A public house, usually known as a pub, is an establishment which serves alcoholic drinks — especially beer — for consumption on the premises, usually in a comfortable setting. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. Braunton is situated 5 miles west of Barnstaple in the North Devon district and is claimed to be the Largest village in England, with a population This article is about the region of England For the breed of cattle see North Devon cattle. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland The World's End is a Pub in Camden High Street in Camden Town, London, England just south of Camden Town tube station Camden Town is the district of London, England around Camden High Street, in the London Borough of Camden. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. Beer is the world's oldest and most widely consumed Alcoholic beverage and the third most popular drink overall after water and tea Pubs originated in English-speaking countries, particularly in the United Kingdom and Ireland and are now found globally. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Ireland ( Irish: Éire, ˈeːrʲə is a country in north-western Europe.
In North America, drinking establishments with a British or Irish theme are called pubs as well. Although the terms may have different connotations, there is little definitive difference between pubs, bars, Inns, taverns and lounges where alcohol is served commercially. A bar (also called a Pub or Tavern) is a business that serves drinks especially Alcoholic beverages such as beer liquor and mixed drinks for consumption Inns are establishments where travellers can procure Food, Drink, and Lodging. A tavern or pot-house is loosely a place of Business where people gather to drink Alcoholic beverages and more than likely also be served Food Traditionally, a pub which offers lodging may be called an inn or (more recently) hotel in the UK. Lodging or a holiday accommodation is a type of residential Accommodation. Inns are establishments where travellers can procure Food, Drink, and Lodging. A hotel is an establishment that provides paid lodging usually on a short-term basis Today many pubs, in the UK and Australia in particular, with the word "inn" or "hotel" in their name no longer offer accommodation, or in some cases have never done so. Some pubs bear the name of "hotel" because they are in countries where stringent anti-drinking laws were once in force. A hotel is an establishment that provides paid lodging usually on a short-term basis Until 1976 in Scotland only hotels could serve alcohol on Sundays; . Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain.
There are approximately 57,500 public houses in the United Kingdom, with one in almost every city, town and village. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located In many places, especially in villages, a pub can be the focal point of the community, playing a similar role to the local church in this respect.
Public houses are culturally and socially different from places such as cafés, bars, bierkellers and brewpubs. A bar (also called a Pub or Tavern) is a business that serves drinks especially Alcoholic beverages such as beer liquor and mixed drinks for consumption A beer hall (Bierpalast Bierstube is a large Pub that specializes in Beer. A microbrewery, or craft brewery, is a modern Brewery which produces a limited amount of beer usually with an orientation toward distinctive and flavorful products
Pubs are social places based on the sale and consumption of alcoholic beverages, and most public houses offer a range of beers, wines, spirits, alcopops and soft drinks. Beer is the world's oldest and most widely consumed Alcoholic beverage and the third most popular drink overall after water and tea Wine is an Alcoholic beverage made from the fermentation of Grape juice Alcopop is a term describing certain flavored alcoholic beverages including Malt beverages to which various fruit juices or other flavorings have been added Many pubs are controlled by breweries, so beer is often better value than wines and spirits, whilst soft drinks can be almost as expensive. Beer served in a pub may be cask ale or keg beer. Cask ale or cask-conditioned beer is the term for unfiltered and unpasteurised Beer which is conditioned (including Secondary fermentation Draught beer (also known as draft beer or tap beer) has several related though slightly different understandings All pubs also have a range of non-alcoholic beverages available. Traditionally the windows of town pubs are of smoked or frosted glass so that the clientèle is obscured from the street. GlassWindowjpg|thumb|right|190px|A stained glass panel depicting Biblical scenes at a historic church in Scotland]] A window is an opening In the last twenty years in the UK and other countries there has been a move away from frosted glass towards clear glass, a trend which fits in with brighter interior décors.
The owner, tenant or manager (licensee) of a public house is known as the publican or landlord. Each pub generally has "locals" or regulars; people who drink there regularly. The pub that people visit most often is called their local. In many cases, this will be the pub nearest to their home, but some people choose their local for other reasons: proximity to work, a traditional venue for their friends, the availability of a particular cask ale, non-smoking or formerly as a place to smoke freely, or maybe a darts team or pool table. Smoking bans are public policies including Criminal laws and Occupational safety and health Regulations which prohibit Tobacco smoking Darts refers to a variety of related games in which darts are thrown at a circular target (dartboard hung on a wall
Until the 1970s most of the larger public houses also featured an off-sales counter or attached shop for the sales of beers, wines and spirits for home consumption. In the 1970s the newly built supermarkets and high street chain stores or off-licences undercut the pub prices to such a degree that within ten short years all but a handful of pubs had closed their off-sale counters. Customer divider barjpg|thumb|In supermarkets sellers periodically change prices for classes of goods in response to market conditions rather than negotiating the price of each good Chain stores are Retail outlets that share a Brand and central management and usually have standardized business methods and practices REDIRECT Licensing_laws_of_the_United_Kingdom#Off-licence
A society with a particular interest in the traditional British beers, ales and the preservation of the 'integrity' of the public house is the Campaign for Real Ale, (CAMRA). The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Beer is the world's oldest and most widely consumed Alcoholic beverage and the third most popular drink overall after water and tea Ale is a type of Beer brewed from Malted Barley using a top-fermenting Brewers' yeast. The Campaign for Real Ale ( CAMRA) is an independent voluntary, Consumer organisation based in St Albans, England, whose main aim
The inhabitants of the UK have been drinking ale since the Bronze Age, but it was with the arrival of the Romans and the establishment of the Roman road network that the first Inns, in which the traveller could obtain refreshment, began to appear. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Ale is a type of Beer brewed from Malted Barley using a top-fermenting Brewers' yeast. The term Bronze Age refers to a period in human cultural development when the most advanced Metalworking (at least in systematic and widespread use included techniques for Ancient Rome was a Civilization that grew out of a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 10th century BC The Roman Roads were essential for the growth of the Roman Empire, by enabling the Romans to move armies and trade goods and to communicate news Inns are establishments where travellers can procure Food, Drink, and Lodging. By the time the Romans had left the Anglo-Saxons had formed alehouses which grew out of domestic dwellings. The Saxon alewife would put a green bush up on a pole to let people know her brew was ready.  These alehouses formed meeting houses for the local cottagers to meet and gossip and arrange mutual help within their communities. Here lies the beginnings of the modern pub. They became so commonplace that in 965 King Edgar decreed that there should be no more than one alehouse per village. 965 was a year in the 10th century. Events By Place Europe The Khazar fortress of Sarkel falls Edgar I the Peaceful or the Peaceable (c 7 August 943&ndash8 July 975 1
A traveller in the early Middle Ages could obtain overnight accommodation in monasteries, but later a demand for hostelries grew with the popularity of pilgrimages and travel. In Religion and Spirituality, a pilgrimage is a long journey or Search of great Moral significance The Hostellers of London were granted guild status in 1446 and in 1514 the guild became the Worshipful Company of Innholders. A guild is an association of craftsmen in a particular trade The earliest guilds were formed as confraternities of workers The Worshipful Company of Innholders is one of the Livery Companies of the City of London.
Traditional English ale was made solely from fermented malt. A fireplace is an architectural element consisting of a space designed to contain a Fire, generally for Heating but sometimes also for Cooking A slot machine ( American) fruit machine ( British) or poker machine ( Australian) is a Casino gambling machine with three England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland Ale is a type of Beer brewed from Malted Barley using a top-fermenting Brewers' yeast. Malting is a process applied to Cereal grains in which the grains are made to Germinate by soaking in water and are then quickly halted from germinating further The practice of adding hops to produce beer was introduced from the Netherlands in the early 15th century. Hops are the female Flower cones of the hop plant ( Humulus lupulus) Beer is the world's oldest and most widely consumed Alcoholic beverage and the third most popular drink overall after water and tea The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands Alehouses would each brew their own distinctive ale, but independent breweries began to appear in the late 17th century. As a means of recording the passage of Time, the 17th Century was that Century which lasted from 1601 - 1700 in the Gregorian calendar By the end of the century almost all beer was brewed by commercial breweries.
The 18th century saw a huge growth in the number of drinking establishments, primarily due to the introduction of gin. Gin is a spirit flavoured with Juniper berries. Distilled gin is made by redistilling white grain spirit which has been flavoured with juniper Gin was brought to England by the Dutch after the Glorious Revolution of 1688 and started to become very popular after the government created a market for grain that was unfit to be used in brewing by allowing unlicensed gin production, whilst imposing a heavy duty on all imported spirits. The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England (VII of Scotland in 1688 by a union Duty (from "due" that which is owing O Fr deu did past participle of devoir Lat As thousands of gin-shops sprang up all over England, brewers fought back by increasing the number of alehouses. By 1740 the production of gin had increased to six times that of beer and because of its cheapness it became popular with the poor, leading to the so-called Gin Craze. The Gin Craze was a period in the first half of the 18th century when the consumption of Gin became popular with the Working classes in Britain Over half of the 15,000 drinking establishments in London were gin-shops. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom.
The drunkenness and lawlessness created by gin was seen to lead to ruination and degradation of the working classes. The distinction was illustrated by William Hogarth in his engravings Beer Street and Gin Lane. William Hogarth (10 November 1697 &ndash 26 October 1764 was a major English painter, printmaker, pictorial satirist, social critic Beer Street and Gin Lane are two prints issued in 1751 by English artist William Hogarth in support of what would become the Gin Act Beer Street and Gin Lane are two prints issued in 1751 by English artist William Hogarth in support of what would become the Gin Act  The Gin Act (1736) imposed high taxes on retailers but led to riots in the streets. The Sale of Spirits Act 1750 (commonly known as the Gin Act 1751) was an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain (citation 24 Geo The prohibitive duty was gradually reduced and finally abolished in 1742. The 1751 Gin Act however was more successful. It forced distillers to sell only to licensed retailers and brought gin-shops under the jurisdiction of local magistrates.
By the early 1800s and encouraged by a lowering of duties on gin, the gin houses or “Gin Palaces” had spread from London to most major cities and towns in Britain, with most of the new establishments illegal and unlicenced. Wetherby is a Market town in the City of Leeds Metropolitan borough, West Yorkshire, England West Yorkshire is a Metropolitan county within the Yorkshire and the Humber region of England with a population of These bawdy, loud and unruly drinking dens so often described by Charles Dickens in his Sketches by Boz (published 1835-6) increasingly came to be held as unbridled cesspits of immorality or crime and the source of much ill-health and alcoholism among the working classes. 
The British government’s eventual response to the problem seems strange now to modern eyes. Under a banner of “reducing public drunkenness” the Beer Act of 1830 introduced a new lower tier of premises permitted to sell alcohol, the Beer Houses. At the time beer was viewed as harmless, nutritious and even healthy. Young children were often given what was described as “small beer” to drink, beer that was watered down as a kind of weak shandy. Shandy (also radler or panaché) is Beer flavoured with Lemonade or another Soft drink or Soda water. Even the evangelical church and temperance movements of the day viewed the drinking of beer very much as a secondary evil and a normal accompaniment to a meal. See also Prohibition, Teetotalism The Temperance Movement attempted to reduce the amount of Alcohol consumed within a community or society in The freely available beer was thus intended to wean the drinkers off the evils of gin, or so the thinking went. 
Under the 1830 Act any householder who paid rates could apply, with a one-off payment of two guineas, to sell beer or cider in his home (usually the front parlour) and even brew his own on his premises. The guinea coin of 1663 was the first English machine-struck Gold coin. For the non-alcoholic beverage commonly known in the US as "cider" see Apple cider. The permission did not extend to the sale of spirits and fortified wines and any beer house discovered selling those items were closed down and the owner heavily fined. Beer houses were not permitted to open on Sundays. The beer was usually served in jugs or dispensed direct from tapped wooden barrels lying on a table in the corner of the room. Often profits were so high the owners were able to buy the house next door to live in, turning every room in their former home into bars and lounges for customers.
In the first year four hundred beer houses opened but within eight years there were 46,000  opened across the country, far outnumbering the combined total of long established taverns, public houses, inns and hotels. Because it was so easy to obtain permission and the profits could be huge compared to the low cost of gaining permission, the number of beer houses was continuing to rise and in some towns nearly every other house in a street could be a Beer House. Finally in 1869 the growth had to be checked by magisterial control and new licencing laws were introduced. Only then was the ease by which permission could be obtained removed and the licensing laws we operate under today formulated.
Although the new licencing laws prevented any new beer houses from being created, those already in existence were allowed to continue and many did not fully die out until nearly the end of the 19th century. A vast majority of the beer houses applied for the new licences and became full public houses, permitted to sell all forms of alcohol. These usually small establishments can still be identified in many towns, seemingly oddly located in the middle of otherwise terraced housing part way up a street, unlike purpose built pubs that are usually found on corners or road junctions. Many of today's respected real ale micro-brewers in the UK started as home based Beer House brewers under the 1830 Act.
The beer houses also tended to avoid the traditional public house names like The Crown, The Red Lion, The Royal Oak etc and, if they didn’t simply name their place Smith’s Beer House, they would apply topical pub names in an effort to reflect the mood of the times.
The Wine and Beerhouse Act 1869 reintroduced the stricter controls of the previous century. Year 1869 ( MDCCCLXIX) is a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year The sale of beers, wines or spirits required a licence for the premises from the local magistrates. A magistrate is a judicial officer In Common law systems a magistrate usually has limited authority to administer and enforce the Law. Further provisions regulated gaming, drunkenness, prostitution and undesirable conduct on licensed premises, enforceable by prosecution or more effectively by the landlord under threat of forfeiting his licence. Prostitution is the act of performing Sexual activity in exchange for Money. Licences were only granted, transferred or renewed at special Licensing Sessions courts, and were limited to respectable individuals (initially often ex-servicemen or ex-police). Licence conditions varied widely, according to local practice. They would specify permitted hours, which might require Sunday closing, or conversely permit all-night opening near a market. Typically they might require opening throughout the permitted hours, and the provision of food or lavatories. Once obtained, licences were jealously protected by the licensees (always individuals expected to be generally present, not a remote owner or company), and even "Occasional Licences" to serve drinks at temporary premises such as fêtes would usually be granted only to existing licensees. Objections might be made by the police, rival landlords or anyone else on the grounds of infractions such as serving drunks, disorderly or dirty premises, or ignoring permitted hours. However licensing was gradually liberalised after the 1960s, until contested licensing applications became very rare, and the remaining administrative function was transferred to Local Authorities in 2005. The 1960s decade refers to the years from the beginning of 1960 to the end of 1969
Detailed records were kept on licensing, giving the Public House, its address, owner, licensee and misdemeanours of the licensees for periods often going back for hundreds of years. Many of these records survive and can be viewed, for example, at the London Metropolitan Archives centre. The London Metropolitan Archives ( LMA) are the main Archives for the Greater London area
By the end of the 18th century a new room in the pub was established: the saloon. Often referred to by Londoners as " The City Road" the western extremity of the road is at The Angel Islington where it forms a continuation of Pentonville Road Islington is the central district of the London Borough of Islington. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. Beer establishments had always provided entertainment of some sort — singing, gaming or a sport. Balls Pond Road in Islington was named after an establishment run by a Mr. Islington is the central district of the London Borough of Islington. Ball that had a pond at the rear filled with ducks, where drinkers could, for a certain fee, go out and take a potshot at shooting the fowl. A pond is a body of water smaller than a Lake, both being examples of Terrain features Although the term pond is universally used to describe waterbodies that For duck as a food see Duck (food; for other meanings see Duck (disambiguation. Most or all Birds collectively referred to as fowl belong to one of two orders namely the gamefowl or landfowl ( Galliformes) and the waterfowl More common, however, was a card room or a billiards room. The saloon was a room where for an admission fee or a higher price of drinks, singing, dancing, drama or comedy was performed and drinks would be served at your table. From this came the popular music hall form of entertainment—a show consisting of a variety of acts. Music hall is a form of British theatrical Entertainment which was popular between 1850 and 1960 A most famous London saloon was the Grecian Saloon in The Eagle, City Road, which is still famous these days because of an English nursery rhyme: "Up and down the City Road / In and out The Eagle / That's the way the money goes / Pop goes the weasel. Often referred to by Londoners as " The City Road" the western extremity of the road is at The Angel Islington where it forms a continuation of Pentonville Road A nursery rhyme is a traditional Song or Poem taught to young children originally in the nursery. "Pop Goes the Weasel" is a Jig, often sung as a Nursery rhyme, that dates back to 17th century England, and was spread across the Empire ". The implication being that, having frequented the Eagle public house, the customer spent all his money, and thus needed to 'pawn' his 'weasel' to get some more. The exact definition of the 'weasel' is unclear but the two most likely definitions are: that a weasel is a flat iron used for finishing clothing; or that 'weasel' is cockney rhyming slang for a coat (weasel and stoat). Rhyming slang is a form of Slang in which a word is replaced either by another word or phrase that rhymes with it or by the first word of such a phrase in which
A few pubs have stage performances, such as serious drama, stand-up comedians, a musical band or striptease; however juke boxes and other forms pre-recorded music have otherwise replaced the musical tradition of a piano and singing. A striptease or Exotic dance is a form of erotic entertainment usually a Dance, in which the performer known as a "stripper" gradually undresses jukebox is a partially automated music-playing device usually a Coin -operated machine that can play specially selected songs from self-contained media
By the 20th century, the saloon, or lounge bar, had settled into a middle-class room — carpets on the floor, cushions on the seats, and a penny or two on the prices, while the public bar, or tap room, remained working class with bare boards, sometimes with sawdust to absorb the spitting and spillages, hard bench seats, and cheap beer. The twentieth century of the Common Era began on The middle class, in colloquial usage consists of those who have some economic independence but not a great deal of social Influence or power. Working class is a term used in academic Sociology and in ordinary conversation to describe depending on context and speaker those employed in specific fields or types
Later, the public bars gradually improved until sometimes almost the only difference was in the prices, so that customers could choose between economy and exclusivity (or youth and age, or a jukebox or dartboard). jukebox is a partially automated music-playing device usually a Coin -operated machine that can play specially selected songs from self-contained media Darts refers to a variety of related games in which darts are thrown at a circular target (dartboard hung on a wall During the blurring of the class divisions in the 1960s and 1970s, the distinction between the saloon and the public bar was often seen as archaic, and was frequently abolished, usually by the removal of the dividing wall or partition itself. This article is about the Decade 1970-1979 For the Year 1970 see 1970. While the names of saloon and public bar may still be seen on the doors of pubs, the prices (and often the standard of furnishings and decoration) are the same throughout the premises, and many pubs now comprises one large room. However, the issues of eating encourage some pubs to maintain distinct rooms or areas, especially where the building requires it, and in a few pubs there still remain rooms or seats which by local custom "belong" to particular customers.
In July 2007, a law was introduced to forbid smoking in all enclosed public places in England and Wales. The most striking result of this legislation has been the end of the smokey atmosphere that has characterised the public house.
From the middle of the 19th century restrictions were placed on the opening hours of licensed premises in the UK. In the United Kingdom, the sale of alcohol is restricted - pubs restaurants shops and other premises must be Licensed by the local authority The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located These culminated in the Defence of the Realm Act of August 1914, which, along with the introduction of rationing and the censorship of the press for wartime purposes, also restricted the opening hours of public houses to 12noon–2. The Defence of the Realm Act ( DORA) was passed in the United Kingdom on 8 August 1914, during the early weeks of World War I. Rationing is the controlled distribution of resources and scarce goods or services Censorship is the suppression of speech or deletion of communicative material which may be considered objectionable harmful or sensitive as determined by a censor 30pm and 6. 30pm–9. 30pm. Opening for the full licensed hours was compulsory, and closing time was equally firmly enforced by the police; a landlord might lose his licence for infractions. There was a special case established under the State Management Scheme where the brewery and licensed premises were bought and run by the state until 1973, most notably in the Carlisle District. The State Management Scheme (known locally as 'The Scheme' saw the UK government take over and run the brewing distribution and sale of liquor in three regions of the UK from Carlisle (pronounced CARLYLE(emphasis on the first syllable is a City in northern England the largest settlement in Cumbria. During the 20th century elsewhere, both the licensing laws and enforcement were progressively relaxed, and there were differences between parishes; in the 1960s, at closing time in Kensington at 10. Kensington is a district of West London, England within the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea, located west of Charing Cross. 30pm, drinkers would rush over the parish boundary to be in good time for "Last Orders" in Knightsbridge before 11pm, a tradition observed in many pubs adjoining licensing area boundaries. Knightsbridge is a road which gives its name to an exclusive district lying to the west of Central London. Some Scots and Welsh parishes remained officially "dry" on Sundays (although often this merely required knocking at the back door of the pub). A parish is a Local church; it is an administrative unit typically found in episcopal or presbyterian churches However, closing times were increasingly disregarded in the country pubs. In England and Wales by 2000 pubs could legally open from 11am (12 noon on Sundays) through to 11pm (10. 30pm on Sundays). That year was also the first to allow continuous opening for 36 hours from 11am on New Year's Eve to 11pm on New Year's Day. New Year's Eve is on December 31, the final day of the Gregorian year and the day before New Year's Day. New Year's Day is the first day of the Year. On the modern Gregorian calendar, it is celebrated on January 1, as it was also in ancient Rome (though In addition, many cities had by-laws to allow some pubs to extend opening hours to midnight or 1am, whilst nightclubs had long been granted late licences to serve alcohol into the morning. A nightclub (or "night club" or "club" is a drinking, dancing, and entertainment venue which does its primary business after dark Pubs in the immediate vicinity of London's Smithfield market, Billingsgate fish market and Covent Garden fruit and flower market were permitted to stay open 24 hours a day since Victorian era times to provide a service to the shift working employees of the markets. Smithfield is the name of several places In the UK Smithfield Cumbria Smithfield London (sometimes referred to as West Smithfield Sao Paulo Stock Exchangejpg|thumb| Virtual market arena where buyer and seller are not present and trade via intemediates and electronical information Billingsgate is a ward in the south-east of the City of London, lying on the north bank of the River Thames between London Bridge and Tower Bridge For the Sydney railway station see Fish Market MLR station Sydney. Covent Garden (Pronunciation kɒvʌnt is a district in London, England, located on the easternmost parts of the City of Westminster and the southwest Culture The Victorian fascination with novelty resulted in a deep interest in the relationship between modernity and cultural continuities
Scotland's and Northern Ireland's licensing laws have long been more flexible, allowing local authorities to set pub opening and closing times. Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a Country within the United Kingdom, lying in the northeast of In Scotland, this stemmed out of a late repeal of the wartime licensing laws, which stayed in force until 1976. Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain.
The Licensing Act 2003, which came into force on November 24, 2005, aimed to consolidate the many laws into a single act. The Licensing Act 2003 ( 2003 c 17) is an Act of Parliament of the United Kingdom which applies only to England and Wales. Events 380 - Theodosius I makes his adventus, or formal Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. This now allows pubs in England and Wales to apply to the local authority for opening hours of their choice. Supporters at the time argued that it would end the concentration of violence around half past 11, when people had to leave the pub, making policing easier. In practice, alcohol-related hospital admissions rose following the change in the law, with alcohol involved in 207,800 admissions in 2006/7. Critics claimed that these laws will lead to '24-hour drinking'. By the day before the law came into force, 60,326 establishments had applied for longer hours, and 1,121 had applied for a licence to sell alcohol 24 hours a day. However, nine months after the act many pubs had not changed their hours, although there is a growing tendency for some to be open longer at the weekend but rarely beyond 1:00am.
Traditional games are played in pubs, ranging from the well-known darts, skittles, dominoes, cards and bar billiards, to the more obscure Aunt Sally, Nine Men's Morris and ringing the bull. Pub games are games which are or were played in Pubs, Bars, Inns and Taverns particularly traditional games played in English pubs Darts refers to a variety of related games in which darts are thrown at a circular target (dartboard hung on a wall Skittles is an old European target sport, a variety of Bowling, from which Ten-pin bowling, Duckpin bowling, and Candlepin bowling Dominoes (or "dominos" generally refers to the individual or collective gaming pieces making up a domino set (sometimes called a deck or pack Bar billiards is a form of Billiards which was possibly initially based on the traditional game of Bagatelle. Aunt Sally is a traditional throwing game The term is often used metaphorically to mean something that is a target for criticism Nine Men's Morris is an abstract Strategy board game for two players that emerged from the Roman Empire. Ringing the bull is a pub game. It involves swinging a bull's nose-ring which is attached to a string in an arc so as Betting is legally limited to certain games such as cribbage or dominoes, but these are now rarely seen. Cribbage, or crib, is a Card game traditionally for two players but commonly played with three four or more that involves playing and grouping cards Dominoes (or "dominos" generally refers to the individual or collective gaming pieces making up a domino set (sometimes called a deck or pack In recent decades the game of pool (both the British and American versions) has increased in popularity, other table based games such as snooker, Table Football are also common. Eight-ball, sometimes called stripes and solids and more rarely bigs and littles or highs and lows, is a Pocket billiards (pool game popular Snooker is a Cue sport that is played on a large Baize -covered table with pockets in each of the four corners and in the middle of each of the long Table football, also known as foosball, table soccer or baby foot, is a table-top game that is based on Association football (soccer
Increasingly, more modern games such as video games and slot machines are provided. A video game is a Game that involves interaction with a User interface to generate visual feedback on a video device. A slot machine ( American) fruit machine ( British) or poker machine ( Australian) is a Casino gambling machine with three Many pubs also hold special events, from tournaments of the aforementioned games to karaoke nights to pub quizzes. A tournament (IPA) is a Competition involving a relatively large number of competitors all participating in a Sport or Game. (kɑːrɑːˌoʊkɛ in Japanese karaoke) is a form of Entertainment in which Amateur Singers sing along with recorded Music (and/or a A pub quiz is a Quiz held in a Public house. It is a largely British phenomenon which reached its peak in the early 1990s Some play pop music, or show football and rugby union on big screen televisions. Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a Team sport played between two teams of eleven players and is widely considered Overview See also Playing rugby union A rugby union match lasts for 80 minutes (plus stoppage time with a short Shove ha'penny and Bat and trap was also popular in pubs south of London. Shove ha'penny (or shove halfpenny, and also known in ancestral form as shoffe-grote ['shove- Groat ' in Modern Bat and trap is an ancient English ball game related to Cricket and played at country Pubs in the county of Kent.
Many pubs in the UK also have football teams composed of regular customers. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a Team sport played between two teams of eleven players and is widely considered Many of these teams are in leagues which play matches on Sundays, hence the term "Sunday League Football". Sunday league football is a term used in England to describe those Association football leagues which play on Sunday as opposed to the more usual Saturday
Traditionally pubs in England were drinking establishments and little emphasis was placed on the serving of food, usually called 'bar snacks', of which the usual fare consisted of specialised English snack food such as pork scratchings, pickled eggs, along with crisps and peanuts — salted snacks sold or given away to increase customers' thirst. Food is any substance usually composed primarily of Carbohydrates Fats water and/or Proteins that can be eaten or drunk by an A snack food (commonly called a snack) is seen in Western culture as a type of food not meant to be eaten as a main Meal of the day – Breakfast Pork rind (known as pork scratchings in the United Kingdom, and pork crackle in Australia) is the skin of a Pig. Preparation After the eggs are hard boiled the shell is removed and they are submerged in a solution of Vinegar, salt spices and other seasonings A potato chip or crisp is a thin slice of Potato, deep fried or baked until Crisp. The peanut, or Groundnut ( Arachis hypogaea) is a species in the Legume family Fabaceae native to South America, Mexico Salt is a Dietary mineral composed primarily of Sodium chloride that is essential for Animal life but toxic to most land plants If a pub served meals they were usually basic cold dishes such as a ploughman's lunch. In the United Kingdom, ploughman's lunch is a cold Snack or Meal, comprising at a minimum a thick piece of Cheese (usually Cheddar In South East England (especially London) it was common until recent times for vendors selling cockles, whelks, mussels and other shellfish, to sell to customers during the evening and at closing time. South East England is one of the nine official Regions of England. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. A whelk is one of several Species of large sea Snails marine Gastropod Mollusks found in temperate waters The common name mussel is used for members of several different families of Clams or Bivalve Molluscs, from both saltwater and freshwater habitats Shellfish is a Culinary and Fisheries term for those aquatic Invertebrate animals that are used as Food: various species of molluscs Many mobile shellfish stalls would set up near to popular pubs, a practice that continues in London's East End.
In the 1950s most British pubs would offer "a pie and a pint", with hot individual steak and ale pies made easily on the premises by the landlord's wife. The 1950s Decade refers to the years of 1950 to 1959 inclusive In the 1960s and 1970s this developed into the then fashionable and universal "chicken in a basket", a portion of roast chicken with chips, served on a napkin, in a small wicker basket. The 1960s decade refers to the years from the beginning of 1960 to the end of 1969 This article is about the Decade 1970-1979 For the Year 1970 see 1970.
The offering in Irish pubs has always been a hearty experience, with fresh local food being offered. In less well-off times this would have been a stew and some fresh soda bread but today all over the world you can enjoy the best of food locally supplied. Soda bread is a type of Quick bread in which Baking soda has been substituted for yeast
Since the 1990s food has become more important as part of a pub's trade and today most pubs serve lunches and dinners at the table (colloquially this is known in England as pub grub) in addition to (or instead of) snacks consumed at the bar. The 1990s collectively refers to the years between and including 1990 and 1999 Luncheon, commonly abbreviated to lunch, is a midday Meal. In English-speaking countries during the eighteenth century what was originally called " Dinner is the main Meal of the day The meal normally consists of a combination of cooked or sometimes uncooked proteins (meat fish or legumes with vegetables and/or They may have a separate dining room. Some pubs serve excellent meals which can rival a good restaurant's. A restaurant is a retail establishment that serves prepared Food to Customers. A pub which claims to focus on quality food (perhaps rather than necessarily on good beer) will now call itself a gastropub. A gastropub (or "gastro pub" is a British term for a Public house which specializes in high-quality food a step above the more basic " pub grub The growth in importance of food, and the appeal of eating informally in a pub rather than with the formality expected in a restaurant, has led to some establishments giving all tables over to food and removing the bar stools (even though a visitor expecting a quick drink and a conversation at the bar is likely to receive short shrift at such places, there is no legal bar to such a licensed restaurant calling itself a pub).
In 1393 King Richard II compelled landlords to erect signs outside their premises. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Richard II (6 January 1367 &ndash ca 14 February 1400 was King of England from 1377 until he was deposed in 1399 A signboard is a board carrying a Sign or notice usually used for Advertising of products events houses for sale or let etc The legislation stated "Whosoever shall brew ale in the town with intention of selling it must hang out a sign, otherwise he shall forfeit his ale. " This was in order to make them easily visible to passing inspectors, borough Ale tasters, who would decide the quality of the ale they provided. A borough is an Administrative division of various countries In principle the term borough designates a self-governing Township although in practice William Shakespeare's father, John Shakespeare was one such inspector. William Shakespeare ( baptised John Shakespeare (born c 1530 &ndash September 1601 was a Glover and whittawer (someone who worked with white Leather) Farmer and later an Alderman
Another important factor was that during the Middle Ages a large percentage of the population would have been illiterate and so pictures on a sign were more useful than words as a means of identifying a public house. traditional definition of literacy is considered to be the ability to read and write or the ability to use Language to read, write, listen, For this reason there was often no reason to write the establishment's name on the sign and inns opened without a formal written name—the name being derived later from the illustration on the public house's sign.
The earliest signs were often not painted but consisted, for example, of paraphernalia connected with the brewing process such as bunches of hops or brewing implements, which were suspended above the door of the public house. Paraphernalia is a term of art from older Law. Paraphernalia was the separate property of a married woman such as Clothing and Jewelry "appropriate In some cases local nicknames, farming terms and puns were also used. Local events were also often commemorated in pub signs. Simple natural or religious symbols such as the 'The Sun', 'The Star' and 'The Cross' were also incorporated into pub signs, sometimes being adapted to incorporate elements of the heraldry (e. Heraldry in its most general sense encompasses all matters relating to the duties and responsibilities of officers of arms. g. the coat of arms) of the local lords who owned the lands upon which the public house stood. Some pubs also have Latin inscriptions (see image). Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome.
Other subjects which lent themselves to visual depiction included the name of battles (e. g. Trafalgar), explorers, local notables, discoveries, sporting heroes and members of the royal family. The Battle of Trafalgar ( 21 October 1805) was a historic sea battle fought between the British Royal Navy and the combined fleets of the The British Royal Family is the group of close relatives of the monarch of the United Kingdom. Some pub signs are in the form of a pictorial pun or rebus. A rebus ( Latin: "by things" is a kind of word puzzle which uses pictures to represent words or parts of words for example H + = For example, a pub in Crowborough, UK called The Crow and Gate has an image of a crow with gates as wings. Crowborough is a town in the Wealden district of East Sussex, England. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located
Most British pubs still have decorated signs hanging over their doors, and these retain their original function of enabling the identification of the public house. Today's pub signs almost always bear the name of the pub, both in words and in pictorial representation.
Pubs often have traditional names. The names of public houses have a story behind them As many Public houses are centuries old many of their early customers were unable to read, and pictorial The names of public houses have a story behind them As many Public houses are centuries old many of their early customers were unable to read, and pictorial Here is a list of categories:
A very common name is the "Marquis of Granby". John Manners, Marquess of Granby was the son of John Manners, 3rd Duke of Rutland) and a general in the 18th century British Army. General John Manners Marquess of Granby PC, ( Kelham, 2 January 1721 &ndash 18 October 1770, Scarborough John Manners 3rd Duke of Rutland KG PC ( October 21, 1696 – May 29, 1779) was an English nobleman the eldest son of The 18th century lasted from 1701 to 1800 in the Gregorian calendar, in accordance with the Anno Domini / Common Era numbering system The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. He showed a great concern for the welfare of his men, and on their retirement, provided funds for many of them to establish taverns, which were subsequently named after him.
Many names for pubs that appear nonsensical may have come from corruptions of older names or phrases, often producing a visual image to signify the pub. For example, the name The Goat and Compasses is a corruption of the phrase "God encompasseth us". These images had particular importance for identifying a pub on signs and other media before literacy became widespread. traditional definition of literacy is considered to be the ability to read and write or the ability to use Language to read, write, listen, Another example of a mistaken pub name is the Oyster Reach pub in Ipswich, England. Ipswich ( ˈɪpswɪtʃ is a Non-metropolitan district and the County town of Suffolk, England on the Estuary of the River Orwell This pub spent several decades being called the Ostrich, before historians informed the owners of the original name. More possible but uncorroborated corruptions include "The Bag o'Nails" (Bacchanals), "Elephant and Castle", (Infanta de Castile) and "The Bull and Bush", which purportedly celebrates the victory of Henry VIII at "Boulogne Bouche" or Boulogne-sur-Mer Harbour. Infanta de Castile or Infanta of Castile is said to refer to Eleanor of Castile, Edward I 's wife although she was not actually an Infanta Henry VIII (28 June 1491 &ndash 28 January 1547 was King of England and Lord of Ireland, later King of Ireland and claimant to the Kingdom of Boulogne-sur-Mer ( Bonen in Dutch is a City in Northern France. While these corruptions are amusing there are usually more substantiated explanations available.
A too-obviously humorous name is likely to be a recent coining of a marketing executive, rather than traditional. This is especially true for names with unsubtle double-entendres or names which have elements common to all the pubs in a particular chain (eg "XXXX and Firkin"). Not to be confused with Puns which employ multiple phrases A double entendre is a Figure of speech similar to the Pun, in
After the development of the large London Porter breweries in the 18th century, the trend grew for pubs to become tied houses which could only sell beer from one brewery (a pub not tied in this way was called a Free house). In the UK a tied house is a public house that is required to buy at least some of its Beer from a particular Brewery, unlike Free houses A pub chain is a group of Pubs owned by a single company although the term usually refers to chains in the United Kingdom. The 18th century lasted from 1701 to 1800 in the Gregorian calendar, in accordance with the Anno Domini / Common Era numbering system In the UK a tied house is a public house that is required to buy at least some of its Beer from a particular Brewery, unlike Free houses The usual arrangement for a tied house was that the pub was owned by the brewery but rented out to a private individual (landlord) who ran it as a separate business (even though contracted to buy the beer from the brewery). A growing trend in the late 20th century was for the brewery to run their pubs directly, employing a salaried manager (who perhaps could make extra money by commission, or by selling food).
Most such breweries, such as the regional breweries Shepherd Neame in Kent and Youngs in London, control hundreds of pubs in a particular region of the UK, whilst a few, such as Greene King, are spread nationally. Regional brewery is a term used in the United Kingdom to describe a long-established brewery that supplied beer to tied pubs in a fixed geographical location Shepherd Neame is an English Regional brewery founded in 1698 by Richard Marsh in Faversham, Kent. KENT (1400 AM) is a Radio station broadcasting a Adult Standards/MOR format Youngs can refer to Elaine Youngs (b 1970an American beach volleyball player Jenny Owen Youngs (b Greene King ( is a British Brewery established in 1799 in Bury St Edmunds, Suffolk. The landlord of a tied pub may be an employee of the brewery—in which case he would be a manager of a managed house, or a self-employed tenant who has entered into a lease agreement with a brewery, a condition of which is the legal obligation (trade tie) only to purchase that brewery's beer. Landlord is the owner of a House, Apartment, Condominium, or Real estate which is rented or Leased to an individual or business This tied agreement provides tenants with trade premises at a below market rent providing people with a low-cost entry into self-employment. The beer selection is mainly limited to beers brewed by that particular company. Generally a company is a form of Business organization. The precise definition varies A Supply of Beer law, passed in 1989, was aimed at getting tied houses to offer at least one alternative beer, known as a guest beer, from another brewery. The Supply of Beer (Tied Estate Order 1989 and The Supply of Beer (Loan Ties Licensed Premises and Wholesale Prices Order 1989, commonly known as the Beer Orders In 1989 licensing legislation passed by Margaret Thatcher 's Conservative government made it possible for a tied Pub to stock at least one guest beer from A brewery is a dedicated building for the making of Beer, though beer can be made in the home and has been for much of beer's history This law has now been repealed but while in force it dramatically altered the industry.
The period since the 1980s saw many breweries absorbed by, or becoming by take-overs, larger companies in the food, hotel or property sectors. The 1980s was the decade spanning from January 1 1980 to December 31 1989. The low returns of a pub-owning business led to many breweries selling their pub estates, especially those in cities, often to a new generation of small chains, many of which have now grown considerably and have a national presence. Other Pub chains, such as All Bar One and Slug and Lettuce (pub chain) offer youth-oriented atmospheres, often in premises larger than traditional pubs. A pub chain is a group of Pubs owned by a single company although the term usually refers to chains in the United Kingdom. All Bar One is a chain of bars in the UK, owned and operated by Mitchells and Butlers plc which was part of the Six Continents group (previously Slug and Lettuce is a Pub chain in the UK - it is owned by the Bay Restaurants Group who are based in Luton, Bedfordshire.
A free house is a pub that is free of the control of any one particular brewery. "Free" in this context does not necessarily mean "independent", and the view that "free house" on a pub sign is a guarantee of a quality, range or type of beer available is a mistake. Many free houses are not independent family businesses but are owned by large pub companies. In fact, these days there are very few truly free houses, either because a private pub owner has had to come to a financial arrangement with a brewer or other company in order to fund the purchase of the pub, or simply because the pub is owned by one of the large pub chains and pub companies (PubCos) which have sprung up in recent years. Some chains have rather uniform pubs and products, some allow managers some freedom. Wetherspoons, one of the largest pub chains does sell large amounts of a wide variety of real ale at low prices - but its pubs are not specifically "real ale pubs", being in the city centre to attract the Saturday night crowds and so also selling large quantities of alcopops and big-brand lager to large groups of young people. J D Wetherspoon plc (commonly referred to as Wetherspoons or Spoons) is a British Pub chain, founded by Tim Martin in 1979 Cask ale or cask-conditioned beer is the term for unfiltered and unpasteurised Beer which is conditioned (including Secondary fermentation Alcopop is a term describing certain flavored alcoholic beverages including Malt beverages to which various fruit juices or other flavorings have been added Lager (storage camp bearing etc is the more popular of two main types of Beer; the other being Ale.
Organisations such as Wetherspoons and the Eerie Pub Company, were formed in the UK since changes in legislation in the 1980s necessitated the break-up of many larger tied estates. J D Wetherspoon plc (commonly referred to as Wetherspoons or Spoons) is a British Pub chain, founded by Tim Martin in 1979 Punch Taverns plc ( is the largest pub and bar operator in the United Kingdom, with around 9500 tenanted and managed pubs A PubCo is a company involved in the retailing but not the manufacture of beverages, while a Pub chain may be run either by a PubCo or by a brewery. A pub chain is a group of Pubs owned by a single company although the term usually refers to chains in the United Kingdom. If the owning company is not a brewery, then the pub is technically a 'free house', however limited the manager is in his/her beer-buying choice.
Pubs within a chain will usually have items in common, such as fittings, promotions, ambience and range of food and drink on offer. A pub chain will position itself in the marketplace for a target audience. One company may run several pub chains aimed at different segments of the market. Pubs for use in a chain are bought and sold in large units, often from regional breweries which are then closed down. Newly acquired pubs are often renamed by the new owners, and many people resent the loss of traditional names, especially if their favourite regional beer disappears at the same time. The word tradition comes from the Latin traditionem acc of traditio which means "a giving up delivering up surrendering" and is used in a number of A small number of pub chains (usually small ones) are noted for the independence they grant their managers, and hence the wide range of beers available.
Inns and taverns feature throughout English literature and poetry, from Chaucer onwards. Geoffrey Chaucer (c 1343 – 25 October 1400? was an English author poet Philosopher, bureaucrat, courtier and Diplomat. All the major soap operas on British television feature a pub, with their 'pub' becoming a household name. A soap opera is an ongoing episodic work of Fiction, usually broadcast on Television or Radio. The Rovers Return is the pub on Coronation Street, the British soap broadcast on ITV. The Rovers Return Inn is a fictional Public house on the long running British television soap, Coronation Street. Coronation Street (commonly known as 'Corrie' is an award-winning Soap opera created by Tony Warren Independent Television (generally known as ITV) is a public service network of British commercial television broadcasters set up under the Independent The Queen Vic (short for the Queen Victoria) is the pub on EastEnders, the major soap on BBC One, while The Bull in The Archers and the Woolpack on Emmerdale are also central meeting points. For the Queen see Victoria of the United Kingdom. Queen Vic is also the nickname of the Queen Victoria Market. Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901 was from 20 June 1837 the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland EastEnders is a most popular and award-winning Television Soap opera, first broadcast in the United Kingdom on BBC1 on 19 February 1985 The Archers is a British radio Soap opera broadcast on the BBC 's main spoken-word channel, Radio 4. The Woolpack is a Fictional Public house on the popular ITV Soap opera Emmerdale. Emmerdale, known as Emmerdale Farm until 1989 is a British Soap opera that has aired on ITV since 1972 The sets of each of the three major television soap operas have been visited by royalty, including Queen Elizabeth II. For the ship see RMS Queen Elizabeth 2 Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Context States headed by Elizabeth II The centrepiece of each visit was a trip into the Rovers, the Vic or the Woolpack to be offered a drink.
Much of the plot-line in British film Shaun of the Dead involves the characters trying to reach their local public house, The Winchester, to escape a zombie invasion. Shaun of the Dead is a 2004 British Zombie -themed Comedy (or " rom zom com " as it dubs itself film zombie is a reanimated human corpse Stories of zombies originated in the Afro-Caribbean spiritual belief system of Vodou, which told of the people being controlled Shaun (Simon Pegg) and Ed (Nick Frost) advocate the pub as the perfect location to wait for help because of their selection priorities: It must be a) safe, b) familiar, c) some place where Ed can smoke. Simon Pegg (born Simon John Beckingham; 14 February 1970) is an award-winning English Actor, Comedian, Writer Nicholas John Frost (born 28 March, 1972) is an award-winning English Actor, Comedian and movie script-writer He is best known
Another famous fictional pub is The Nag's Head featured in the BBC sitcom Only Fools and Horses. Only Fools and Horses is a British Television sitcom, created and written by John Sullivan, and made and broadcast by the BBC
British comedian Al Murray's best-known character is a comic right-wing pub-owner, "The Pub Landlord", not necessarily a representation of the southern-English pub landlord. Alastair James Hay "Al" Murray (born 10 May 1968 is a British comedian best known for his stand-up Persona, " The Pub Landlord
US president George W. Bush fulfilled his ambition of visiting a 'genuine English pub' during his November 2003 state visit to the UK when he had lunch and a pint of non-alcoholic lager with British Prime Minister Tony Blair at the Dun Cow pub in Sedgefield, County Durham. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the President is a Title leaders of Organizations companies, Trade unions universities, and countries. George Walker Bush ( born July 6 1946 is the forty-third and current President of the United States. This article is about the government position For other uses see Prime Minister (disambiguation. Anthony Charles Lynton "Tony" Blair (born 6 May 1953 is a British Politician who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 2 May 1997 to The dun cow is a common motif in English folklore. " Dun " is a dull shade of brownish grey Sedgefield is a large village in the borough of Sedgefield in County Durham, England.
While many pubs play piped pop music, the pub is often a venue for live song and live music. Pop music as a genre features a noticeable rhythmic element catchy melodies and hooks, a mainstream style and conventional structure Music is an Art form in which the medium is Sound organized in Time. See:
The pub has also been celebrated in popular music. Pub rock was a mid- to late-1970s musical movement largely centred around North London and South East Essex, particularly Canvey Island and Southend Ian Robins Dury ( 12 May 1942 &ndash 27 March 2000) was an English Rock and roll singer songwriter and Bandleader The Kursaal Flyers were a British pop and Country music band, formed in Southend-on-Sea in 1973 who "bridged the gap between In English popular culture, the "traditional" pub songs typified by the Cockney " Knees up " mostly come from the classics Skiffle is a type of Folk music with Jazz, Blues and Country influences usually using homemade or improvised instruments such as the Washboard " Danny Boy " is a song whose lyrics are set to the Irish tune Londonderry Air. Folk music can have a number of different meanings including Traditional music: The original meaning of the term "folk music" was synonymous Examples are "Hurry Up Harry" by the 1970s punk rock act Sham 69, the chorus of which was the chant "We're going down the pub" repeated several times. Sham 69 are an English punk band that formed in Hersham in 1975. Another such song is "Two Pints Of Lager and a Packet of Crisps Please!" by UK punk band Splodgenessabounds. Splodgenessabounds is an English Punk rock band formed in Keston, Bromley.
As a reaction against piped music, the Quiet Pub Guide was written, telling its readers where to go to avoid piped music.
Pubs that cater for a niche audience, such as sports fans or people of certain nationalities are known as theme pubs. Examples of theme pubs include sports bars, rock pubs, biker pubs, Goth pubs, strip pubs, and Irish pubs (see below). Sport is an Activity that is governed by a set of rules or Customs and often engaged in competitively Rock and roll (also known as rock 'n' roll) is a form of Music that evolved in the United States in the late 1940s and early 1950s with roots in mostly African MotorCycle is the title of a 1993 album by Rock band Daniel Amos, released on BAI Records.
In the U. S. , almost all drinking establishments called "pubs" are simply bars with an Irish or British theme.
There is a lot of difference between an Irish pub and its UK counterpart. Dublin (ˈdʌblɨn/ /ˈdʊblɨn or /ˈdʊbəlɪn/, bˠalʲə aːha klʲiəh or cliə(ɸ is both the largest city and capital of Ireland. Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world Close scrutiny will reveal many differences. Pub frontages are generally plainer and less ornamented than their British counterparts, and hanging signs are absent, with the name of the pub or proprietor being displayed above the door. The use of the term "bar" for a pub is more common in Ireland than in the UK. In Irish, a pub is referred to as teach tábhairne ("tavern-house") or teach [an] óil ("house of drink"). Irish (ga ''Gaeilge'' is a Goidelic language of the Indo-European language family originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish.
Prior to the 1960s and the arrival of supermarket and grocery chain stores in the country Irish pubs usually operated as a 'Spirit grocery', combining the running of pub with a grocery, hardware or other ancillary business on the same premises (in some cases, publicans also acted as undertakers, and this unusual combination is still common today in the Republic of Ireland). Customer divider barjpg|thumb|In supermarkets sellers periodically change prices for classes of goods in response to market conditions rather than negotiating the price of each good Chain stores are Retail outlets that share a Brand and central management and usually have standardized business methods and practices Spirit Grocery A type of retail business common in Ireland in the 19th Century and early to mid 20th Century A funeral director (also known as a mortician or undertaker) is someone involved in the business of Funeral rites A pub in Abbeyleix, Morrisey's, is representative of the traditional spirit grocers. Abbeyleix or Abbeylaois ( is a town in County Laois, Ireland about 14 km from Portlaoise.
Spirit groceries first appeared in the mid 18th century, when a growing temperance movement in Ireland forced publicans to diversify their businesses to compensate for declining spirit sales. See also Prohibition, Teetotalism The Temperance Movement attempted to reduce the amount of Alcohol consumed within a community or society in With the arrival of increased competition in the retail sector, many pubs lost the retail end of their business and concentrated solely on the licensed trade. Many pubs in Ireland still resemble grocer's shops of the 19th century, with the bar counter and rear shelving taking up the majority of the space in the main bar area, apparently leaving little room for customers. This seemingly counter-productive arrangement is a design artefact dating from prior operation as a spirit grocery, and also accounts for the differing external appearance of English & Irish Pubs. Spirit Grocers in Northern Ireland were forced to choose between either the retail or the licensed trades upon the partition of Ireland in 1922, and this pub type can no longer be found in the North. The Partition of Ireland took place on 3 May 1921 under the Government of Ireland Act 1920.
In contrast to England, Ireland's pubs usually bear the name of the current or a previous owner, e. g. Murphy's or O'Connor's, and traditional pub names are absent. Famous traditional pubs in Dublin which have the characteristics outlined above include O'Donoghue's, Mulligan's, Doheny & Nesbitt's & the Brazen Head, which bills itself as Ireland's oldest pub (a distinction actually held by Sean's Bar in Athlone). Dublin (ˈdʌblɨn/ /ˈdʊblɨn or /ˈdʊbəlɪn/, bˠalʲə aːha klʲiəh or cliə(ɸ is both the largest city and capital of Ireland. O’Donoghue’s Pub is a historically significant drinking establishment located near St Sean's Bar is a Pub in Athlone, Ireland. It is the oldest pub in Ireland dating back to 900 and is listed by Guinness World Records as such Athlone ( is a town that lies on the River Shannon near the southern extremity of Lough Ree, Ireland. Some pubs are named after famous streets such Sober Lane in Cork which is named after Father Matthew's Hall of Abstinence. Individual pubs are also associated with famous Irish writers and poets such as Patrick Kavanagh, Brendan Behan and James Joyce. Patrick Kavanagh (Pádraig Caomhánaigh (21 October 1904 &ndash 30 November 1967 was an Irish Poet. Brendan Francis Behan (ˈbiːən) (Breandán Ó Beacháin ( February 9, 1923 – March 20, 1964) was an Irish poet short story James Augustine Aloysius Joyce (2 February 1882 &ndash 13 January 1941 was an Irish expatriate writer widely considered to be one of the most influential writers of the
Pubs in Northern Ireland are largely identical to their southern counterparts. A side effect of the 'Troubles' was that the lack of a tourist industry meant that a higher proportion of traditional bars have survived the wholesale refitting of Irish pub interiors in the English style in the 1950s and 1960s. This refitting was driven by the need to expand seating areas to accommodate the growing numbers of tourists, and was a direct consequence of the growing dependence of the Irish economy on tourism. Traditional pubs in Belfast include the National Trust's Crown Liquor Saloon, and the city's oldest bar, McHugh's. Belfast ( is the capital city of Northern Ireland and the seat of government in Northern Ireland. The National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty, usually known as the National Trust, is a conservation organization in England, Wales The Crown Liquor Saloon is a Public house in Belfast, Northern Ireland. McHugh's Bar is a Public house in Belfast, Northern Ireland. Located on Queen's Square in Belfast City Centre, it is one of the city's best known Outside Belfast, pubs such as the House of McDonnell in Ballycastle (a former spirit grocery retaining all the characteristics of the type) and Grace Neill's in Donaghadee are representative of the traditional country pub. The House of McDonnell is a traditional Irish pub in Ballycastle, Co Ballycastle can refer to Ballycastle County Antrim, a small town in Northern Ireland Ballycastle County Down, a townland in Northern Grace Neill's, in the town of Donaghadee, Northern Ireland. It often claims to be the oldest licensed pub in Ireland, but that title is held by Sean's Donaghadee ( is a small Town in County Down, Northern Ireland, situated on the east coast about from Belfast and about eight miles (13 km
The pubs listed above are truly representative of the traditional Irish type (while some may have been expanded, the original bar areas have been retained in all cases), as few remain today after the extensive refitting noted above. The majority of 'traditional' pubs in Ireland today have been refurbished in a pastiche of the original style during the 1990s. Many Irish pubs were refurbished in this manner so as to increase their attractiveness to tourists by more closely resembling the 'Irish pubs' found outside Ireland; and thus have more in common with them (many were refurbished by the same outfitting companies) than the traditional pub type they purport to represent.
The sentimental image of Ireland held by many tourists and members of the Irish diaspora has also resulted in changes to the Irish pub experience in many areas. The Irish diaspora (Diaspóra na nGael consists of Irish Emigrants and their descendants in countries such as Great Britain, the United States The notion that there is more live music in an Irish pub, and that a customer is more likely to entertain the assembly with a song is a myth created by the Irish tourist industry. Music is an Art form in which the medium is Sound organized in Time. Pubs of this type (so-called 'singing pubs') are more likely to be found in areas dependent on tourism such as the south-west of Ireland. These pubs are conspicuously absent in areas where tourism is not a major part of the local economy, such as the Midlands or border counties. 'Singing pubs' are also absent from Northern Ireland.
Pubs in tourist oriented areas are also more likely to serve food to their customers, a recent phenomenon dating from the 1970s. Prior to this time food was not served in the vast majority of Irish pubs, as eating out was uncommon in Ireland (except in "eating-houses" set up on market days) and most towns and villages had at least one commercial hotel where food was available throughout the day . The provision of meals in pubs since this time is largely the result of an effort by Irish publicans to capture the tourist eating trade. The majority of traditional rural pubs not on the major tourist trails do not serve food; while traditional bars in urban areas such as Dublin, Armagh, Galway, and Sligo have responded to the increase in Irish people eating outside the home (a by-product of so called 'Celtic Tiger' economy during the 1990s); and now provide meals throughout the day. Dublin (ˈdʌblɨn/ /ˈdʊblɨn or /ˈdʊbəlɪn/, bˠalʲə aːha klʲiəh or cliə(ɸ is both the largest city and capital of Ireland. The City of Armagh ( is an ancient religious site of worship of both celtic paganism and Christianity and the oldest of the five cities in Northern Ireland, Galway (Gaillimh is the only city in the province of Connacht in Ireland. Sligo (disambiguation Sligo ( (ˈslaɪɡoʊ "sly-go" Irish ˈɕlʲɪɟəx is the County town of County Sligo in Ireland. Celtic Tiger (Tíogar Ceilteach is a name for the period of rapid Economic growth in the Republic of Ireland that began in the 1990s and slowed in 2001
Following the smoking ban in the Republic many pubs offer enclosed and often heated outdoor smoking areas. Smoking bans are public policies including Criminal laws and Occupational safety and health Regulations which prohibit Tobacco smoking While many people object, the greater majority of people appear content with the legislation, which came into effect in Northern Ireland in April 2007.
Irish Pubs have been opened throughout the world, particularly in the 1980s and 1990s, from Boston to Frankfurt, Johannesburg to Beijing. Johannesburg ( Pronounced /jō-hān'ĭs-bûrg'/ is the largest city in South Africa. They generally have a lot in common with pubs in Ireland, but there are many pretenders as well.
The vast majority of pubs in Ireland are independently owned and licensed, or owned by a chain that does not have any brewery involvement, generally meaning that nearly every pub sells a similar but extensive range of products. Some microbreweries operate their own pubs or chains of pubs, where the range is more limited, with only their own products and a few others.