|Qin Shi Huang|
|Ancestral name (姓):||Ying (嬴)|
|Clan name (氏):||Zhao¹ (趙),or Qin²|
|Given name (名):||Zheng (政)|
|King of the State of Qin|
|Dates of reign:||July 247 BCE–221 BCE|
|Official title:||King of Qin (秦王)|
|Emperor of Qin Dynasty|
|Dates of reign:||221 BCE–Sept. Chinese family name is one of the hundreds or thousands of Family names that have been historically used by Han Chinese and Sinicized Chinese ethnic Chinese family name is one of the hundreds or thousands of Family names that have been historically used by Han Chinese and Sinicized Chinese ethnic Chinese given names ( Chinese: 名字 Pinyin: míngzì are often made up of one or two characters Unlike Western personal names there is great variety Qín or Ch'in ( Wade-Giles) (秦 ( 778 BC - 207 BC) was a State during the Spring and Autumn and Warring States Periods A title is a prefix or suffix added to a person's name to signify either veneration an official position or a professional or academic qualification Not to be confused with the Qing Dynasty, the last dynasty of China 10, 210 BCE|
|Official title:||First Emperor (始皇帝)|
|Temple name:||None. Temple names are commonly used when naming most Chinese, Korean ( Goryeo and Joseon periods and Vietnamese (such dynasties as|
|Posthumous name:||None. A posthumous name is an honorary name given to royalty nobles and sometimes others in some cultures after the person's death|
|Dates are in the proleptic Julian calendar|
1. The proleptic Julian calendar is produced by extending the Julian calendar to dates preceding AD 4 when its quadrennial leap year stabilized As appears in the Records of the Grand Historian
by Sima Qian. The Records of the Grand Historian, also known in English by the Chinese name 史記 or Shiji, written from 109 BC to 91 BC Early life and education Sima Qian was born and grew up in Longmen, near present-day Hancheng Shaanxi. Apparently, the First Emperor being born
in the State of Zhao where his father was a hostage, he later
adopted Zhao as his clan name (in ancient China clan names
often changed from generation to generation), but this is
not completely certain. Zhao ( Pinyin: zhào Traditional Chinese: 趙 Simplified Chinese: 赵 was a Chinese State during
2. Based on ancient Chinese naming patterns, we can infer that
Qin was the clan name of the royal house of the State of Qin,
derived from the name of the state. Qín or Ch'in ( Wade-Giles) (秦 ( 778 BC - 207 BC) was a State during the Spring and Autumn and Warring States Periods
The monarch known now as Qin Shi Huang (Chinese: 秦始皇; pinyin: Qín Shǐ Huáng; Wade-Giles: Ch'in Shih-huang) (259 BCE – September 10, 210 BCE), personal name Yíng Zhèng, was king of the Chinese State of Qin from 247 BCE to 221 BCE (officially still under the Zhou Dynasty), and then the first emperor of a unified China from 221 BCE to 210 BCE, ruling under the name the First Emperor (Chinese: 始皇帝; pinyin: Shǐ Huáng Dì; Wade-Giles: Shih Huang-Ti). Pinyin, more formally Hanyu pinyin, is the most common Standard Mandarin Romanization system in use Wade-Giles (ˌweɪdˈʤaɪlz) sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a Romanization system (phonetic notation and Transcription) for the Mandarin Events By place Seleucid Empire Finding a willing ally in Antigonus II Gonatas, the king of Macedonia who has had to deal with Events 506 - The Bishops of Visigothic Gaul meet in the Council of Agde. Events By place Roman Republic Following the death of his father Publius Cornelius Scipio, and his uncle Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio Qín or Ch'in ( Wade-Giles) (秦 ( 778 BC - 207 BC) was a State during the Spring and Autumn and Warring States Periods Events By place Carthage By this stage in the Punic War, Carthage has lost to Rome all its Sicilian possessions Events By place Carthage The Carthaginian general Hasdrubal is murdered by a Celtic assassin while campaigning to increase The Zhou Dynasty ( POJ: Chiu Tiau 1122 BC to 256 BC was preceded by the Shang Dynasty and followed by the Qin Dynasty in China. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National Events By place Carthage The Carthaginian general Hasdrubal is murdered by a Celtic assassin while campaigning to increase Events By place Roman Republic Following the death of his father Publius Cornelius Scipio, and his uncle Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio Pinyin, more formally Hanyu pinyin, is the most common Standard Mandarin Romanization system in use Wade-Giles (ˌweɪdˈʤaɪlz) sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a Romanization system (phonetic notation and Transcription) for the Mandarin As the ruler of the Great Qin, he was known for the introduction of Legalism and also for unifying China. In Chinese history, Legalism ( was one of the four main philosophic schools during the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period (the other
Qin Shi Huang remains a controversial figure in Chinese history. Having unified China, he and his chief adviser Li Si passed a series of major reforms aimed at cementing unification, and they undertook some gigantic projects, most notably the precursor version of the current Great Wall of China, a city-sized mausoleum guarded by a life-sized Terracotta Army, and a massive national road system, at the expense of numerous human lives. Li Si ( (ca 280 BC - September or October 208 BC was the influential Prime Minister (or Chancellor of the feudal state and later of the dynasty of Qin, between The Great Wall of China ( or ( is a series of stone and earthen Fortifications in China, built rebuilt and maintained between the 6th century BC and the 16th The Terracotta Army ( are the Terracotta Warriors and Horses of Qin Shi Huang the First Emperor of China. The Terracotta Army ( are the Terracotta Warriors and Horses of Qin Shi Huang the First Emperor of China. To ensure stability, he outlawed Confucianism and buried many of its scholars alive, banning and burning all books other than those officially decreed. Confucianism ( is a Chinese ethical and philosophical system originally developed from the teachings of the fifth century B
For all the tyranny of his autocratic rule, Qin Shi Huang is still regarded by many today as a pivotal figure in Chinese history whose unification of China has endured for more than two millennia. In modern usage a tyrant is a single ruler holding absolute power over a State or within an Organization. An autocracy is a Form of government in which the Political power is held by a single self-appointed ruler
Qin Shi Huang was born in the Kingdom of Zhao, therefore he received the last name Zhao, which is a branch of "Ying". He was born in the Chinese month zhēng (正), the first month of the year in the Chinese calendar then in use, like January is now, and so he received the given name Zheng (政), both characters being used interchangeably in ancient China. In Chinese antiquity, people joined family names and given names together as is customary for all Chinese names today. A family name or last name is a type of Surname and part of a person's name indicating the family to which the person belongs Therefore, it is anachronistic to refer to Qin Shi Huang as "Zhao Zheng" or "Ying Zheng". The given name was never used except by close relatives; it is incorrect to call Qin Shi Huang "Prince Zheng", or alternatively by the common dynastic term "King Zheng of Qin". As a king, he was referred to as "King of Qin" only. Had he received a posthumous name after his death like his father, he would have been known by historians as "King NN. (posthumous name) of Qin".
After conquering the last independent Chinese state in 221 BCE, Qin Shi Huang was the king of a state of Qin ruling over the whole of China, an unprecedented accomplishment. Events By place Carthage The Carthaginian general Hasdrubal is murdered by a Celtic assassin while campaigning to increase Wishing to show that he was no longer a simple king like the kings of old during the Warring States Period, he created a new title, huangdi (皇帝), combining the word huang (皇) from the legendary Three Huang (Three August Ones) who ruled at the dawn of Chinese history, and the word di (帝) from the legendary Five Di (Five Sovereigns) who ruled immediately after the Three Huang. The Warring States Period ( also known as the Era of Warring States covers the period from some time in the 5th century BC to the unification of China by the The Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors ( were mythological rulers of China during the period from c The Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors ( were mythological rulers of China during the period from c These Three Huang and Five Di were considered perfect rulers, of immense power and very long lives. The word huang also meant "big", "great". The word di also referred to the Supreme God in Heaven, creator of the world. Thus, by joining these two words for the first time, Qin Shi Huang created a title on a par with his feat of uniting the seemingly endless Chinese realm, in fact uniting the world. Ancient Chinese, like ancient Romans, believed their empire encompassed the whole world, a concept referred to as all under heaven. All under heaven, or literally "heaven under" ( is a phrase in the Chinese language and a cultural concept in China.
This word huangdi is rendered in English as "emperor", a word which also has a long history dating back to ancient Rome (although "emperor" derived from imperator, which denoted the head of the military), and which English-speakers commonly deem to be superior to the word "king". An emperor (from the Latin " Imperator " is a (male Monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an Empire or another type of The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial An Anglophone (or anglophone) is someone who speaks the English language. Qin Shi Huang adopted the name First Emperor (Shi Huangdi, literally "commencing emperor"). He abolished posthumous names, by which former kings were known after their death, judging them inappropriate and contrary to filial piety, and decided that future generations would refer to him as the First Emperor (Shi Huangdi). In Confucian thought filial piety ( is one of the Virtues to be cultivated a love and respect for one's parents and ancestors His successor would be referred to as the Second Emperor (Er Shi Huangdi, literally "second generation emperor"), the successor of his successor as the Third Emperor (San Shi Huangdi, literally "third generation emperor"), and so on, for ten thousand generations, as the Imperial house was supposed to rule China for that long. ("Ten thousand" is equivalent to "forever" in Chinese, and also signifies "good fortune". The use of the phrase ten thousand years in various East Asian languages originated in ancient China as an expression used to wish long life to the Emperor and is )
Qin Shi Huang had now become the First Emperor of the State of Qin. The official name of the newly united China was still "State of Qin", as Qin had absorbed all the other states. The contemporaries called the emperor "First Emperor", dropping the phrase "of the State of Qin", which was obvious without saying. However, soon after the emperor's death, his regime collapsed, and China was beset by a civil war. A civil war is a War between a State and domestic political actors that are in control of some part of the territory claimed by the state Eventually, in 202 BCE the Han Dynasty managed to reunify the whole of China, which now became officially known as the State of Han (漢國), or Empire of Han. Events By place Carthage Accused of treason by the Carthaginians after being defeated by the Romans at the Battle of the The Han Dynasty ( 206 BC–220 AD followed the Qin Dynasty and preceded the Three Kingdoms in China. Qin Shi Huang could no longer be called "First Emperor", as this would imply that he was the "First Emperor of the Empire of Han". The custom thus arose of preceding his name with Qin (秦), which no longer referred to the State of Qin, but to the Qin Dynasty, a dynasty replaced by the Han Dynasty. Not to be confused with the Qing Dynasty, the last dynasty of China The word huangdi (emperor) in his name was also shortened to huang, so that he became known as Qin Shi Huang. It seems likely that huangdi was shortened to obtain a three-character name, because it is rare for Chinese people to have a name composed of four or more characters.
This name Qin Shi Huang (i. e. , "First Emperor of the Qin Dynasty") is the name that appears in the Records of the Grand Historian written by Sima Qian, and is the name most favored today inside China when referring to the First Emperor. The Records of the Grand Historian, also known in English by the Chinese name 史記 or Shiji, written from 109 BC to 91 BC Early life and education Sima Qian was born and grew up in Longmen, near present-day Hancheng Shaanxi. Westerners sometimes write "Qin Shi Huangdi", which is improper given Chinese naming conventions; it is more conventional to write "Qin Shi Huang" or "First Emperor of Qin".
At the time of the young Zheng's birth, China was divided into warring feudal states. Examples of feudalism are helpful to fully understand Feudalism and Feudal society. This period of Chinese history is referred to as the Warring States Period. The Warring States Period ( also known as the Era of Warring States covers the period from some time in the 5th century BC to the unification of China by the The competition was extremely fierce and by 260 BCE there were only a handful of states left (the others having been conquered and annexed), including Zheng's state, Qin, which was the most powerful. Events By place Roman Republic The Roman advance continues westward from Agrigentum with their forces relieving the besieged Qín or Ch'in ( Wade-Giles) (秦 ( 778 BC - 207 BC) was a State during the Spring and Autumn and Warring States Periods It was governed by a Legalist government and focused earnestly on military matters. In Chinese history, Legalism ( was one of the four main philosophic schools during the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period (the other Legalism taught that laws were obeyed out of fear not respect.
Zheng was born in Handan, the capital of the enemy State of Zhao, so he had the name Zhao Zheng. Handan ( is a Prefecture-level city located in the southwestern part of Hebei Province of China. Zhao ( Pinyin: zhào Traditional Chinese: 趙 Simplified Chinese: 赵 was a Chinese State during He was the son of Zichu (子楚), a prince of the royal house of Qin who served as a hostage in the State of Zhao under an agreement between the states of Qin and Zhao. King Zhuangxiang of Qin (秦庄襄王 personal name Zichu (子楚 was a ruler of the State of Qin, a part of what is now China, during the 3rd century Zichu later returned to Qin after many adventures and with the help of a rich merchant called Lü Buwei, and he managed to ascend the throne of Qin, Lü Buwei becoming chancellor (prime minister) of Qin. Lü Buwei ( 291?–235 BCE was a Warring States Period merchant who schemed his way into governing the State of Qin. Chancellor or chancellour (archaic ( Latin: cancellarius) is an official Title used in countries whose civilization has arisen This article is about the government position For other uses see Prime Minister (disambiguation. Zichu is known posthumously as King Zhuangxiang of Qin. King Zhuangxiang of Qin (秦庄襄王 personal name Zichu (子楚 was a ruler of the State of Qin, a part of what is now China, during the 3rd century According to a widespread story, Zheng was not the actual son of Zichu, but the son of the powerful chancellor Lü Buwei. This tale arose because Zheng's mother had originally been a concubine of Lü Buwei before he gave her to his good friend Zichu shortly before Zheng's birth. Concubinage is the state of a woman or youth in an ongoing quasi-matrimonial relationship with a man of higher social status However, the story is dubious since the Confucians would have found it much easier to denounce a ruler whose birth was illegitimate. Confucianism ( is a Chinese ethical and philosophical system originally developed from the teachings of the fifth century B
Zheng ascended the throne in 245 BCE at the age of 13, and was king under a regent until 238 BCE when, at the age of 21 and a half, he staged a palace coup and assumed full power. Events By place Egypt Babylon and Susa fall to the Egyptian armies of Ptolemy III. A regent, from the Latin regens "who reigns" is a person selected to act as Head of state (ruling or not because the ruler is a minor Events By place Carthage Hamilcar Barca strikes at the supply lines of the mercenary army besieging Carthage, forcing them to Contrary to the accepted rules of war of the time, he ordered the execution of prisoners of war. He continued the tradition of tenaciously attacking and defeating the feudal states (dodging a celebrated assassination attempt by Jing Ke while doing so) and finally took control of the whole of China in 221 BCE by defeating the last independent Chinese state, the State of Qi. Jing Ke ( was a guest residing in the estates of Dan crown prince of Yan and renowned for his failed Assassination of the Chinese emperor Qin Shi Huang Events By place Carthage The Carthaginian general Hasdrubal is murdered by a Celtic assassin while campaigning to increase Qi ( 齊; Pinyin: Qí was a powerful state during the Spring and Autumn Period and Period of the Warring States.
Then in that same year, at the age of 38, the king of Qin proclaimed himself First Emperor of the unified states of China, making him the most powerful man in China (see chapter above).
In an attempt to avoid a recurrence of the political chaos of the Warring States Period, Qin Shi Huang and his prime minister Li Si completely abolished feudalism. Lesser or Small Seal Script (小篆 Xiaozhuan or Hsiao-chuan is associated with the work on Chinese characters compiled by Li Si during Events By place Greece Together with fellow Illyrian Scerdilaidas, Demetrius of Pharos attacks Illyrian cities under The Warring States Period ( also known as the Era of Warring States covers the period from some time in the 5th century BC to the unification of China by the Li Si ( (ca 280 BC - September or October 208 BC was the influential Prime Minister (or Chancellor of the feudal state and later of the dynasty of Qin, between Feudalism, a term first used in the early modern period (17th century in its most classic sense refers to a Medieval Europe Political system composed They instead divided the empire into thirty-six commanderies. The commandery ( 郡 in Pinyin: jùn was a historical administrative level of China. Power in the commanderies was in the hands of governors dismissed at will by the central government. Civilian and military powers were also separated to avoid too much power falling in the hands of a single civil servant. Thus, each commandery was run by a civilian governor (守 shōu) assisted by a military governor (尉 wèi). A civilian under International humanitarian law is a person who is not a member of his or her Country 's Armed forces. A military is an Organization authorized by its Nation to use force usually including use of Weapons in defending its Country (or by attacking The civilian governor was superior to the military governor, a constant in Chinese history. The civilian governor was also reassigned to a different commandery every few years to prevent him from building up a base of power. An inspector (監 jiàn) was also in post in each commandery, in charge of informing the central government about the local implementation of central policies, reporting on the governors' exercise of power, and possibly resolving conflicts between the two governors. This is about the police rank/position For the use in graphical user interfaces see Inspector window.
This administrative system was only an extension to the whole empire of the system already in place in the State of Qin before the Chinese unification. Qín or Ch'in ( Wade-Giles) (秦 ( 778 BC - 207 BC) was a State during the Spring and Autumn and Warring States Periods In the State of Qin, feudalism had been abolished in the 4th century BCE, and the realm had been divided into commanderies, with centrally appointed governors. The 4th century BC started the first day of 400 BC and ended the last day of 301 BC.
Qin Shi Huang commanded all the members of the former royal houses of the conquered states to move to Xianyang, the capital of Qin, in modern day Shaanxi province, so they could be kept under tight surveillance for rebellious activities. This article is related to a city for the airport located in the city see Xi'an Xianyang International Airport Xianyang ( Sienyang Hsienyang ( Postal map spelling: Shensi) is a north-central province of the People's Republic of China, and includes portions of the Loess Surveillance is the monitoring of Behavior. Systems surveillance is the process of monitoring the behavior of people objects or processes within systems for conformity Qin Shi Huang also ordered most previously existing books burned, excepting some medical and agricultural texts held in the palace archives. Burning of the books and burial of the scholars ( is a phrase that refers to a policy and a sequence of events in the Qin Dynasty of China, between the period of
Qin Shi Huang and Li Si unified China economically by standardizing the Chinese units of measurements such as weights and measures, the currency, the length of the axles of carts (so every cart could run smoothly in the ruts of the new roads), the legal system, and so on. Chinese units of measurement ( are the customary and traditional units of measure used in the People's Republic of China. In the Physical sciences weight is a Measurement of the gravitational Force acting on an object A currency is a unit of exchange, facilitating the transfer of Goods and/or services It is one form of Money, where money is An axle is a central shaft for a rotating Wheel or Gear. In some cases the axle may be fixed in position with a bearing or Bushing "CARTS" redirects here For the transportation system see Capital Area Rural Transportation System, or Chautauqua CARTS. The three major legal systems of the world today consist of civil law, Common law and Religious law. The emperor also developed an extensive network of roads and canals connecting the provinces to improve trade between them and to accelerate military marches to revolting provinces. Trade is the willing exchange of goods, services, or both Trade is also called Commerce.
Perhaps most importantly, the Chinese script was unified. A Chinese character, also known as a Han character ( is a Logogram used in writing Chinese (hanzi Japanese ( Under Li Si, the seal script of the state of Qin, which had already evolved organically during the Eastern Zhou out of the Zhou dynasty script, was standardized through removal of variant forms within the Qin script itself. Seal script ( Chinese: Simplified 篆书 篆書 Pinyin: zhuànshū is an ancient style of Chinese calligraphy. The Zhou Dynasty ( POJ: Chiu Tiau 1122 BC to 256 BC was preceded by the Shang Dynasty and followed by the Qin Dynasty in China. The Zhou Dynasty ( POJ: Chiu Tiau 1122 BC to 256 BC was preceded by the Shang Dynasty and followed by the Qin Dynasty in China. This newly standardized script was then made official throughout all the conquered regions, thus doing away with all the regional scripts and becoming the official script for all of China. Contrary to popular belief, Li Si did not invent the script, nor was it completely new at the time. Edicts written in the new script were carved on the walls of sacred mountains around China, such as the famous carved edicts of Mount Taishan, to let Heaven know of the unification of Earth under an emperor, and also to propagate the new script among people. Mount Tai ( is a mountain of historical and cultural significance located north of the city of Tai'an, in Shandong Province, China. Heaven may refer to the physical heavens the sky or the seemingly endless expanse of the Universe beyond EARTH was a short-lived Japanese vocal trio which released 6 singles and 1 album between 2000 and 2001 However, the script was difficult to write, and an informal Qin script, variously termed vulgar or common writing, remained in use which was already evolving into an early form of clerical script. The clerical script ( pinyin lìshū; Japanese 隷書体 Reishotai; formerly also chancery script is an archaic style of Chinese calligraphy which
Shi Huang made the color black the official court color. Among the five primary elements, the color for water is black. He often claimed that to Qin belongs the virtue of water. This might be due to his "taming of the Yellow River", a process of building numerous massive dams and tributaries to the Yellow River. Such an enormous undertaking certainly would not have been possible without a unified China.
Qin Shi Huang continued military expansion during his reign, annexing regions to the south (what is now Guangdong province was penetrated by Chinese armies for the first time) and fighting nomadic tribes to the north and northwest. Guangdong ( EFEO: Kouangtong; Pinyin Guǎngdōng; Postal map spelling: Kwangtung) is a province on the Nomadic people, (from the νομάδες nomádes, "those who let pasture herds" also known as nomads, are communities of people that These tribes (the Xiongnu) were subdued, but the campaign was essentially inconclusive, and to prevent the Xiongnu from encroaching on the northern frontier any longer, the emperor ordered the construction of an immense defensive wall, linking several walls already existing since the time of the Warring States. The Xiongnu ( Turkish: Doğu Hun were a confederation of nomadic tribes from Central Asia with a ruling class of unknown origin and other subjugated tribes The Warring States Period ( also known as the Era of Warring States covers the period from some time in the 5th century BC to the unification of China by the
This wall, for whose construction hundreds of thousands of men were mobilized, and an unknown number died, is a precursor of the current Great Wall of China. The Great Wall of China ( or ( is a series of stone and earthen Fortifications in China, built rebuilt and maintained between the 6th century BC and the 16th It was built much further north than the current Great Wall, which was built during the Ming Dynasty, when China had at least twice as many inhabitants as in the days of the First Emperor, and when more than a century was devoted to building the wall (as opposed to a mere ten years during the rule of the First Emperor). The Ming Dynasty ( or Empire of the Great Ming ( was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644 following the collapse of the Mongol -led Very little survives today of the great wall built by the First Emperor.
By his order, 12 Jin Ren, 12 bronze colossi were made from the collected weapons after his unification of China.
Later in his life, Qin Shi Huang feared death and desperately sought the fabled elixir of life, visiting Zhifu Island several times to this end. The elixir of life, from Arabic الإكسير also known as the elixir of immortality or Dancing Water or Persian: Aab-e-Hayaat آب حیات Zhifu Island (芝罘島 Pinyin: Zhīfù dǎo Wade-Giles: Chih-fu tao or North Island (北島 Běi dǎo Pei tao is an Islet with historical significance He even sent a Zhifu islander Xu Fu with ships carrying hundreds of young men and women in search of Mount Penglai, where the Eight Immortals lived. Xu Fu ( Chinese: 徐福 or 徐 巿, not to be confused with another Chinese character 市, the pronunciation of which is Shi was born in 255 BC A ship /ʃɪp/ is a large vessel that floats on water Ships are generally distinguished from Boats based on size The Eight Immortals ( are a group of legendary xian ("immortals transcendents fairies" in Chinese mythology. These people never returned, as they knew that if they returned without the promised elixir, they would surely be executed. Legends claim that they settled down in one of the Japanese islands, a view that many Chinese and Japanese people are familiar with today. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics.
The emperor often took tours to major cities in his empire to inspect the efficiency of the bureaucracy and to symbolize the presence of Qin's prestige. Bureaucracy is the structure and set of regulations in place to control activity usually in large organizations and government Nevertheless, these trips provided opportunities for assassins, the most famous of whom was Zhang Liang. After his assassination had been attempted too often for comfort, he grew paranoid of remaining in one place too long and would hire servants to bear him to different buildings in his palace complex to sleep in each night. AssassiNation is the sixth album by Krisiun, released in 2006 on Century Media. He also hired several "doubles" to make it less clear which figure was the emperor.
The emperor died while on one of his tours to Eastern China, on September 10, 210 BCE (Julian Calendar) at the palace in Shaqiu prefecture, about two months away by road from the capital Xianyang. Events 506 - The Bishops of Visigothic Gaul meet in the Council of Agde. Events By place Roman Republic Following the death of his father Publius Cornelius Scipio, and his uncle Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio The Julian calendar, a reform of the Roman calendar, was introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 BC and came into force in 45 BC (709 Ab urbe condita For subsequent types of praefectura, see Prefect. Prefecture (from the Latin Praefectura) indicates the office Reportedly, he died of swallowing mercury pills, made by his court scientists and doctors, which contained too much of the liquid metal. Mercury (ˈmɜrkjʊri also called quicksilver or hydrargyrum, is a Chemical element with the symbol Hg ( Latinized hydrargyrum Ironically, these pills were meant to make Qin Shi Huang immortal. Immortality (or eternal life) is the concept of living in physical or spiritual form for an Infinite length of Time. The "theory," devised by alchemists, was that if mercury could even absorb gold, then if eaten, it would give that person its own powers, making him immortal. Mercury compounds were mixed with some food so as to make it edible.
Prime Minister Li Si, who accompanied him, was extremely worried that the news of his death could trigger a general uprising in the empire, given the brutal policies of the government, and the resentment of the population forced to work on Herculean projects such as the Great Wall in the north of China or the mausoleum of the emperor. A mausoleum ( plural: mausolea is an external free-standing building constructed as a monument enclosing the interment space or burial chamber of a deceased person or persons
It would take two months for the government to reach the capital, and it would not be possible to stop the uprising. Li Si decided to hide the death of the emperor, and return to Xianyang. Most of the imperial entourage accompanying the emperor was left uninformed of the emperor's death, and each day Li Si entered the wagon where the emperor was supposed to be traveling, pretending to discuss affairs of state.
The secretive nature of the emperor while alive allowed this stratagem to work, and it did not raise doubts among courtiers. A courtier is a person who attends the court of a Monarch or other powerful person. Li Si also ordered that two carts containing fish be carried immediately before and after the wagon of the emperor. The idea behind this was to prevent people from noticing the foul smell emanating from the wagon of the emperor, where his body was starting to decompose severely.
Eventually, after about two months, Li Si and the imperial court were back in Xianyang, where the news of the death of the emperor was announced.
Qin Shi Huang did not like to talk about death and he never really wrote a will. In Common law, a will or testament is a document by which a person (the Testator) regulates the rights of others over his or her Property After his death, Li Si and the chief eunuch Zhao Gao persuaded his eighteenth son Huhai to forge the Emperor's will. A eunuch (ˈjuːnək is a Castrated man in particular one castrated early enough to have major hormonal consequences the term usually refers to those castrated in order to Zhao Gao ( ?? &ndash 207 BC was the chief Eunuch during the Qin Dynasty of China, who played an instrumental role in the downfall of the Qin Dynasty Qin Er Shi (229 BC - beginning October 207 BC literally Second Emperor of Qin Dynasty, personal name Huhai, was emperor of the Qin Li Si was afraid that if Prince Fusu ascended the throne, it would endanger his position since Fusu was once exiled by the late emperor because of Li's thoughts. Fusu ( (died 210 BC was the first son of the First Emperor of China, Qin Shi Huang, and hence the Heir apparent. Fusu ( (died 210 BC was the first son of the First Emperor of China, Qin Shi Huang, and hence the Heir apparent.
They forced his first son Fusu to commit suicide which was actually very common because of this emperor's cruelness, stripped the command of troops from Meng Tian, a loyal supporter of Fusu, and killed his family. Fusu ( (died 210 BC was the first son of the First Emperor of China, Qin Shi Huang, and hence the Heir apparent. Meng Tian (蒙恬 ( ?-210 BC was a general of the Qin Dynasty who distinguished himself against the Xiongnu and in the construction of the Great Wall of China Huhai became the Second Emperor (Er Shi Huangdi), known by historians as Qin Er Shi. Qin Er Shi (229 BC - beginning October 207 BC literally Second Emperor of Qin Dynasty, personal name Huhai, was emperor of the Qin
Qin Er Shi was not nearly as capable as his father. Revolts against him quickly erupted. His reign was a time of extreme civil unrest, and everything the First Emperor had worked for crumbled away, within a short period. The imperial palace and state archives were burned: this has been disastrous for later historians, because after the burning of the books by his father, almost the only written records left were those in the palace archives. A palace is a grand residence especially the home of a Head of state or some other high-ranking Public figure. An archive refers to a collection of historical records and also refers to the location in which these records are kept
Within four years of Qin Shi Huang's death, his son was killed by Zhao Gao when the rebellious army approached the capital, and soon the Qin Dynasty crumbled to civil strife. Zhao Gao then appointed Fusu's son, Ziying, to be the next emperor. Ziying tricked Zhao Gao by refusing to attend his coronation, then stabbed the eunuch to death. But Liu Bang's army had approached the capital, and Ziying was forced to take an immediate decision of abdication, in order to avoid another ruthless rebel general, Xiang Yu, who was notorious for his brutality. Early life Liú Bāng was born into a lower class farming family in Pei (present Pei County in Jiangsu Province) Xiang Yu ( 232 BC – 202 BC was a prominent general during the fall of the Qin Dynasty. Liu Bang then founded the Han dynasty. Early life Liú Bāng was born into a lower class farming family in Pei (present Pei County in Jiangsu Province) The Han Dynasty ( 206 BC–220 AD followed the Qin Dynasty and preceded the Three Kingdoms in China.
Han Dynasty, rejected legalism (in favor of Confucianism) and moderated the laws, but kept Qin Shi Huang's basic political and economic reforms intact. The Han Dynasty ( 206 BC–220 AD followed the Qin Dynasty and preceded the Three Kingdoms in China. In Chinese history, Legalism ( was one of the four main philosophic schools during the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period (the other Confucianism ( is a Chinese ethical and philosophical system originally developed from the teachings of the fifth century B In this way his work was carried on through the centuries and became a lasting feature of Chinese society.
Qin Shi Huang was buried in his mausoleum, with the famous Terracotta Army, near modern day Xi'an (Shaanxi province). The Terracotta Army ( are the Terracotta Warriors and Horses of Qin Shi Huang the First Emperor of China. The Terracotta Army ( are the Terracotta Warriors and Horses of Qin Shi Huang the First Emperor of China. The Terracotta Army ( are the Terracotta Warriors and Horses of Qin Shi Huang the First Emperor of China. UserEl_C --> Xi'an ( Postal map spelling: Sian is the Capital of the Shaanxi province in the ( Postal map spelling: Shensi) is a north-central province of the People's Republic of China, and includes portions of the Loess
For 2000 years, a secret army of clay soldiers protected the hidden tomb of China's first emperor, Qin Shi Huang. Until 1974 none knew of its existence; now Chinese archaeologists are gradually unfolding the mystery.
The site measures some three miles across. The Chinese historian Sima Qian, writing a century after the First Emperor's death, wrote that it took 700,000 men to construct it. Early life and education Sima Qian was born and grew up in Longmen, near present-day Hancheng Shaanxi. The British historian John Man points out that this figure is larger than any city of the world at that time and calculates that the foundations could have been built by 16,000 men in two years.  Sima Qin's description of the tomb includes replicas of palaces and scenic towers, 'rare utensils and wonderful objects', 100 rivers made with mercury, representations of 'the heavenly bodies', and crossbows rigged to shoot anyone who tried to break in. 
Sima Qian never mentioned, however, the terracotta army - which was discovered by a team of well diggers. It is the detail of the terracotta armies that makes it so valuable. The soldiers were created with a series of mix-and-match clay molds and then further individualized by the artists' hand.
All the standing warriors were attached to clay plinths that rested on the tiled floor, which still resembles a modern pavement. Chinese archaeologists have been meticulous and patient in their work.
The main tomb (located at ) containing the emperor has yet to be opened and there is evidence suggesting that it remains relatively intact.
In traditional Chinese historiography, the First Emperor of the Chinese unified states was almost always portrayed as a brutal tyrant, superstitious (a result of his interest in immortality and assassination paranoia), and sometimes even as a mediocre ruler. Immortality (or eternal life) is the concept of living in physical or spiritual form for an Infinite length of Time. AssassiNation is the sixth album by Krisiun, released in 2006 on Century Media. Paranoia is a disturbed thought process characterized by excessive Anxiety or Fear, often to the point of Irrationality and Delusion.
Ideological prejudices against the Legalist State of Qin were established as early as 266 BCE, when Confucian philosopher Xun Zi disparaged it. In Chinese history, Legalism ( was one of the four main philosophic schools during the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period (the other Events By place Asia Minor Ariobarzanes becomes the second king of Pontus, succeeding his father Mithridates I Ctistes Xun Zi ( ca 300 – 230 BCE was a Chinese Confucian Philosopher who lived during the Warring States Period and contributed Later Confucian historians condemned the emperor who had burned the classics and buried Confucian scholars alive. They eventually compiled a list of the Ten Crimes of Qin to highlight his tyrannical actions. Confucian historians condemned the emperor Qin Shi Huang in the Ten Crimes of Qin, a list that was compiled to highlight his tyrannical actions
The famous Han poet and statesman Jia Yi concluded his essay The Faults of Qin (过秦论), with what was to become the standard Confucian judgment of the reasons for Qin's collapse. Jia Yi (賈誼 Pinyin: Jiǎ Yì Chia I, Wade-Giles; 201 BCE-169 BCE was a Chinese poet and statesman of the Han Dynasty. Jia Yi's essay, admired as a masterpiece of rhetoric and reasoning, was copied into two great Han histories and has had a far-reaching influence on Chinese political thought as a classic illustration of Confucian theory. Rhetoric has had many definitions no simple definition can do it justice Reasoning is the cognitive process of looking for Reasons for beliefs conclusions actions or feelings Politics Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions
He explained the ultimate weakness of Qin as a result of its ruler's ruthless pursuit of power, harsh laws and unbearable burdens placed on the population in projects such as the Great Wall - the precise factor which had made it so powerful; for as Confucius had taught, the strength of a government ultimately is based on the support of the people and virtuous conduct of the ruler. Political power ( Imperium in Latin is a type of power held by a group in a Society which allows administration of some or all of The Great Wall of China ( or ( is a series of stone and earthen Fortifications in China, built rebuilt and maintained between the 6th century BC and the 16th Confucius ( lit " Master Kung " September 28, 551 BC - 479 BC) was a Chinese thinker and social philosopher
Because of this systematic Confucian bias on the part of Han scholars, some of the stories recorded about Qin Shi Huang are doubtful and some may have been invented to emphasize his bad character. Some of the stories are plainly fictitious, designed to tarnish the First Emperor's image, e. g. the story of a stone fallen from the sky engraved with words denouncing the emperor and prophesying the collapse of his empire after his death. Prophecy, generally describes the disclosing of Information that is not known to the Prophet by any ordinary means
This makes it difficult to know the truth about other stories. For instance, the accusation that he had 460 scholars executed by having them buried with only their heads above ground and then decapitated seems unlikely to be completely true, but we have no way to know for certain.
Only in modern times were historians able to penetrate beyond the limitations of traditional Chinese historiography. The political rejection of the Confucian tradition as an impediment to China's entry into the modern world opened the way for changing perspectives to emerge.
In the three decades between the fall of the Qing Dynasty and the outbreak of the Second World War, with the deepening dissatisfaction with China's weakness and disunity, there emerged a new appreciation of the man who had unified China. Not to be confused with Qin Dynasty, the first dynasty of Imperial China World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including
In the time when he was writing, when Chinese territory was encroached upon by foreign nations, leading Kuomintang historian Xiao Yishan emphasized the role of Qin Shi Huang in repulsing the northern barbarians, particularly in the construction of the Great Wall.
Another historian, Ma Feibai (马非百), published in 1941 a full-length revisionist biography of the First Emperor entitled Qin Shi Huangdi Zhuan (《秦始皇帝传》), calling him "one of the great heroes of Chinese history". Year 1941 ( MCMXLI) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (the link will display 1941 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. For the denial and distortion of well-established historical facts see Historical revisionism (negationism.
Ma compared him with the contemporary leader Chiang Kai-shek and saw many parallels in the careers and policies of the two men, both of whom he admired. Chiang Kai-shek ( POJ: Chiúⁿ Kài-se̍k Jyutping: zoeng2gaai3sek6 GCB ( October 31, 1887 &ndash Chiang's Northern Expedition of the late 1920s, which directly preceded the new Nationalist government at Nanjing was compared to the unification brought about by Qin Shi Huang. The Northern Expedition ( was a military campaign led by the Kuomintang (KMT from 1926 to 1928. The 1920s is sometimes referred to as the " Jazz Age " or the " Roaring Twenties " when speaking about the United States and Canada ( Chinese: 南京 Romanizations Nánjīng ( Pinyin) Nan-ching ( Wade-Giles
With the coming of the Communist Revolution in 1949, new interpretations again surfaced. Year 1949 ( MCMXLIX) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The establishment of the new, revolutionary regime meant another re-evaluation of the First Emperor, this time following Marxist theory. Marxism is the political philosophy and practice derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.
The new interpretation given of Qin Shi Huang was generally a combination of traditional and modern views, but essentially critical. This is exemplified in the Complete History of China, which was compiled in September 1955 as an official survey of Chinese history. Year 1955 ( MCMLV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar)
The work described the First Emperor's major steps toward unification and standardisation as corresponding to the interests of the ruling group and the merchant class, not the nation or the people, and the subsequent fall of his dynasty a manifestation of the class struggle. Merchants function as professionals who deal with Trade, dealing in commodities that they do not produce themselves in order to produce Profit. Social class refers to the hierarchical distinctions (or stratification) between individuals or groups in Societies or Cultures. Class struggle is the active expression of Class conflict looked at from any kind of socialist perspective
The perennial debate about the fall of the Qin Dynasty was also explained in Marxist terms, the peasant rebellions being a revolt against oppression — a revolt which undermined the dynasty, but which was bound to fail because of a compromise with "landlord class elements". A peasant is an agricultural worker who subsists by working a small plot of ground Landlord is the owner of a House, Apartment, Condominium, or Real estate which is rented or Leased to an individual or business
Since 1972, however, a radically different official view of Qin Shi Huang has been given prominence throughout China. Year 1972 ( MCMLXXII) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The re-evaluation movement was launched by Hong Shidi's biography Qin Shi Huang. The work was published by the state press to be a mass popular history, and it sold 1. 85 million copies within two years.
In the new era, Qin Shi Huang was seen as a farsighted ruler who destroyed the forces of division and established the first unified, centralized state in Chinese history by rejecting the past. Personal attributes, such as his quest for immortality, so emphasized in traditional historiography, were scarcely mentioned.
The new evaluations described how, in his time (an era of great political and social change), he had no compunctions in using violent methods to crush counter-revolutionaries, such as the "industrial and commercial slave owner" chancellor Lü Buwei. A counter-revolutionary is anyone who opposes a Revolution, particularly those who act after a revolution to try to overturn or reverse it in full or in part Unfortunately, he was not as thorough as he should have been and after his death, hidden subversives, under the leadership of the chief eunuch Zhao Gao, seized power and used it to restore the old feudal order.
To round out this re-evaluation, a new interpretation of the precipitous collapse of the Qin Dynasty was put forward in an article entitled "On the Class Struggle During the Period Between Qin and Han" by Luo Siding, in a 1974 issue of Red Flag, to replace the old explanation. Year 1974 ( MCMLXXIV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. The new theory claimed that the cause of the fall of Qin lay in the lack of thoroughness of Qin Shi Huang's "dictatorship over the reactionaries, even to the extent of permitting them to worm their way into organs of political authority and usurp important posts. A dictatorship is usually defined as an autocratic Form of government in which the Government is ruled by a Dictator. "
Qin Shi Huang was ranked #17 in Michael H. Hart's list of the most influential figures in history. Michael H Hart (born April 28, 1932 in New York City) is an Astrophysicist who has also written three books on History and controversial The 100 A Ranking of the Most Influential Persons in History is a 1978 book by Michael H
Mao Zedong, chairman of the People's Republic of China, was reviled for his persecution of intellectuals. Mao Zedong ( 26 December 1893 – 9 September 1976) was a Chinese Military and political leader who led Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES Being compared to the First Emperor, Mao responded: "He buried 460 scholars alive; we have buried forty-six thousand scholars alive. . . You [intellectuals] revile us for being Qin Shi Huangs. You are wrong. We have surpassed Qin Shi Huang a hundredfold. "
Qin Shi Huang
|King of Qin|
246 BCE – 221 BCE
|Emperor of China|
221 BCE – 210 BCE
Qin Er Shi
|NAME||Qin Shi Huang|
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||First Emperor|
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||First emperor of a unified China|
|DATE OF BIRTH||November / December 260 BCE|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Handan, State of Zhao|
|DATE OF DEATH||September 10, 210 BCE|
|PLACE OF DEATH||Shaqiu prefecture, China|