|Spanish: Pirineos Catalan: Pirineus French: Pyrénées|
Occitan: Pirenèus Aragonese: Perinés Basque: Pirinioak
|Named for: Pyrene|
|Countries||Spain, France, Andorra|
|- elevation||3,404 m (11,168 ft)|
|Geology||granite, gneiss, limestone|
Topographic map (in French)
The Pyrenees (Spanish: Pirineos; French: Pyrénées; Catalan: Pirineus; Occitan: Pirenèus; Aragonese: Perinés; Basque: Pirinioak) are a range of mountains in southwest Europe that form a natural border between France and Spain. French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people Catalan ˈkætəˌlæn ( català kətəˈla or) is a Romance language, the national and official language of Andorra, and a co-official Occitan ( IPA BrE: /ˈɒksɪtn/ AmE: /ˈɑksəˌtɑn/ known also as Lenga d'òc or Langue d'oc (native name occitan Basque ( native name: euskara) is the Language spoken by the Basque people who inhabit the Pyrenees in North-Central Spain A mountain range is a chain of Mountains bordered by highlands or separated from other mountains by passes or valleys A natural border is a Border between States which is composed of natural formations such as Rivers Mountain ranges or Deserts Having This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. They separate the Iberian Peninsula from the rest of continental Europe, and extend for about 430 km (267 mi) from the Bay of Biscay (Cap Higuer) to the Mediterranean Sea (Cap de Creus). The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra Cantabrian Sea redirects here Not to be confused with Biscay Bay Newfoundland and Labrador or Biscayne Bay. Cap de Creus ( Cape of crosses in Catalan) is located at the far NE of Catalonia, some 25 km south from the French border
For the most part, the main crest forms a massive frontier, with the country Andorra sandwiched in between. Andorra, officially the Principality of Andorra ( Catalan: Principat d'Andorra) is a small Landlocked country in western Catalonia and the Basque Country are the only two territories extending on both sides of the mountain range, with a northern and a southern part on each side. The Principality of Catalonia ˈkætəˌloʊ̯nɪə (Principat de Catalunya Aranese: Principautat de Catalonha; Spanish: Principado de Cataluña
According to the Greek mythology, the Pyrenees are named after Pyrene (fire in Greek) who was the daughter of Bebryx and was raped by Herakles. Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the ancient Greeks concerning their gods and Heroes the nature of the world and the origins and significance In Greek mythology, four people were known as Cycnus or Cygnus. In Greek mythology, Heracles or Herakles ("glory of Hera " or Terrified at giving birth to a serpent, she fled to the mountains and was either buried or eaten by wild animals. Herodotus located this legend in his map of the Oikumene as early as 450 BC. Herodotus of Halicarnassus ( Greek: Hēródotos Halikarnāsseús) was a Greek Historian who lived in the 5th century BC ( 484 BC&ndash Ecumene (also spelled œcumene or oikoumene) a term originally used in the Greco-Roman world to refer to the inhabited earth (or at least the known
Politically, the Spanish Pyrenees are part of the following provinces, from east to west: Girona, Barcelona, Lleida, Huesca, Navarra, and Guipúzcoa. Political geography is the field of Human geography that is concerned with the study of both the spatially uneven outcomes of Political processes and the ways in which The Spanish Pyrenees is a large mountain range which is part of the following provinces, from east to west Girona, Barcelona, Lleida In addition to its autonomous communities, Spain is divided into fifty Provinces. Barcelona is a province of eastern Spain, in the center of the autonomous community of Catalonia. Lleida ( Spanish: Lérida) is a province of north-eastern Spain, in the western part of the autonomous community of Catalonia Huesca ( Spanish: Huesca, Aragonese: Uesca) is a province of northeastern Spain, in northern Aragon. Guipúzcoa ( Spanish) or Gipuzkoa ( Basque and official is a province of the Basque Country, in Spain.
The French Pyrenees are also part of the following départements, from east to west: Pyrénées-Orientales, Aude, Ariège, Haute-Garonne, Hautes-Pyrénées, and Pyrénées-Atlantiques (the latter two of which include Pyrenees National Park). The French Pyrenees is a large mountain range which is part of the following départements ' from east to west Pyrénées-Orientales, Aude, Ariège In the context of the political and geographic organization of France and many of its former colonies a department (département depaʁtǝmɑ̃ is an Administrative division Pyrénées-Orientales (Eastern Pyrenees Pirineus Orientals Pirenèus Orientals is a department of southern France adjacent to the northern Spanish frontier Aude ( Occitan: Aude) is a department in south-central France named after the Aude River. Ariège ( Occitan: Arièja) is a department in southwestern France named after the Ariège River. Haute-Garonne ( Occitan: Nauta Garona; English: Upper Garonne) is a department in the southwest of France named after the Hautes-Pyrénées ( Occitan: Nauts Pirenèus / Hauts Pirenèus) is a department in southwestern France. Pyrénées-Atlantiques ( Gascon: Pirenèus-Atlantics; Basque: Pirinio-Atlantiarrak or Pirinio-Atlantikoak) is a department
Physiograpically, the Pyrenees are typically divided into three sections: the Central, the Atlantic or Western, and the Eastern. Andorra, officially the Principality of Andorra ( Catalan: Principat d'Andorra) is a small Landlocked country in western The Spanish Pyrenees is a large mountain range which is part of the following provinces, from east to west Girona, Barcelona, Lleida The French Pyrenees is a large mountain range which is part of the following départements ' from east to west Pyrénées-Orientales, Aude, Ariège The National Aeronautics and Space Administration ( NASA, ˈnæsə is an agency of the United States government, responsible for the nation's public space program Physical geography (also known as geosystems or physiography) is one of the three major subfields of Geography. Together, they form a distinct physiographic province of the larger Alpine System division.
In the Atlantic Pyrenees the average elevation gradually decreases from east to west, until they merge with the Basque mountains near the Bay of Biscay. The Basque Mountains are a small Mountain range situated in the northern Iberian Peninsula. Cantabrian Sea redirects here Not to be confused with Biscay Bay Newfoundland and Labrador or Biscayne Bay. In the Eastern Pyrenees, with the exception of one break at the eastern extremity of the Pyrénées Ariégeoises, the mean elevation is maintained with remarkable uniformity until a sudden decline occurs in the portion of the chain known as the Albères.
The Pyrenees are older than the Alps: their sediments were first deposited in coastal basins during the Paleozoic and Mesozoic eras. Sediment is any particulate matter that can be transported by fluid flow and which eventually is deposited as a layer of solid particles on the bed or bottom of a body of The Paleozoic or Palaeozoic Era (from the Greek palaio (παλαιο "old" and zoe (ζωη "life" meaning "ancient life" The Mesozoic Era is one of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic eon. Between 100 and 150 million years ago, during the Lower Cretaceous period, the Bay of Biscay fanned out, pushing present-day Spain against France and putting large layers of sediment in a vise grip. The Cretaceous (kriːˈteɪʃəs, usually abbreviated 'K' for its German translation "Kreide" is a geologic period and system, reaching from the end of Seafloor spreading occurs at Mid-ocean ridges where new Oceanic crust is formed through volcanic activity and then gradually moves away from the ridge Sediment is any particulate matter that can be transported by fluid flow and which eventually is deposited as a layer of solid particles on the bed or bottom of a body of The intense pressure and uplifting of the Earth's crust first affected the eastern part and stretched progressively to the entire chain, culminating in the Eocene epoch. The Eocene epoch (558 ± 02 - 339 ± 01 Ma) is a major division of the Geologic timescale and the second epoch of the Palaeogene period in
The eastern part of the Pyrenees consists largely of granite and gneissose rocks, while in the western part the granite peaks are flanked by layers of limestone. Granite (ˈɡrænɪt is a common and widely occurring type of intrusive, Felsic, igneous rock. Gneiss (ˈnaɪs is a common and widely distributed type of rock formed by high-grade regional metamorphic processes from preexisting formations that were originally Limestone is a Sedimentary rock composed largely of the Mineral Calcite ( Calcium carbonate: CaCO3 The massive and unworn character of the chain comes from its abundance of granite, which is particularly resistant to erosion, as well as weak glacial development. Granite (ˈɡrænɪt is a common and widely occurring type of intrusive, Felsic, igneous rock. Erosion is the carrying away or displacement of solids ( Sediment, Soil, rock and other particles usually by the agents of currents such as wind "Glacial" and "Glaciation" redirect here For the geological periods see Glacial period.
Conspicuous features of Pyrenean scenery are:
The highest waterfall is that of Gavarnie (462 m or 1,515 ft), at the head of the Gave de Pau; the Cirque de Gavarnie, in the same valley, is perhaps the most famous example of the cirque formation. A waterfall is usually a geological formation resulting from water often in the form of a Stream, flowing over an Erosion -resistant rock The Gavarnie Falls, also known as Grande Cascade de Gavarnie, is a tiered Waterfall and ranks with its overall drop of 422 m as the tallest waterfall in France The Gave de Pau is a River of south-western France, left tributary of the Adour. The Cirque de Gavarnie is a famous example of a cirque in the central Pyrenees, in the Pyrenees National Park. Low passes are lacking; between the two ends of the range, where the principal roads and the railways run between France and Spain, there are only the Col de la Perche, between the valley of the Têt and the valley of the Segre, and the Col de Somport or Port de Canfranc, on the old Roman road from Saragossa to Oloron-Sainte-Marie. The Têt (Tet is the largest River in Roussillon, southwestern France. The Segre is a river tributary to the Ebro (Ebre in Catalan) with a basin comprising territories across three states France, Andorra Somport (known also as Aspe Pass, Canfranc Pass, Puerto del Somport, and Col du Somport) (el Canfranc is a municipality in the Aragón Valley of north-eastern Spain consisting of two towns The Roman Roads were essential for the growth of the Roman Empire, by enabling the Romans to move armies and trade goods and to communicate news Zaragoza, also called Saragossa in English, is the capital city of the Zaragoza province and of the autonomous community and former Oloron-Sainte-Marie is a commune of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques département in southwestern France.
A particularly notable feature is La Brèche de Roland, a gap in the ridge line, in tradition created by Roland. La Brèche de Roland (Aragonese Breca Roldán, Spanish Brecha de Rolando) is an impressive natural gap 40 m across and 100 m high at an altitude of 2804 m in Roland ( Italian: Orlando or Rolando, Frankish: Hruodland, Dutch: Roeland, Spanish: Roldán
The metallic ores of the Pyrenees are not in general of much importance, though there were considerable iron mines at Vie de Sos in Ariège and at the foot of Canigou in Pyrénées-Orientales. An ore is a volume of rock containing components or Minerals in a mode of occurrence that renders it valuable for mining Iron (ˈаɪɚn is a Chemical element with the symbol Fe (ferrum and Atomic number 26 Canigou ( Catalan Canigó) (el 2785 m/9137 ft is a Mountain located in the Pyrenees of southern France. Pyrénées-Orientales (Eastern Pyrenees Pirineus Orientals Pirenèus Orientals is a department of southern France adjacent to the northern Spanish frontier Coal deposits capable of being profitably worked are situated chiefly on the Spanish slopes but the French side has numerous beds of lignite. Lignite, often referred to as brown coal, or Rosebud coal by Northern Pacific Railroad, is a soft brown fuel with characteristics that put it somewhere The open pit of Trimoun (Ariège) is one of the greatest sources of talc in Europe.
Mineral springs are abundant and very remarkable, and especially noteworthy are the hot springs, in which the Alps, on the contrary, are very deficient. A spring is a point where Groundwater flows out of the ground and is thus where the Aquifer surface meets the ground surface A hot spring is a spring that is produced by the emergence of geothermally heated Groundwater from the earth's crust. The hot springs, among which those of Panticosa, Lles, Bagnères-de-Luchon and Eaux-Chaudes may be mentioned, are sulphurous and mostly situated high, near the contact of the granite with the stratified rocks. Panticosa is a municipality located in the province of Huesca, Aragon, Spain. Bagnères-de-Luchon, also referred to as Luchon, is a Spa town and a commune in the Haute-Garonne department in southwestern Laruns is a Village and commune in the Pyrenees mountains of south-western France. Sulfur or sulphur (ˈsʌlfɚ see spelling below) is the Chemical element that has the Atomic number 16 The lower springs, such as those of Bagnères-de-Bigorre (Hautes-Pyrénées), Rennes-les-Bains (Aude) and Campagne (Aude), are mostly selenitic and not very warm. Bagnères-de-Bigorre is a commune of southwestern France, in the Hautes-Pyrénées département, of which it is a sous-préfecture Hautes-Pyrénées ( Occitan: Nauts Pirenèus / Hauts Pirenèus) is a department in southwestern France. Rennes-les-Bains is a commune in the Aude department in southern France. Aude ( Occitan: Aude) is a department in south-central France named after the Aude River. Campagne is French for " Rural area " and " Campaign "
The amount of the precipitation, including rain and snow, is much greater in the western than in the eastern Pyrenees, which leads to a marked contrast between these sections of the chain in more than one respect. In Meteorology, precipitation (also known as one class of hydrometeors, which are atmospheric water phenomena is any product of the condensation of atmospheric Rain is Liquid precipitation. On Earth it is the condensation of atmospheric Water vapor into drops heavy enough to fall often making it to "Snowfall" redirects here For other uses see Snow (disambiguation or Snowfall (disambiguation. In the first place, the eastern Pyrenees are without glaciers, the quantity of snow falling there being insufficient to lead to their development. "Glacial" and "Glaciation" redirect here For the geological periods see Glacial period. The glaciers are confined to the northern slopes of the central Pyrenees, and do not descend, like those of the Alps, far down in the valleys, but have their greatest length in the direction of the mountain chain. They form, in fact, a narrow zone near the crest of the highest mountains. Here, as in the other great mountain ranges of central Europe, there are evidences of a much wider extension of the glaciers during the Ice age. An ice age is a period of long-term reduction in the Temperature of the Earth 's surface and atmosphere resulting in an expansion of continental Ice sheets The case of the glacier in the valley of Argelbs in the département of Hautes-Pyrénées is the best-known instance. The snow-line varies in different parts of the Pyrenees from 2,700 to 2,800 meters above sea-level.
A still more marked effect of the preponderance of rainfall in the western half of the chain is seen in the vegetation. The lower mountains in the extreme west are wooded, but the extent of forest declines eastwards, and the eastern Pyrenees are peculiarly wild and barren, all the more since it is in this part of the chain that granitic masses prevail. There is a change, moreover, in the composition of the flora in passing from west to east. In the west the flora resembles that of central Europe, while in the east it is distinctly Mediterranean in character, though the difference of latitude is only about 1°, on both sides of the chain from the centre whence the Corbières stretch north-eastwards towards the central plateau of France. The Corbières are a mountain region in the Languedoc-Roussillon in soutwestern France. The Pyrenees are relatively as rich in endemic species as the Alps, and among the most remarkable instances of that endemism is the occurrence of the monotypic genus Xatardia (family Apiaceae), only on a high alpine pass between the Val d'Eynes and Catalonia. Endemism is the Ecological state of being unique to a place Endemic species are not naturally found elsewhere Catalonia (Cataluña Catalunya Aranese: Catalonha) is an Autonomous Community in the northeast part of Spain. The genus most abundantly represented in the range is that of the saxifrages, several species of which are endemic here. See HMS Saxifrage for ship names For the fictional character see Sax Russell.
In their fauna also the Pyrenees present some striking instances of endemism. Fauna is all of the Animal life of any particular region or time Endemism is the Ecological state of being unique to a place Endemic species are not naturally found elsewhere The Pyrenean Desman is found only in some of the streams of the northern slopes of these mountains, the only other member of this genus being confined to the rivers of the Caucasus in southern Russia. The Pyrenean Desman ( Galemys pyrenaicus) is a small Semi-aquatic mammal that lives in the Pyrenees to the Iberian peninsula. The Caucasus ( also referred to as North Caucasus) is a geopolitical region located between Europe Asia & Middle East Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending The Pyrenean euprocte (Euproctus pyrenaicus), an endemic relative of the salamander, also lives in streams and lakes located at high altitudes. Salamander (orig from Persian: sām, "fire" and andarūn, "within" is the common name for a group of approximately 500 Species Among the other peculiarities of the Pyrenean fauna are blind insects in the caverns of Ariège, the principal genera of which are Anophthalmus and Adelops. A cave is a natural underground void large enough for a human to enter The Pyrenean Ibex mysteriously became extinct in January of 2000; the native Pyrenean Brown Bear was hunted to near-extinction in the 1990s but was re-introduced in 1996 when 3 bears were brought from Slovenia. The Pyrenean Ibex ( Capra pyrenaica pyrenaica) is an Ibex, one of the two extinct Subspecies of Spanish Ibex. The Brown Bear ( Ursus arctos) is an Omnivorous Mammal of the family Ursidae, distributed across much of northern Eurasia and The population has bred successfully and there are now believed to be about 15 brown bears in the central region around Fos, only 4 native ones are still living in Aspe valley.
Principal nature reserves and national parks:
The ethnology, folklore, institutions and history of the Pyrenean region form an interesting study: see Andorra; Aragon; Ariege; Basque Country; Béarn; Catalonia; Navarre; Roussillon. Aigüestortes i Estany de Sant Maurici National Park ( Parc Nacional d'Aigüestortes i Estany de Sant Maurici) is the only National park in Catalonia Ordesa y Monte Perdido National Park (see also Parque nacional de Ordesa y Monte Perdido is an IUCN Category II National Park situated in the Pyrenees History The concept of folklore developed as part of the 19th century ideology of Romantic nationalism, leading to the reshaping of oral traditions to serve modern ideological Andorra, officially the Principality of Andorra ( Catalan: Principat d'Andorra) is a small Landlocked country in western Aragon ( Spanish: "Aragón") is an autonomous community of Spain. Ariège ( Occitan: Arièja) is a department in southwestern France named after the Ariège River. This article is about the former French province for the warship see French aircraft carrier Béarn Béarn ( Gascon: Bearn Catalonia (Cataluña Catalunya Aranese: Catalonha) is an Autonomous Community in the northeast part of Spain. Roussillon ( French: Roussillon, ʀusiˈjɔ̃ Catalan: Rosselló, pronounced; Spanish: Rosellón, pronounced) is For their history, see also Almogavars, Marca Hispanica. The Almogavars ( Aragonese: Almogabars, Catalan: Almogàvers, Spanish: Almogávares, from Arabic: Al-Mugavari The Marca Hispanica (or Spanish March, also March of Barcelona) was a Buffer zone beyond the province of Septimania, created by Charlemagne
Languages spoken in the area are, notably, Spanish, French and Catalan (in Catalonia and Andorra). French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people Catalan ˈkætəˌlæn ( català kətəˈla or) is a Romance language, the national and official language of Andorra, and a co-official Catalonia (Cataluña Catalunya Aranese: Catalonha) is an Autonomous Community in the northeast part of Spain. Also spoken, in a minor extent, are Occitan (Gascon and Languedocien dialects in France and Aranese dialect in Val d'Aran), Aragonese and Basque. Occitan ( IPA BrE: /ˈɒksɪtn/ AmE: /ˈɑksəˌtɑn/ known also as Lenga d'òc or Langue d'oc (native name occitan Gascon (Gascon; French,) is a dialect of the Occitan language. Languedocien (French name or Lengadocian (native name is an Occitan dialect spoken by some people in the part of southern France known as Languedoc Aranese (aranés is a standardized form of the Pyrenean Gascon variety of the Occitan language spoken in the Aran Valley, in northwestern Catalonia The Aran Valley (Era Val d'Aran la Vall d'Aran El Valle de Arán is a small valley (620 Basque ( native name: euskara) is the Language spoken by the Basque people who inhabit the Pyrenees in North-Central Spain
Both sides of the Pyrenees are popular spots for winter sports such as alpine skiing and mountaineering. Alpine skiing (or downhill skiing) is a recreational activity and Sport involving sliding down Snow -covered hills with long Skis attached “Alpinist” redirects here See also Alpinist (magazine Mountaineering is the Sport, Hobby or Profession of
Pyrena is a mushing competition held in the Pyrenees. Pyrena or pyrene is the name for a Nutlet resembling a Seed, or the kernel of a Drupe or Drupelet. Mushing also means playing on a MUSH. Mushing also can be used to describe the kneading behavior of domestic cats
In the summer and autumn, the Pyrenees are featured in two of cycling's grand tours, the Tour de France held annually in July and La Vuelta a España held in September. History See also:CategoryTour de France by year The dominant sports newspaper in France The Vuelta a España ( English: Tour of Spain) is a three-week Road bicycle racing Stage race that is one of the three " Grand Tours The stages held in the Pyrenees are often the defining moments of both tours, drawing hundreds of thousands of spectators to the region.
Three main long-distance footpaths run the length of the mountain range; the GR10 across the northern slopes, the GR11 across the southern slopes, and the HRP which traverses peaks and ridges along a high altitude route. Long-distance trails (or long-distance tracks paths footpaths or Greenways are the longer recreational right-of-way routes mainly through rural areas used for non-motorised The GR 10 is a French GR footpath or hiking trail that makes it possible to walk from one end of the Pyrenees Mountains to the other The GR 11 is part of the extensive GR footpath network of paths tracks and trails The Haute Randonnée Pyrénéenne (HRP is a Long-distance footpath in the Pyrenees. In addition, there are countless marked and unmarked trails throughout the region.
Ski resorts in the Pyrenees include
This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain. The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911 is a 29-volume reference work that marked the beginning of the Encyclopædia Britannica The public domain is a range of abstract materials &ndash commonly referred to as Intellectual property &ndash which are not owned or controlled by anyone