ray's film Charulata was based upon Tagore's controversial novella, Nastanirh (The Broken Nest). Satyajit Ray (সত্যজিত রায় or সত্যজিৎ রায়) (2 May 1921–23 April 1992 was a Bengali Indian Filmmaker. Charulata (চারুলতা sometimes released in the English-speaking world as The Lonely Wife, is a 1964 film by Bengali director Nastanirh (also Nashtanir, Bengali নষ্টনীড়় Nôshţoniŗh) (1901 (English The Broken Nest) is a Bengali In Atithi (also made into a film), the young Brahmin boy Tarapada shares a boat ride with a village zamindar. Brahmin ( Brāhmaṇa, sa ब्राह्मणः is the class of educators scholars and preachers in Brahminical Hinduism. Zamindar ( Devanagari: ज़मींदार zamīndār, Urdu: زمیندار zamīndār, Eastern Nagari: জমিদার The boy reveals that he has run away from home, only to wander around ever since. Taking pity, the zamindar adopts him and ultimately arranges his marriage to the zamindar's own daughter. However, the night before the wedding, Tarapada runs off—again. Strir Patra (The Letter from the Wife) is among Bengali literature's earliest depictions of the bold emancipation of women. The heroine Mrinal, the wife of a typical patriarchical Bengali middle class man, writes a letter while she is traveling (which constitutes the whole story). Patriarchy is the structuring of Society on the basis of Family units where fathers have primary responsibility for the welfare of hence authority over It details the pettiness of her life and struggles; she finally declares that she will not return to her husband's home with the statement Amio bachbo. Ei bachlum ("And I shall live. Here, I live").
In Haimanti, Tagore takes on the institution of Hindu marriage, describing the dismal lifelessness of married Bengali women, hypocrisies plaguing the Indian middle classes, and how Haimanti, a sensitive young woman, must—due to her sensitiveness and free spirit—sacrifice her life. The Works of Rabindranath Tagore consist of poems novels short stories dramas paintings drawings and music that Bengali poet and Brahmo philosopher Hinduism is a religious tradition that originated in the Indian subcontinent. The middle class, in colloquial usage consists of those who have some economic independence but not a great deal of social Influence or power. In the last passage, Tagore directly attacks the Hindu custom of glorifying Sita's attempted self-immolation as a means of appeasing her husband Rama's doubts. SITA is a multinational Information technology company specialising in providing IT and telecommunication services to the Aviation industry This is an article on the ritualistic suicide practice For the record company see Self Immolation. Rama ( IAST: rāma Devanāgarī: राम Khmer: Phreah Ream Thai: Phra Ram Lao: Phra Lam Tagalog: Tagore also examines Hindu-Muslim tensions in Musalmani Didi, which in many ways embodies the essence of Tagore's humanism. For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. Humanism is a broad category of ethical philosophies that affirm the dignity and worth of all people based on the ability to determine right and wrong by appealing to universal On the other hand, Darpaharan exhibits Tagore's self-consciousness, describing a young man harboring literary ambitions. Though he loves his wife, he wishes to stifle her own literary career, deeming it unfeminine. Tagore himself, in his youth, seems to have harbored similar ideas about women. Darpaharan depicts the final humbling of the man via his acceptance of his wife's talents. As many other Tagore stories, Jibito o Mrito provides the Bengalis with one of their more widely used epigrams: Kadombini moriya proman korilo she more nai ("Kadombini died, thereby proved that she hadn't").
Tagore's poetry—which varied in style from classical formalism to the comic, visionary, and ecstatic—proceeds out a lineage established by 15th- and 16th-century Vaiṣṇava poets. Tagore was also influenced by the mysticism of the rishi-authors who—including Vyasa—wrote the Upanishads, the Bhakta-Sufi mystic Kabir, and Ramprasad. A rishi (ṛṣi denotes a Vedic poet by whom Vedic hymns were composed or according to post-Vedic tradition a "sage" to whom they were "originally revealed" (Ṛṣis Vyāsa ( Devanāgarī: व्यास is a central and revered figure in the majority of Hindu traditions The Upanishads ( Devanagari: उपनिषद् IAST: upaniṣad also spelled "Upanisad" are Hindu scriptures that constitute the core teachings Bhakti ( Devanāgarī: भक्ति) is a word of Sanskrit origin meaning devotion. Sufism ( تصوّف - taṣawwuf, Persian: صوفیگری sufigari, Turkish: tasavvuf, Urdu: تصوف Al-Kabir "the Great" is also one of the 99 names of God in Islam Ramprasad Sen ( Bangla: রামপ্রসাদ সেন (1720-1781 was a Bengali mystic poet and singer of Hindu devotional songs specially  Yet Tagore's poetry became most innovative and mature after his exposure to rural Bengal's folk music, which included ballads sung by Bāul folk singers—especially the bard Lālan Śāh. Folk music can have a number of different meanings including Traditional music: The original meaning of the term "folk music" was synonymous Bauls (বাউল are a group of mystic Minstrels from Bengal, which comprises Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal Folk music can have a number of different meanings including Traditional music: The original meaning of the term "folk music" was synonymous Etymology The word is a Loanword from descendant languages of Proto-Celtic *bardos, ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *gwerh2 Fakir Lalon Shah ( Bangla: ফকির লালন সাঁই also known as Lalon Shah (c  These—which were rediscovered and popularised by Tagore—resemble 19th-century Kartābhajā hymns that emphasize inward divinity and rebellion against religious and social orthodoxy.  During his Shilaidaha years, his poems took on a lyrical quality, speaking via the maner manus (the Bāuls' "man within the heart") or meditating upon the jivan devata ("living God within"). This figure thus sought connection with divinity through appeal to nature and the emotional interplay of human drama. Tagore used such techniques in his Bhānusiṃha poems (which chronicle the romance between Radha and Krishna), which he repeatedly revised over the course of seventy years. For Radha the mother of Karna from Mahabharata see Radha (Mahabharata Radha (Devanagari राधा IAST Rādhā is the principal Krishna (कृष्ण in Devanagari kṛṣṇa in IAST, ˈkr̩ʂɳə in classical Sanskrit is a deity worshiped across many traditions of Hinduism 
Later, Tagore responded to the (mostly) crude emergence of modernism and realism in Bengali literature by writing experimental works in the 1930s. Modernism describes an array of Cultural movements rooted in the changes in Western society in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century Literary realism most often refers to the trend beginning with certain works of nineteenth-century French literature and extending to late-nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century  Examples works include Africa and Camalia, which are among the better known of his latter poems. He also occasionally wrote poems using Shadhu Bhasha (a Sanskritised dialect of Bengali); later, he began using Cholti Bhasha (a more popular dialect). Sanskrit (sa संस्कृता वाक् saṃskṛtā vāk, for short sa संस्कृतम् saṃskṛtam) is a historical Other notable works include Manasi, Sonar Tori (Golden Boat), Balaka (Wild Geese—the title being a metaphor for migrating souls), and Purobi. Metaphor (from the Greek: μεταφορά - metaphora, meaning "transfer" is language that directly compares seemingly unrelated subjects Sonar Tori's most famous poem—dealing with the ephemeral nature of life and achievement—goes by the same name; it ends with the haunting phrase "শূন্য নদীর তীরে রহিনু পড়ি / যাহা ছিল লয়ে গেল সোনার তরী" ("Shunno nodir tire rohinu poŗi / Jaha chhilo loe gêlo shonar tori"—"all I had achieved was carried off on the golden boat—only I was left behind. "). Internationally, Gitanjali (Bengali: গীতাঞ্জলি) is Tagore's best-known collection, winning him his Nobel Prize.  Song VII (গীতাঞ্জলি 127) of Gitanjali:
Free-verse translation by Tagore (Gitanjali, verse VII):
"Klanti" (Bengali: ক্লান্তি; "Fatigue"), the sixth poem in Gitali, reads:
Tagore's poetry has been set to music by various composers, among them classical composer Arthur Shepherd's triptych for soprano and string quartet.
Marked complexities characterise Tagore's political views. He criticised European imperialism and supported Indian nationalists and, although he himself vehemently denied it at the time, the evidence produced during the Hindu-German Conspiracy trial, as well as some later accounts, he was aware of the conspiracy and even interviewed the then Japanese premier Count Terauchi and former premier Count Okuma on behalf of the conspirators to try and enlist Japanese support. The Hindu German Conspiracy Trial commenced in the District Court in San Francisco, California on November 12 1917 following the uncovering Field Marshal, GCB ( 5 February 1852 – 3 November 1919) was Field Marshal in the Imperial Japanese Army and the 18th was a Japanese statesman and the 8th ( 30 June 1898 – 8 November 1898) and 17th ( 16 April 1914 –  However, he also lampooned the Swadeshi movement, denouncing it in "The Cult of the Charka", an acrid 1925 essay. The Swadeshi ( Hindi: स्वदेशी movement, part of the Indian independence movement, was a successful economic strategy to remove the British A spinning wheel is a device for spinning thread or Yarn from natural or Synthetic Fibers History Technology in World Civilization  Instead, he emphasized self-help and intellectual uplift of the masses, stating that British imperialism was not a primary evil, but instead a "political symptom of our social disease", urging Indians to accept that "there can be no question of blind revolution, but of steady and purposeful education". 
Such views inevitably enraged many, placing his life in danger: during his stay in a San Francisco hotel in late 1916, Tagore narrowly escaped assassination by Indian expatriates. The City and County of San Francisco is the fourth most populous city The plot failed only because the would-be assassins fell into argument.  Yet Tagore wrote songs lionizing the Indian independence movement and renounced his knighthood in protest against the 1919 Jallianwala Bagh Massacre. The term " Indian independence movement " is diffuse incorporating various national and regional campaigns agitations and efforts of both Nonviolent and Militant The Jallianwala Bagh Massacre, also known as the Amritsar Massacre, was named after the Jallianwala Bagh (Garden in the northern Indian city of Amritsar  Two of Tagore's more politically charged compositions, "Chitto Jetha Bhayshunyo" ("Where the Mind is Without Fear") and "Ekla Chalo Re" ("If They Answer Not to Thy Call, Walk Alone"), gained mass appeal, with the latter favoured by Gandhi. Chitto jetha bhayshunyo ( Where the mind is without fear) is among one of the most quoted Poems in India and Bangladesh. Jodi Tor Dak Shune Keu Na Ashe (যদি তোর ডাক শুনে কেউ না আসে তবে একলা চলো রে Jodi tor đak shune keu na ashe Despite his tumultuous relations with Gandhi, Tagore was key in resolving a Gandhi-Ambedkar dispute involving separate electorates for untouchables, ending Gandhi's fast "unto death". Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar ( Marathi:डॊभीमराव रामजी आंबेडकर ( April 14, 1891 — December 6, 1956 
Tagore also criticised orthodox (rote-oriented) education, lampooning it in the short story "The Parrot's Training", where a bird—which ultimately dies—is caged by tutors and force-fed pages torn from books.  These views led Tagore—while visiting Santa Barbara, California on 11 October 1917—to conceive of a new type of university, desiring to "make [his ashram at] Santiniketan the connecting thread between India and the world . Santa Barbara is a city in Santa Barbara County California, United States. Events 1138 - A massive earthquake struck Aleppo, Syria. 1531 - Huldrych Zwingli is killed Year 1917 ( MCMXVII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year . . [and] a world center for the study of humanity . . . somewhere beyond the limits of nation and geography. " The school—which he named Visva-Bharatiζ[›]—had its foundation stone laid on 22 December 1918; it was later inaugurated on 22 December 1921. Events 1790 - The Turkish fortress of Izmail is stormed and captured by Suvorov and his Russian armies Year 1918 ( MCMXVIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Events 1790 - The Turkish fortress of Izmail is stormed and captured by Suvorov and his Russian armies Year 1921 ( MCMXXI) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1921 calendar of the Gregorian calendar  Here, Tagore implemented a brahmacharya pedagogical structure employing gurus to provide individualised guidance for pupils. Brahmacharya (brʌmatʃərɪə Devanagari: ब्रह्मचर्य is the first ashram in Vedic culture in which a person is dedicated to the quest for self realization A guru (गुरु গুরু is a person who is regarded as having great knowledge wisdom and authority in a certain area and uses it to guide others Tagore worked hard to fundraise for and staff the school, even contributing all of his Nobel Prize monies.  Tagore’s duties as steward and mentor at Santiniketan kept him busy; he taught classes in mornings and wrote the students' textbooks in afternoons and evenings.  Tagore also fundraised extensively for the school in Europe and the U. S. between 1919 and 1921. 
Tagore's post-death impact can be felt through the many festivals held worldwide in his honour—examples include the annual Bengali festival/celebration of Kabipranam (Tagore's birthday anniversary), the annual Tagore Festival held in Urbana, Illinois in the United States, the Rabindra Path Parikrama walking pilgrimages leading from Calcutta to Shantiniketan, and ceremonial recitals of Tagore's poetry held on important anniversaries. Urbana (ɝˈbænə is the County seat of Champaign County, Illinois, United States.  This legacy is most palpable in Bengali culture, ranging from language and arts to history and politics; indeed, Nobel laureate Amartya Sen noted that even for modern Bengalis, Tagore was a "towering figure", being a "deeply relevant and many-sided contemporary thinker". Amartya Kumar Sen CH (Hon (অমর্ত্য কুমার সেন Ômorto Kumar Shen) (born 3 November 1933) is an Indian  Tagore's collected Bengali-language writings—the 1939 Rabīndra Racanāvalī—is also canonized as one of Bengal's greatest cultural treasures, while Tagore himself has been proclaimed "the greatest poet India has produced". 
Tagore was famed throughout much of Europe, North America, and East Asia. He was key in founding Dartington Hall School, a progressive coeducational institution; in Japan, he influenced such figures as Nobel laureate Yasunari Kawabata. Dartington Hall, near Totnes, Devon, United Kingdom, is a medieval Hall built between 1388 and 1400 for John Holand Earl of Huntingdon was a Japanese Short story writer and novelist whose spare lyrical subtly-shaded prose won him the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1968 the first Japanese author  Tagore's works were widely translated into English, Dutch, German, Spanish, and other European languages by Czech indologist Vincenc Lesný, French Nobel laureate André Gide, Russian poet Anna Akhmatova, former Turkish Prime Minister Bülent Ecevit and others. The Czech Republic ( ˈt͡ʃɛskaː ˈrɛpuˌblɪka short form in Česko ˈt͡ʃɛskɔ also called Czechia, Indology refers to the academic study of the languages texts History and Cultures of the Indian subcontinent, and as such a subset of Asian studies Anna Akhmatova (А́нна Ахма́това real name А́нна Андре́евна Горе́нко ( — March 5 1966 was the Pen name of Anna Andreevna Gorenko Mustafa Bülent Ecevit ( May 28, 1925 in Istanbul – November 5, 2006 in Ankara) was a Turkish Politician In the United States, Tagore's popular lecturing circuits (especially those between 1916–1917) were widely attended and acclaimed. Nevertheless, several controversiesη[›] involving Tagore resulted in a decline in his popularity in Japan and North America after the late 1920s, contributing to his "near total eclipse" outside of Bengal. 
Tagore, through Spanish translations of his works, also influenced leading figures of Spanish literature, including Chileans Pablo Neruda and Gabriela Mistral, Mexican writer Octavio Paz, and Spaniards José Ortega y Gasset, Zenobia Camprubí, and Juan Ramón Jiménez. The term Spanish literature refers to Literature written in the Spanish language, including literature composed in Spanish by writers not necessarily from Chile, officially the Republic of Chile ( Spanish:) is a country in South America occupying a long and narrow Coastal strip wedged between the Pablo Neruda ( July 12, 1904 – September 23, 1973) was the pen name and later legal name of the Chilean writer and politician Gabriela Mistral ( April 7, 1889 — January 10, 1957) was the Pseudonym of Lucila de María del Perpetuo Socorro Godoy Alcayaga The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America. Octavio Peazy Paz " ( March 31, 1914 – April 19, 1998) was a Mexican Writer, Poet, and diplomat Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. José Ortega y Gasset ( May 9, 1883 - October 18, 1955) was a Spanish philosopher. Zenobia Camprubí Aymar (c 1887 &ndash 25 October 1956) was a Spanish -born Writer and Poet; she was also a noted translator of the Juan Ramón Jiménez Mantecón ( Moguer, Spain, 24 December, 1881 – Santurce, Puerto Rico, 29 May, 1958 Between 1914 and 1922, the Jiménez-Camprubí spouses translated no less than twenty-two of Tagore's books from English into Spanish. Jiménez, as part of this work, also extensively revised and adapted such works as Tagore's The Crescent Moon. Indeed, during this time, Jiménez developed the now-heralded innovation of "naked poetry" (Spanish: «poesia desnuda»).  Ortega y Gasset wrote that "Tagore's wide appeal [may stem from the fact that] he speaks of longings for perfection that we all have . . . Tagore awakens a dormant sense of childish wonder, and he saturates the air with all kinds of enchanting promises for the reader, who . . . pays little attention to the deeper import of Oriental mysticism". Tagore's works were published in free editions around 1920 alongside works by Dante Alighieri, Miguel de Cervantes, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Plato, and Leo Tolstoy. Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra ( in modern Spanish; September 29, 1547 &ndash April 22, 1616) was a Spanish Novelist ˈjoːhan ˈvɔlfgaŋ fɔn ˈgøːtə (in English generally ˈgɝːtə 28 August 1749 22 March 1832 was a German writer Biography Early life Birth and family Plato was born in Athens Greece Leo Tolstoy, or Count Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy ( –) (Лев Никола́евич Толсто́й, was a Russian Writer widely regarded
Tagore's talents came to be regarded as overrated by several westerners. Graham Greene doubted that "anyone but Mr. Henry Graham Greene OM, CH (2 October 1904 &ndash 3 April 1991 was an English writer best known as a novelist but who also produced Short stories Yeats can still take his poems very seriously. " Modern remnants of a once widespread Latin American reverence of Tagore were discovered, for example, by an astonished Salman Rushdie during a trip to Nicaragua. Sir Ahmed Salman Rushdie Kt (born 19 June 1947 is an Indian - British novelist and essayist Nicaragua (ˌnɪkəˈrɑgwə officially the Republic of Nicaragua () is a representative democratic republic and the largest nation in Central America 
|This article contains Indic text. Gitanjali ( Bangla Gitanjoli) is a collection of 103 English Poems largely translations by the Bengali poet Rabindranath Tagore. Nastanirh (also Nashtanir, Bengali নষ্টনীড়় Nôshţoniŗh) (1901 (English The Broken Nest) is a Bengali The Home and the World 1916 (in the original Bengali ঘরে বাইরে Ghôre Baire) is a 1916 novel by Rabindranath Tagore. The Brahmic family is a family of syllabaries (writing systems used in South Asia, Southeast Asia, and parts of Central Asia and East Asia, |
Without rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes or other symbols instead of Indic characters; or irregular vowel positioning and a lack of conjuncts. Mojibake is the happenstance of incorrect unreadable characters (garbage characters shown when Computer software fails to render a text correctly according to its associated
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Ţhakur, Robindronath; Tagore, Rabi (nickname); Gurudev (sobriquet); Bhānusiṃha (pen name)|
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||Bengali writer, poet, philosopher|
|DATE OF BIRTH||May 7, 1861|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||No. Events 558 - In Constantinople, the dome of the Hagia Sophia collapses Year 1861 ( MDCCCLXI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common 6 Dwarkanath Tagore Lane, Jorasanko Thakur Bari, Kolkata, India|
|DATE OF DEATH||August 7, 1941|
|PLACE OF DEATH||Jorasanko Thakur Bari, Kolkata, India|
The Thakurbari ( Bangla: House of the Thakurs (anglicized to Tagore) in Jorasanko, north of Kolkata, West Bengal India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Events 322 BC - Battle of Crannon between Athens and Macedon following the death of Alexander the Great. Year 1941 ( MCMXLI) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (the link will display 1941 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Thakurbari ( Bangla: House of the Thakurs (anglicized to Tagore) in Jorasanko, north of Kolkata, West Bengal India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country