The Quit India Movement (Bharat Chhodo Andolan or the August Movement) was a civil disobedience movement launched in India in August 1942 in response to Mohandas Gandhi's call for immediate independence. Civil disobedience is the active refusal to obey certain Laws demands and commands of a Government, or of an occupying power, without resorting to physical India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Other names In Arabic, the month is called أغسطسص ʾUġusṭuṣ or آب ʾĀb; usage varies from place to place and Year 1942 ( MCMXLII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi ( Gujarati: મોહનદાસ કરમચંદ ગાંધી moɦən̪d̪äs kəɾəmʧən̪d̪ gän̪d̪ʱi (2 October 1869 – 30 January Gandhi hoped to bring the British government to the negotiating table. Her Majesty's Government, or when the monarch is male His Majesty's Government, is the title used by the Government of the United Kingdom, based at  Almost the entire Congress leadership, and not merely at the national level, was put into confinement less than twenty-four hours after Gandhi's speech, and the greater number of the Congress leaders were to spend the rest of the war in jail. The Quit India speech is a speech made by Mahatma Gandhi on August 8th 1942 on the eve of the Quit India movement.
By 1942, Indians were divided over World War II, as the British had unilaterally and without consultation entered India into the war. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including Some wanted to support the British during the Battle of Britain, hoping for eventual independence through this support. The Battle of Britain (German ''Luftschlacht um England'' is the name given to the sustained strategic effort by the German Luftwaffe during the summer and Others were enraged by the British disregard for Indian intelligence and civil rights, and were unsympathetic to the travails of Britons in the United Kingdom, which they saw as revenge for the subjugation of Indians.
At the outbreak of war, the Congress Party had during the Wardha meeting of the working-committee in September 1939, passed a resolution conditionally supporting the fight against fascism, but were rebuffed when they asked for independence in return. Year 1939 ( MCMXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Gandhi had not supported this initiative, as he could not reconcile an endorsement for war (he was a committed believer in non-violent resistance to tyranny, used in the Indian Independence Movement and proposed even against Hitler, Mussolini, and Tojo). Hi and welcome to Wikipedia! Please understand that this article is frequently vandalized and vandalism is reverted immediately However, at the height of the Battle of Britain, Gandhi had stated his support for the fight against fascism and of the British War effort, stating he did not seek to raise a free India from the ashes of Britain. The Battle of Britain (German ''Luftschlacht um England'' is the name given to the sustained strategic effort by the German Luftwaffe during the summer and However, opinions remained divided.
After the onset of the war, only a group led by Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose took any decisive action. Subhas Chandra Bose (সুভাষ চন্দ্র বসু (born January 23, 1897; presumed to have died August 18, 1945 Bose organized the Indian National Army with the help of the Japanese, and, soliciting help from the Axis Powers. The Indian National Army ( INA) or Azad Hind Fauj ( Hindi: आज़ाद हिन्द फ़ौज was an armed force formed by Indian nationalists For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. The Axis powers also known as the Axis alliance Axis nations Axis countries or sometimes just the Axis were those Countries The INA fought hard in the forests of Assam, Bengal and Burma, but ultimately failed owing to disrupted logistic, poor arms and supplies from the Japanese, and lack of support and training. Assam) ( Assamese: অসম Ôxôm) is a northeastern state of India with its capital at Dispur, a suburb of the city Etymology and ethnology The exact origin of the word Bangla or Bengal is unknown though it is believed to be derived from the Dravidian-speaking tribe Bang Burma, officially the Union of Myanmar ( pjìdàunzṵ mjàmmà nàinŋàndɔ̀ is the largest country by geographical area in mainland Southeast Asia. Bose's audacious actions and radical initiative energized a new generation of Indians. The Quit India Movement tapped into this energy, channelling it into a united, cohesive action.
In March 1942, faced with an increasingly dissatisfied sub-continent only reluctantly participating in the war, and deteriorations in the war situation in Europe and South East Asia, and with growing dissatisfactions among Indian troops- especially in Europe- and among the civilian population in the sub-continent, the British government sent a delegation to India under Stafford Cripps, in what came to be known as the Cripps' Mission. Sir Richard Stafford Cripps ( 24 April 1889 &ndash 21 April 1952) was a British Labour politician and Chancellor The Cripps mission was an attempt in late March of 1942 by the British government to secure Indian cooperation and support for their efforts in World War II. The purpose of the mission was to negotiate with the Indian National Congress a deal to obtain total co-operation during the war, in return of progressive devolution and distribution of power from the crown and the Viceroy to elected Indian legislature. Indian National Congress-I (also known as the Congress Party and abbreviated INC) is a major Political party in India. A viceroy is a royal official who governs a country or province in the name of and as representative of the Monarch. However, the talks failed, having failed to address the key demand of a timeframe towards self-government, and of definition of the powers to be relinquished, essentially portraying an offer of limited dominion-status that was wholly unacceptable to the Indian movement. 
On July 14, 1942, the Indian National Congress passed a resolution demanding complete independence from Britain. Events 1223 - Louis VIII becomes King of France upon the death of his father Philip II of France. Year 1942 ( MCMXLII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Indian National Congress-I (also known as the Congress Party and abbreviated INC) is a major Political party in India. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The draft proposed that if the British did not accede to the demands, massive civil disobedience would be launched. Civil disobedience is the active refusal to obey certain Laws demands and commands of a Government, or of an occupying power, without resorting to physical
However, it proved to be controversial within the party. A prominent Congress national leader Chakravarti Rajgopalachari quit the Congress over this decision, and so did some local and regional level organizers. Chakravarthi Rajagopalachari (Tamil சக்ரவர்த்தி ராஜகோபாலாச்சாரி ( December 10, 1878 - December 25, Jawaharlal Nehru and Maulana Azad were apprehensive and critical of the call, but backed it and stuck with Gandhi's leadership till the end. Jawaharlal Nehru (जवाहरलाल नेहरू ʤəʋäɦəɾläl nɛɦɾu (14 November 1889 27 May 1964 was a major political leader of the Congress Party Maulana Abul Kalam Muhiyuddin Ahmed (11 November 1888 &ndash 22 February 1958 was a Muslim scholar and a senior political leader of the Indian independence Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel and Dr. Vallabhbhai Patel (વલ્લભભાઈ પટેલ IPA:) (31 October 1875 – 15 December 1950 was a political and social leader of India who played Rajendra Prasad were openly and enthusiastically in favor of such a disobedience movement, as were many veteran Gandhians and socialists like Asoka Mehta and Jaya Prakash Narayan. Dr Rajendra Prasad (डा॰ राजेन्द्र प्रसाद ( December 3, 1884 &ndash February 28, 1963) was the Asoka Mehta was an Indian freedom fighter and Socialist politician Jayaprakash Narayan ( Devanāgarī: जयप्रकाश नारायण October 11, 1902 - October 8, 1979) widely known
The Congress had lesser success in rallying other political forces under a single flag and mast. Smaller parties like the Communist Party of India and the Hindu Mahasabha opposed the call. The Communist Party of India (CPI is a Political party in India. Akhil Bhāratīya Hindū Mahāsabhā (अखिल भारत हिन्दू महासभा All-Indian Hindu Assembly a Hindu nationalist organization was originally Muhammad Ali Jinnah's opposition to the call led to large numbers of Muslims cooperating with the British, and the Muslim League obtaining power in the Imperial provincial governments. Muhammad Ali Jinnah Urdu: (December 25 1876 – September 11 1948 was a Pakistani politician and leader of the All India Muslim League who founded Pakistan The All India Muslim League ( Urdu: آل انڈیا مسلم لیگ Bengali:?????? ??? founded at Dhaka in 1906 was a political party in British
On August 8, 1942 the Quit India Resolution was passed at the Bombay session of the All India Congress Committee (AICC). Events 1220 - Sweden is defeated by Estonian tribes in the Battle of Lihula. Year 1942 ( MCMXLII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Mumbai ( Marathi:,, IPA: formerly Bombay, is the capital of the Indian state of Maharashtra and the financial At Gowalia Tank, Bombay, Gandhi told Indians to follow non-violent civil disobedience. Gowalia Tank Maidan (now also known as August Kranti Maidan) is a park in central Bombay where Mahatma Gandhi issued the Quit India speech on Mumbai ( Marathi:,, IPA: formerly Bombay, is the capital of the Indian state of Maharashtra and the financial He told the masses to act as an independent nation. A nation is a Human Cultural and Social Community. In as much as most members never meet each other yet feel a common bond it may be considered His call found support among a large number of Indians.
The British, already alarmed by the advance of the Japanese army to the India/Burma border, responded the next day by imprisoning Gandhi at the Aga Khan Palace in Pune. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. Burma, officially the Union of Myanmar ( pjìdàunzṵ mjàmmà nàinŋàndɔ̀ is the largest country by geographical area in mainland Southeast Asia. Pune (ˈpuːneɪ Marathi: पुणे Hindi: पूना formerly Poona, is the second largest city in the state of Maharashtra All the members of the Congress Party's Working Committee (national leadership) were arrested and imprisoned at the Ahmednagar Fort. Due to the arrest of major leaders, a young and till then relatively unknown Aruna Asaf Ali presided over the AICC session on August 9 and hoisted the flag. Aruna Asaf Ali (Bengali অরুণা আসফ আলী ( July 16, 1909, Kalka, Haryana Events 48 BC - Caesar's civil war: Battle of Pharsalus - Julius Caesar decisively defeats Pompey at Pharsalus Later, the Congress party was banned. These actions only created sympathy for the cause among the population. Despite lack of direct leadership, large scale protests and demonstrations were held all over the country. Workers remained absent en masse and strikes were called. However, not all the demonstrations were peaceful. At some places bombs exploded, government buildings were set on fire, electricity was cut, and transport and communication lines were severed. Fire is the heat and light energy released during a Chemical reaction, in particular a combustion reaction. Transport or transportation is the movement of people and goods from one place to another Communication is the process of conveying information from a sender to a receiver with the use of a medium in which the communicated information is understood the same way
The British swiftly responded by mass detentions. A total over 100,000 arrests were made nationwide, mass fines were levied, and demonstrators were subjected to public flogging.  Hundreds of resisters and innocent people were killed in police and army firings. Many national leaders went underground and continued their struggle by broadcasting messages over clandestine radio stations, distributing pamphlets, and establishing parallel governments. Radio is the transmission of signals by Modulation of electromagnetic waves with frequencies below those of visible Light. The British sense of crisis was strong enough that a battleship was specifically set aside to take Gandhi and the Congress leaders out of India, possibly to South Africa or Yemen, but such a step was ultimately not taken out of fear of intensifying the revolt. The Republic of South Africa (also known by other official names) is a country located at the southern tip of the continent of Africa Yemen ( Arabic: اليَمَن al-Yaman officially the Republic of Yemen ( Arabic: الجمهورية اليمنية al-Jumhuuriyya 
The entire Congress leadership was cut off from the rest of the world for over three years. Gandhi's wife Kasturbai Gandhi and his personal secretary Mahadev Desai died in a short space of months, and Gandhi's own health was failing. Kastürbā Gāndhi ( April 11, 1869 – 22 February, 1944) affectionately called Ba, was the wife of Mohandas Gandhi. Mahadev Desai ( January 1, 1892 &ndash August 15, 1942) was an Indian independence activist and nationalist writer he was most famously known Despite this, Gandhi went on a 21-day fast and maintained a superhuman resolve to continuous resistance. Although the British released Gandhi on account of his failing health in 1944, Gandhi kept up the resistance, demanding the complete release of the Congress leadership.
By early 1944, India was mostly peaceful again, while the entire Congress leadership was incarcerated. A sense that the movement had failed depressed many nationalists, while Jinnah and the Muslim League, as well as Congress opponents like the Communists and Hindu extremists, sought to gain political mileage, criticizing Gandhi and the Congress Party.
The successes and failures of the Movement are debated. Some historians claim it failed.  By March 1943, the movement had petered out.  Even the Congress, at the time saw it as failure.  Analysis of the campaign obtained by Military Intelligence in 1943 came to the conclusion that it had failed in the aim of paralysing the government. It did however cause enough trouble and panic among the War administration for General Lockhart to describe India as an "Occupied and hostile country. " However, much as it might have disconcerted the Raj, the movement may be deemed to have ultimately failed to bring the Raj to its knees and the negotiating table for immediate transfer of power, as it aimed to. It came to all but a close within five months of its inception, and was nowhere near its grandiose aim of toppling the Raj. The primary underlying reason, it seems, was the loyalty of the army, even where the local and native police came out in sympathy.  This certainly, was also the view of the British Prime Minister at the time of transfer of power, Clement Atlee. The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the political leader of the United Kingdom Clement Richard Attlee 1st Earl Attlee, KG, OM, CH, PC ( 3 January 1883 &ndash 8 October 1967 Atlee deemed the contribution of Quit India as minimal, ascribing stupendous importance to the revolts and growing dissatisfaction among Royal Indian Armed Forces during and after the war as the driving force behind Britain's decision to leave India. 
Some Indian historians, however, argue that, in fact, the movement had succeeded. In support of the latter view, without doubt, the war had sapped a lot of the economic, political and military life-blood of the Empire. Also, although at the national level the ability to galvanize rebellion was limited, the movement is notable for regional success especially at Satara, Talcher, and Midnapore. For the Moth Genus, see Satara (moth. Satara (Marathiसातारा is a Town located in the WikipediaWikiProject Indian cities for details --> Talcher is a city and a Municipality in Anugul district in the Indian state Midnapore District was split on January 1 2002 into Purba Medinipur and Paschim Medinipur districts  In Tamluk and Contai subdivisions of Midnapore, the local populace were successful in establishing parallel governments, which continued to function, until Gandhi personally requested the leaders to disband in 1944. WikipediaWikiProject Indian cities for details --> Tamluk (তমলুক is the district headquarters of Purba Medinipur district of West Contai (also known as Kanthi) (( Bengali: কাঁথি is a Subdivisional town in the District of East Midnapore, West Bengal,  At the time, from intelligence reports, the Azad Hind Government under Netaji Subhash Bose in Berlin deemed these an early indication of success of their strategy of fomenting public rebellion. This article describes the organisation formed during World War II in Singapore 
It is uncertain whether it was ultimately the Quit India Movement or unrest in the British Indian Armed Forces  that allowed the post-War Labour government to negotiate a swift transfer or power to India after WWII. However, what is certain is that a population of millions had been motivated as it never had before to claim independence as a non-negotiable goal, and every act of defiance and rebellion only reinforced the nationalist sentiment. In addition, the British people and the British Army seemed unwilling to back a policy of repression in India and other parts of the Empire even as their own country lay shattered by the war's ravages. Template:Cite-need The INA trials in 1945, the resulting militant movements, and the Bombay mutiny had already shaken the confidence of British rule in India. The Indian National Army ( INA) or Azad Hind Fauj ( Hindi: आज़ाद हिन्द फ़ौज was an armed force formed by Indian nationalists Gurbaksh Singh Dhillon ( 18 March 1914 - 6 February 2006) popularly known as Col  By early 1946, all political prisoners had been released and Britain adopted a political dialogue with the Indian National Congress for the eventual transfer of power. Year 1946 ( MCMXLVI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. On August 15, 1947, this transfer was complete, and the states of India and Pakistan came into being. Events 778 - The Battle of Roncevaux Pass, at which Roland is killed Year 1947 ( MCMXLVII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
A young, new generation responded to Gandhi's call. Indians who lived through Quit India came to form the first generation of independent Indians-whose trials and tribulations may be accepted to have sown the seeds of establishment of the strongest enduring tradition of democracy and freedom in post-colonial Africa and Asia- which, when seen in the light of the torrid times of Partition of India, can be termed one of the greatest examples of prudence of humanity. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country The Partition of India was the partition of the British Indian Empire which led to the creation on August 14, 1947 and August 15,
Which phase of our freedom struggle won for us Independence? Mahatma Gandhi’s 1942 Quit India movement or The INA army launched by Netaji Bose to free India or the Royal Indian Navy Mutiny of 1946? According to the British Prime Minister Clement Attlee, during whose regime India became free, it was the INA and the RIN Mutiny of February 18-23 1946 that made the British realize that their time was up in India. An extract from a letter written by P. V. Chuckraborty, former Chief Justice of Calcutta High Court, on March 30 1976, reads thus: "When I was acting as Governor of West Bengal in 1956, Lord Clement Attlee, who as the British Prime Minister in post war years was responsible for India’s freedom, visited India and stayed in Raj Bhavan Calcutta for two days`85 I put it straight to him like this: ‘The Quit India Movement of Gandhi practically died out long before 1947 and there was nothing in the Indian situation at that time, which made it necessary for the British to leave India in a hurry. Why then did they do so?’ In reply Attlee cited several reasons, the most important of which were the INA activities of Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose, which weakened the very foundation of the British Empire in India, and the RIN Mutiny which made the British realise that the Indian armed forces could no longer be trusted to prop up the British. When asked about the extent to which the British decision to quit India was influenced by Mahatma Gandhi’s 1942 movement, Attlee’s lips widened in smile of disdain and he uttered, slowly, ‘Minimal’. "