Publishing is the process of production and dissemination of literature or information – the activity of making information available for public view. Literature is the Art of written works Literally translated the word means "acquaintance with letters" (from Latin littera letter Information as a concept has a diversity of meanings from everyday usage to technical settings In some cases authors may be their own publishers, meaning; originators and developers of content also provide media to deliver and display the content. In media production and publishing content is Information and experiences that may provide value for an End-user / Audience. In Communication, media (Singular Medium) are the storage and transmission tools used to store and deliver Information
Traditionally, the term refers to the distribution of printed works such as books (the "book trade") and newspapers. A Book is a set or collection of written printed illustrated or blank sheets made of Paper, Parchment, or other material usually fastened together A newspaper is a written Publication containing News, information and Advertising, usually printed on low-cost paper called Newsprint. With the advent of digital information systems and the Internet, the scope of publishing has expanded to include electronic resources, such as the electronic versions of books and periodicals, as well as websites, blogs, games and the like. The Internet is a global system of interconnected Computer networks A website (alternatively web site or Web site, a back-construction from the Proper noun World Wide Web) is a collection of Web pages A blog (a contraction of the term " Web log " is a Web site, usually maintained by an individual with regular entries of commentary descriptions of A game is a structured activity, usually undertaken for Enjoyment and sometimes also used as an Educational tool
Publishing includes the stages of the development, acquisition, copyediting, graphic design, production – printing (and its electronic equivalents), and marketing and distribution of newspapers, magazines, books, literary works, musical works, software and other works dealing with information, including the electronic media. Printing is a process for reproducing text and image typically with ink on Paper using a printing press Electronic publishing includes the digital publication of E-books and Electronic articles and the development of digital libraries and catalogues In popular usage "marketing" is the promotion of products especially Advertising and Branding However in professional usage the term has a wider meaning of Distribution (or place) is one of the four elements of Marketing mix. Literature is the Art of written works Literally translated the word means "acquaintance with letters" (from Latin littera letter Musical composition is an original piece of Music the structure of a musical piece the process of creating a new Electronic media are media that utilize Electronics or Electromechanical energy for the End user ( Audience) to access the content
Publication is also important as a legal concept: (1) as the process of giving formal notice to the world of a significant intention, for example, to marry or enter bankruptcy; (2) as the essential precondition of being able to claim defamation; that is, the alleged libel must have been published, and (3) for copyright purposes, where there is a difference in the protection of published and unpublished works. Law is a system of rules enforced through a set of Institutions used as an instrument to underpin civil obedience politics economics and society Copyright is a legal concept enacted by Governments, giving the creator of an original work of authorship Exclusive rights to control its distribution usually for
Book and magazine publishers spend a lot of their time buying or commissioning copy. At a small press, it is possible to survive by relying entirely on commissioned material. But as activity increases, the need for works may outstrip the publisher's established circle of writers.
Writers often first submit a query letter or proposal. The majority of unsolicited submissions come from previously unpublished authors. When such manuscripts are unsolicited, they must go through the slush pile, in which acquisitions editors sift through to identify manuscripts of sufficient quality or revenue potential to be referred to the editorial staff. In Publishing, the slush pile is the set of unsolicited Manuscripts either sent directly to the publisher by authors or sent through an agent not known Established authors are often represented by a literary agent to market their work to publishers and negotiate contracts. A literary agent is an agent who represents Writers and their written works to Publishers Theatrical producers and Film producers and
Once a work is accepted, commissioning editors negotiate the purchase of intellectual property rights and agree on royalty rates. Intellectual property ( IP) is a legal field that refers to creations of the mind such as musical literary and artistic works inventions and symbols names Royalties (sometimes running royalties) are usage-based payments made by one party (the "licensee" to another (the "licensor" for ongoing use of an
The authors of traditional printed materials sell exclusive territorial intellectual property rights that match the list of countries in which distribution is proposed (i. In Political geography and International politics, a country is a Political division of a geographical entity e. the rights match the legal systems under which copyright protections can be enforced). In the case of books, the publisher and writer must also agree on the intended formats of publication -— mass-market paperback, "trade" paperback and hardback are the most common options.
The situation is slightly more complex if electronic formatting is to be used. Where distribution is to be by CD-ROM or other physical media, there is no reason to treat this form differently from a paper format, and a national copyright is an acceptable approach. CD-ROM (an initialism of "Compact Disc Read-Only Memory " is a pre-pressed Compact Disc that contains data accessible to but not writable But the possibility of Internet download without the ability to restrict physical distribution within national boundaries presents legal problems that are usually solved by selling language or translation rights rather than national rights. Thus, Internet access across the European Union is relatively open because of the laws forbidding discrimination based on nationality, but the fact of publication in, say, France, limits the target market to those who read French. The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in
Having agreed on the scope of the publication and the formats, the parties in a book agreement must then agree on royalty rates, the percentage of the gross retail price that will be paid to the author, and the advance payment. Royalties (sometimes running royalties) are usage-based payments made by one party (the "licensee" to another (the "licensor" for ongoing use of an An advance payment, or simply an advance, is the part of a contractually due sum that is paid in advance while the balance will only follow after receipt on the counterpart This is difficult because the publisher must estimate the potential sales in each market and balance projected revenue against production costs. Royalties usually range between 10-12% of recommended retail price. An advance is usually 1/3 of first print run total royalties. For example, if a book has a print run of 5000 copies and will be sold at $14. 95 and the author receives 10% royalties, the total sum payable to the author if all copies are sold is $7475 (10% x $14. 95 x 5000). The advance in this instance would roughly be $2490. Advances vary greatly between books, with established authors commanding large advances.
Once the immediate commercial decisions are taken and the technical legal issues resolved, the author may be asked to improve the quality of the work through rewriting or smaller changes, and the staff will edit the work. Editing Language, Images or Sound through correction condensation organization and other modifications in various media Publishers may maintain a house style, and staff will copy edit to ensure that the work matches the style and grammatical requirements of each market. A style guide or style manual is a set of standards for design and writing of documents either for general use or for a specific publication or organization Copy editing (also copy-editing and copyediting) is the editorial work that an editor does to make Formatting changes and improvements to a manuscript Editing may also involve structural changes and requests for more information. Some publishers employ fact checkers. A fact checker is the person who checks factual assertions in Non-fictional text usually intended for publication in a periodical, to determine their veracity
When a final text is agreed upon, the next phase is design. Design is used both as a Noun and a Verb. The term is often tied to the various Applied arts and Engineering (See design disciplines This may include artwork being commissioned or confirmation of layout. The visual arts are art forms that focus on the creation of works which are primarily Visual in nature such as Painting, Photography In publishing, the word "art" also indicates photographs. This process prepares the work for printing through processes such as typesetting, dust jacket composition, specification of paper quality, binding method and casing, and proofreading. Printing is a process for reproducing text and image typically with ink on Paper using a printing press Typesetting involves the presentation of textual material in graphic form on Paper or some other medium. Proofreading traditionally means reading a proof copy of a text in order to detect and correct any errors
The activities of typesetting, page layout, the production of negatives, plates from the negatives and, for hardbacks, the preparation of brasses for the spine legend and imprint are now all computerized. In the Publishing Industry, an imprint can refer to two different things It can mean a Brand name under which a work is published Prepress computerization evolved mainly in about the last twenty years of the 20th century. If the work is to be distributed electronically, the final files are saved as formats appropriate to the target operating systems of the hardware used for reading. These may include PDF files.
The publisher usually controls the advertising and other marketing tasks, but may subcontract various aspects of the process described above. Advertising is a form of Communication that typically attempts to persuade potential Customers to Purchase or to consume more of a particular Brand In popular usage "marketing" is the promotion of products especially Advertising and Branding However in professional usage the term has a wider meaning of A subcontractor is an individual or in many cases a Business that signs a Contract to perform part or all of the obligations of another's contract In smaller companies, editing, proofreading and layout might be done by freelancers. A freelancer, freelance worker, or freelance is a person who pursues a profession without a long-term commitment to any one employer
Dedicated in-house salespeople are rapidly being replaced by specialized companies who handle sales to bookshops, wholesalers and chain stores for a fee. This trend is accelerating as retail book chains and supermarkets have centralized their buying.
If the entire process up to the stage of printing is handled by an outside company or individuals, and then sold to the publishing company, it is known as book packaging. Book-packaging (or book producing is a publishing activity in which a publishing company outsources the myriad tasks involved in putting together a book—writing researching editing This is a common strategy between smaller publishers in different territorial markets where the company that first buys the intellectual property rights then sells a package to other publishers and gains an immediate return on capital invested. Indeed, the first publisher will often print sufficient copies for all markets and thereby get the maximum quantity efficiency on the print run for all.
Some businesses maximize their profit margins through vertical integration; book publishing is not one of them. In Microeconomics and Management, the term vertical integration describes a style of Management control. Although newspaper and magazine companies still often own printing presses and binderies, book publishers rarely do. Similarly, the trade usually sells the finished products through a distributor who stores and distributes the publisher's wares for a percentage fee or sells on a sale or return basis. A distributor is a device in the Ignition system of an Internal combustion engine that routes High voltage from the Ignition coil to the
The advent of the Internet has therefore posed an interesting question that challenges publishers, distributors and retailers. In 2005, Amazon.com announced its purchase of Booksurge and selfsanepublishing, a major print on demand operation. Amazoncom Inc ( is an American electronic commerce ( E-commerce) company in Seattle Washington. Print on demand (POD, sometimes called publish on demand, is a Printing technology and business process in which new copies of a book (or other document are not This is probably intended as a preliminary move towards establishing an Amazon imprint. In the Publishing Industry, an imprint can refer to two different things It can mean a Brand name under which a work is published One of the largest bookseller chains, Barnes & Noble, already runs its own successful imprint with both new titles and classics — hardback editions of out-of-print former best sellers. Similarly, Ingram Industries, parent company of Ingram Book Group (a leading US book wholesaler), now includes its own print-on-demand division called Lightning Source. Among publishers, Simon & Schuster recently announced that it will start selling its backlist titles directly to consumers through its website. Simon & Schuster Inc, a division of CBS Corporation, is a Publisher founded in New York in 1924 by Richard L
Book clubs are almost entirely direct-to-retail, and niche publishers pursue a mixed strategy to sell through all available outlets — their output is insignificant to the major booksellers, so lost revenue poses no threat to the traditional symbiotic relationships between the four activities of printing, publishing, distribution and retail.
The development of the printing press represented a revolution for communicating the latest hypotheses and research results to the academic community and supplemented what a scholar could do personally. Academic publishing describes the subfield of Publishing which distributes academic Research and Scholarship. A printing press is a mechanical device for applying pressure to an inked surface resting upon a medium (such as paper or cloth thereby transferring an image But this improvement in the efficiency of communication created a challenge for libraries which have had to accommodate the weight and volume of literature.
To understand the scale of the problem, consider that approximately two centuries ago the number of scientific papers published annually was doubling every fifteen years. Today, the number of published papers doubles about every ten years. Modern academics can now run electronic journals and distribute academic materials without the need for publishers. Not surprisingly, publishers perceive this emancipation as a serious threat to their business. In reality, the interests of scholars and publishers have long been in conflict. Scholars desire unlimited access, while publishers need to control distribution to maintain the source of revenue.
Today, publishing academic journals and textbooks is a large part of an international industry. The shares of the major publishing companies are listed on national stock exchanges and management policies must satisfy the dividend expectations of international shareholders. Critics claim that these standardised accounting and profit-oriented policies have displaced the publishing ideal of providing access to all. In contrast to the commercial model, there is non-profit publishing, where the publishing organization is either organised specifically for the purpose of publishing, such as a university press, or is one of the functions of an organisation such as a medical charity, founded to achieve specific practical goals. A non-profit organization ( abbreviated "NPO" also "not-for-profit" is a legally constituted Organization whose objective is to support or engage An alternative approach to the corporate model is open access, the online distribution of individual articles and academic journals without charge to readers and libraries. Open access ( OA) is free immediate permanent full-text Online access for any user web-wide to digital scientific and scholarly material primarily
A somewhat related development is open source publishing, which is participatory group editing, as exemplified by various wiki projects, such Wikipedia, Wikiversity, and Citizendium. Open source is a development methodology which offers practical accessibility to a product's source (goods and knowledge A wiki is a page or collection of Web pages designed to enable anyone who accesses it to contribute or modify content using a simplified Markup language. ***************************************************************************************** * * Wikiversity is a Wikimedia Foundation project which supports learning communities their learning materials and resulting activities Citizendium (ˌsɪtɪˈzɛndiəm "the Citizens Compendium of everything" is an English-language Wiki -based free
Technically, radio, television, cinemas, VCDs and DVDs, music systems, games, computer hardware and mobile telephony publish information to their audiences. Indeed, the marketing of a major film often includes a novelization, a graphic novel or comic version, the soundtrack album, a game, model, toys and endless promotional publications. A novelization is a Novel that is written based on some other media story form rather than as an original work
Some of the major publishers have entire divisions devoted to a single franchise, e. g. Ballantine Del Rey Lucasbooks has the exclusive rights to Star Wars in the United States; Random House UK (Bertelsmann)/Century LucasBooks holds the same rights in the United Kingdom. The game industry self-publishes through BL Publishing/Black Library (Warhammer) and Wizards of the Coast (Dragonlance, Forgotten Realms, etc). Dragonlance is an immense series of Fantasy Novels, with over 190 novels printed and is accompanied by a supplemental Campaign The Forgotten Realms is a Campaign setting for the Dungeons & Dragons (D&D Fantasy Role-playing game, created by The BBC has its own publishing division which does very well with long-running series such as Doctor Who. Doctor Who is a British science fiction television programme produced by the BBC. These multimedia works are cross-marketed aggressively and sales frequently outperform the average stand-alone published work, making them a focus of corporate interest. 
See also Alternative media
Writers in a specialized field or with a narrower appeal have found smaller alternatives to the mass market in the form of small presses and self-publishing. Alternative media are media (newspapers radio television movies Internet etc See also Alternative media Small press is a term often used to describe Publishers with annual sales below a certain level Self-publishing is the Publishing of Books and other media by the Authors of those works rather than by established Third-party More recently, these options include print on demand and ebook format. Print on demand (POD, sometimes called publish on demand, is a Printing technology and business process in which new copies of a book (or other document are not An e-book (for electronic book: also ebook) is the Digital media equivalent of a conventional printed Book. These publishing alternatives provide an avenue for authors who believe that mainstream publishing will not meet their needs or who are in a position to make more money from direct sales than they could from bookstore sales, such as popular speakers who sell books after speeches. Authors are more readily published by this means due to the much lower costs involved.
Publishing on specific contexts: