The Punics, (from Latin pūnicus meaning Phoenician) were a group of Western Semitic speaking peoples originating from Carthage in North Africa who traced their origins to a group of Phoenician and Cypriot settlers, but also to North African Berbers. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Phoenicia ( Phoenician: Phoenician nunsvg|12px|נ]]Phoenician nun In Linguistics and Ethnology, Semitic (from the Biblical " Shem " Hebrew שם translated as "name" Arabic: ساميّ Carthage (Καρχηδών Karkhēdōn, Carthago from the Phoenician קרת חדשת phn-Latn Qart-ḥadašt meaning new town) refers Phoenicia ( Phoenician: Phoenician nunsvg|12px|נ]]Phoenician nun Punics were probably a biological and cultural mix of Berbers and Phoenicians. Contrary to other Phoenicians, Punics had a landowning aristocracy who established a rule of the hinterland in Northern Africa and trans-Sahara traderoutes. Trans-Saharan trade is trade across the Sahara between Mediterranean countries and West Africa. In later times one of these clans conquered a Hellenistic inspired empire in Iberia, possibly having a foothold in Western Gaul. Greece (Ελλάδα transliterated: Elláda, historically, Ellás,) officially the Hellenic Republic (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra Gaul (Gallia was the Roman name for the region of Western Europe comprising present day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Like other Phoenician people their urbanized culture and economy was strongly linked to the sea. Overseas they established control over coastal regions of the Maghreb, Tripolitania, Sardinia, Corsica, Sicily, the Baleares, Malta, other small islands of the Western Mediterranean and possibly along the Atlantic coast of Iberia, although this is disputed. The Maghreb (المغرب العربي al-Maġrib al-ʿArabī) also rendered Maghrib (or rarely Moghreb) meaning "place of Sunset Tripolitaniajpg|thumb|250px|Tripolitania]] Tripolitania or Tripolitana ( Arabic: طرابلس, Transliterated: Tarābulus) is a historic Sardinia (sɑrˈdɪnɪə Sardegna Sardigna or Sardinnya is the second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea (after Sicily) Corsica (Corse Corsican and Italian: Corsica) is the fourth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea (after Sicily Sicily ( Italian and Sicilian: Sicilia) is an autonomous region of Italy. The Balearic Islands ( Catalan and official Illes Balears; Spanish: Islas Baleares) are an Archipelago in the western Mediterranean Malta, officially the Republic of Malta (Repubblika ta' Malta is a European Microstate, comprising an Archipelago of three islands In the Baleares, Sardinia, Corsica and Sicily they had strong economic and political ties to the independent natives in the hinterland. Their naval presence and trade extended throughout the Mediterranean to the British Islands, the Canaries, and West Africa. The term British Islands is used in the law of the United Kingdom to refer collectively to the following four states the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern The Canary Islands ( English pronunciation kəˈnæriː ˈaɪləndz Spanish: Islas Canarias, ˈizlas kaˈnarjas are a Spanish West Africa or Western Africa is the Westernmost Region of the African Continent. Famous technical achievements of the Punic people of Carthage are the development of uncolored glass and the use of lacustrine limestone to improve the purity of molten iron.
Most of the Punic culture was destroyed as a result of the Punic Wars between Rome and Carthage, while traces of language, religion and technology could still be found in Africa during the early Christianisation. The Punic Wars were a series of three wars fought between Rome and Carthage between 264 and 146 BC and were probably the largest wars yet of the ancient Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 After the Punic Wars, Romans used the term Punic as an adjective meaning treacherous. The Punic Wars were a series of three wars fought between Rome and Carthage between 264 and 146 BC and were probably the largest wars yet of the ancient
In archaeological and linguistic usage Punic refers to a Hellenistic and later era culture and dialect from Carthage that had developed into a distinct form from the Phoenician of the mother city of Tyre. Carthage (Καρχηδών Karkhēdōn, Carthago from the Phoenician קרת חדשת phn-Latn Qart-ḥadašt meaning new town) refers Phoenicia ( Phoenician: Phoenician nunsvg|12px|נ]]Phoenician nun Tyre ( Arabic صور Ṣūr, Phoenician Phoenician wawsvg|12px|ו]] Ṣur, Hebrew Phoenicians also settled in Northwest Africa (the Maghreb) and other areas under Carthaginian rule and their culture and political organisation were a distinct form. The Maghreb (المغرب العربي al-Maġrib al-ʿArabī) also rendered Maghrib (or rarely Moghreb) meaning "place of Sunset Remains of the Punic culture can be found in settlements from the Iberian Peninsula in the West to Cyprus in the East. The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra Cyprus (Κύπρος transliterated: Kýpros,; Kıbrıs officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία Kypriakī́ Dīmokratía
The Punics based their religion from their Phoenician forefathers, who worshiped Baal Hammon and Melqart, but merged Phoenician ideas with African deities and some Greek and Egyptian, such as Apollo, Tanit, and Dionysis, with Baal Hammon being clearly the most important Punic deity. Ba'al (pronounced; Hebrew בעל (ordinarily spelled Baal in English is a Northwest Semitic title and honorific meaning "master" or "lord" Melqart, properly Phoenician Milk-Qart "King of the City" less accurately Melkart, Melkarth Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the ancient Greeks concerning their gods and Heroes the nature of the world and the origins and significance Ancient Egyptian religion encompasses the various religious beliefs and rituals practiced in Ancient Egypt from the predynastic period until the adoption of Christianity Tanit was a Phoenician lunar Goddess, worshiped as the Patron goddess at Carthage where from the fifth century BCE onwards her name is associated In Classical mythology, Dionysus or Dionysos (in Greek, Διόνυσος or Διώνυσος; associated with Roman  Punic culture became a melting pot, since Carthage was a major hub of trade in the known world, but they retained some of their old cultural identities and practices, such as child sacrifice. Children were sacrificed for religious purposes.  One of Hannibal Barca's brothers may have been a sacrifice because Hamilcar Barca, his father, had fathered four children but we only have three names: Hannibal Barca; Hasdrubal Barca; and Mago Barca. Hamilcar Barca or Barcas (ca 275 &ndash 228 BC was a Carthaginian general and statesman leader of the Barcid family and father of Hannibal Hannibal (Pronounced in Phoenician: Hanniba'al means " Ba'al is my grace " or " Ba'al has given me grace " 247 BC &ndash Hasdrubal son of Hamilcar Barca, (d 207 BC short form Hasdrubal) was Hamilcar's second son and a Carthaginian general in the Second Punic War Mago son of Hamilcar Barca, (also spelled Magon; 243 BC - 203 BC short form Mago) was a member of the Barcid family and played an important So, it is a possibility - not an unusual one either - since many cultures of the time made human sacrifices, such as the Greeks, Gauls, and Romans, although more often used animals.
The Punics carried out significant sea explorations in Africa and elsewhere from their base in Carthage. In the fifth century BC Hanno the Navigator played a significant role in exploring coastal areas of present day Morocco and other parts of the African coast, specifically noting details of indigenous peoples such as at Mogador. Hanno the Navigator was a Carthaginian explorer who flourished c Essaouira (الصويرة eṣ-ṣauīrah formerly known as Mogador, its older name is a City / Wilaya and tourist resort in the western Moroccan  Punics pushed westerly into the Atlantic and established important settlements in Lixus, Volubilis, Chellah and Mogador, among other locations. Volubilis (وليلي Walili) is an archaeological site in Morocco situated near Meknes between Fez and Rabat along the Chellah, or Chella, (شالة is a Necropolis and complex of ancient and Medieval Ruins that lie on the outskirts of Rabat,
Being trade rivals with Magna Grecia, the Punics had several clashes with the Greeks over the island of Sicily in the Sicilian Wars. Sicily ( Italian and Sicilian: Sicilia) is an autonomous region of Italy. The Sicilian Wars were a series of conflicts fought between Carthage and the Greek city-states of Magna Grecia, headed by Syracuse, over They eventually fought Rome in the Punic Wars, but lost due to being outnumbered, lack of full governmental involvement, and reliance on their navy as the power of their military. Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 The Punic Wars were a series of three wars fought between Rome and Carthage between 264 and 146 BC and were probably the largest wars yet of the ancient This enabled a Roman settlement of Africa and eventual domination of the Mediterranean Sea. Cato the Elder famously ended his speeches with the imperative that Carthage should be utterly crushed, a view summarised in Latin by the phrase Praeterea censeo Carthaginem esse delendam, meaning simply, "Moreover, I declare, Carthage must be destroyed!". Marcus Porcius Cato ( Latin: M·PORCIVS·M·F·CATO (234 BC Tusculum &ndash149 BC was a Roman statesman surnamed the Censor They were eventually incorporated into the Roman Republic in 146 BCE with the destruction of Carthage, but Cato never got to see his victory because he died in 149 BC.
The annexation of Carthage wasn't the end of the Punics. Although the area was partially romanized and the some of the population adopted the Roman religion (while fusing it with aspects of their beliefs and customs), the language and the ethnicity persisted for some time. People of Punic origin prospered again as traders, merchants, and even politicians of the Roman Empire. The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial Carthage was rebuilt about 46 BCE by Julius Caesar, which was considered a bad gesture by some because the ruins of Carthage were cursed and so would be anyone who built on its site (Caesar ironically died 19 months later). However, Carthage again prospered and even became the number two trading city in the Roman Empire, until Constantinople took over that position. Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis, or gr ἡ Πόλις hē Polis, Latin: la CONSTANTINOPOLIS As Christianity spread across the Roman Empire, it was especially successful in Northern Africa; moreover, Carthage became a major Christian city even before Christianity was legal. Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings North Africa or Northern Africa is the Northernmost Region of the African Continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan It is possible that Saint Augustine himself was Punic, as he was aware of Punic words. One of his more well known passages reads: "It is an excellent thing that the Punic Christians call Baptism itself nothing else but salvation, and the Sacrament of Christ's Body nothing else but life. In Christianity, baptism ( Greek, "immersing" "performing Ablutions " is the ritual act with the use of water by which one is admitted " ("Forgiveness and the Just Deserts of Sins, and the Baptism of Infants", 1. 24. 34, AD 412)
The last remains of a distinct Punic culture probably disappeared somewhere in the chaos during the Fall of Rome. The Decline of the Roman Empire, leading to the Fall of the Roman Empire, or the Fall of Rome, was the end of the Western Roman Empire. The demographic and cultural characteristics of the region were thoroughly transformed by turbulent events such as the Vandals' wars with Byzantines, the forced population movements that followed and, finally, the Arabic conquest in the 7th century. Arabic (ar الْعَرَبيّة (informally ar عَرَبيْ) in terms of the number of speakers is the largest living member of the Semitic language
B. H. Warmington, Carthage (2d ed. 1969) T. A. Dorey and D. R. Dudley, Rome against Carthage (1971) N. Davis, Carthage and Her Remains (1985).