A pseudonym is a fictitious name, also known as an alias, used as an alternative to a person's legal name. In most legal systems, a person can assume a different name for non-fraudulent purposes and use it as their legal name. In the broadest sense a fraud is a Deception made for personal gain or to damage another individual In some cases, pseudonyms are adopted because it is part of a cultural or organizational tradition, as in the case of devotional names used by members of some religious orders and "cadre names" used by Communist party leaders such as Trotsky and Stalin. A religious name is a type of Given name bestowed for a religious purpose and which is generally used in religious contexts A Political party described as a communist party includes those that advocate the application of the social principles of Communism through a communist form of Leon Trotsky ( Russian:, Lev Davidovich Trotsky, also transliterated Leo, Lyev, Trotskii, Trotski, Trotskij Joseph Stalin ( ნამდვილი გვარი ჯუღაშვილი|Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili; March 5 1953 was General Secretary of the Communist Party
Pseudonyms are also used to hide an individual's identity, as with writers' pen names, resistance fighters or terrorists' noms de guerre; and computer hackers' nicknames. A pen name, nom de plume, or literary double, is a Pseudonym adopted by an Author or their publishers to conceal their identity A resistance movement is a group or collection of individual groups dedicated to fighting an Invader in an occupied country or the government of a sovereign nation A pseudonym is a fictitious alternative to a person's legal name (see Alias) Actors, musicians, and other performers sometimes use a stage name to mask their original ethnic background, particularly in the early to mid-1900s. An actor, actress, player or thespian (see terminology) is a person who Acts in a Dramatic production and who works A stage name, also called a screen name, is a Pseudonym used by Performers and Entertainers such as Stage names are also used to create a name which better matches their stage persona, as in the case of hip hop artists such as Ol' Dirty Bastard (who was known under at least six aliases); Black metal performers such as Nocturno Culto; and hardcore punk singers such as "Rat" of Discharge. Russell Tyrone Jones ( November 15 1968 – November 13 2004) was an American Rapper who went by the Stage name Black metal is an extreme subgenre of heavy metal. It often employs fast tempos shrieked vocals highly distorted guitars played with Tremolo picking, Nocturno Culto (born Ted Skjellum in 1972 is a Norwegian musician best known as the Vocalist, lead guitarist and partial bassist Discharge is a British Hardcore punk band formed in 1977 by Terry "Tez" Roberts and Roy "Rainy" Wainwright
The term is derived from Greek: ψευδώνυμον, pseudónymon – literally "given a name by error, lie name" from Greek: τὸ ψεύδος, pseúdos – the lie and Greek: ὄνομα, ónoma – the name); pseudo + -onym: false name. Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly A pseudonym is distinct from an allonym, which is the name of another actual person, assumed by someone in authorship of a work of art; such as when ghostwriting a book or play, or in parody, or when using a "front" name such as by screenwriters blacklisted in Hollywood in the 1950s and 1960s. A ghostwriter is a professional Writer who is paid to write books articles stories reports or other content which are officially credited to another person A parody (ˈpɛɹədiː US, [ˈpaɹədiː] UK) in contemporary usage is a work created to mock comment on or poke fun at an original work its subject Screenwriters or scenarists are Scriptwriters who write the Screenplays from which Films and Television programs are made The 1950s Decade refers to the years of 1950 to 1959 inclusive The 1960s decade refers to the years from the beginning of 1960 to the end of 1969
In many monarchies, the prince starting his reign chooses his official name (regnal name) to be used hence, which may differ from his (birth) name till then; sometimes he selects one of his existing names, sometimes a completely different one. A reign is a period of time a person serves as a Monarch or Pope. A regnal name, or reign name, is a formal name used by some Popes and Monarchs during their Reigns Since Medieval times monarchs The choice of an existing name may simply be a matter of tradition or intend to honour a specific predecessor, and/or emphasize the hereditary legitimacy of succession, or may actually convey a programme or intention.
In the tradition of various Roman Catholic religious orders and congregations, members abandon their birthname to assume a new, often unrelated, devotional name, often referring to an admired saint. Religious orders ('Religious Institutes' cf canons 573-746 are the major form of consecrated life in the Roman Catholic Church. A religious name is a type of Given name bestowed for a religious purpose and which is generally used in religious contexts For women, e. g. , in the Society of the Helpers of the Holy Souls, this reflects the mystical marriage as bride of Christ. The Society of the Helpers of the Holy Souls is a Catholic Religious order of women founded in Paris, France in 1856 with the objective of assisting Mystical marriage is a term equating the intimacy of a mystical relationship as between a Christian Mystic and God with the natural intimacy between marital partners The Bride of Christ is a Metaphor for the Ecclesia (church, likening the relationship between Christians and Jesus to a Betrothal
In Buddhism a Dharma name is given during the traditional refuge ceremony. A Dharma name (J kaimyō) is a new name acquired during a Buddhist refuge ceremony such as Jukai. In lay and monastic ordination ceremonies Buddhists take the Three Refuges in the Three Jewels and are said to "take refuge Practitioners of Wicca and other forms of Neopagan witchcraft often adopt a craft name or magical name. Neopaganism or Neo-Paganism is an Umbrella term used to identify a wide variety of modern religious movements particularly those influenced by historical Witchcraft, in various historical anthropological religious and mythological contexts is the use of certain kinds of Supernatural or magical powers A Craft name, also known as a magical (or Magickal name is a secondary religious name often adopted by practitioners of Wicca and other forms of Neopagan
Within Communist parties and Trotskyist organisations, noms de guerre are usually known as "party names" or "cadre names". A Political party described as a communist party includes those that advocate the application of the social principles of Communism through a communist form of Trotskyism is the theory of Marxism as advocated by Leon Trotsky. While the practice originated during the revolutionary years after WW I, to conceal the identity of leaders, by the 1950s and 1960s, the practice was more of a tradition than an identity-concealment strategy. Some famous Communist Party names include Lenin (Vladimir Il'ich Ulyanov); Stalin (Yosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili); and Pol Pot (Saloth Sar). Joseph Stalin ( ნამდვილი გვარი ჯუღაშვილი|Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili; March 5 1953 was General Secretary of the Communist Party Saloth Sar ( May 19, 1925 – April 15, 1998) also known as Pol Pot, was leader of the Communist movement known as
From the late eighteenth to early nineteenth centuries, it was established practice for political articles to be signed with pseudonyms. The 18th century lasted from 1701 to 1800 in the Gregorian calendar, in accordance with the Anno Domini / Common Era numbering system The 19th century of the Common Era began on January 1, 1801 and ended on December 31, 1900, according to the Gregorian calendar A well-known American was the pen name Publius, used by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay, in writing The Federalist Papers. James Madison Jr (March 16 1751 – June 28 1836 was an American Politician, the fourth President of the United States (1809–1817 and one of the Founding John Jay (December 12 1745 – May 17 1829 was an American Politician, Statesman, revolutionary, Diplomat, a Supreme Court The Federalist Papers are a series of 85 articles advocating the ratification of the United States Constitution.
A pen name (or "nom de plume") is a pseudonym adopted by authors or their publishers to conceal their identity. A pen name, nom de plume, or literary double, is a Pseudonym adopted by an Author or their publishers to conceal their identity An author is defined both as "the person who originates or gives existence to anything" and that authorship determines responsibility for what is created One famous example of this is Samuel Clements writing under the pen name Mark Twain. Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30 1835 – April 21 1910 better known by the Pen name Mark Twain, was an American Humorist, satirist Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30 1835 – April 21 1910 better known by the Pen name Mark Twain, was an American Humorist, satirist A pen name may be used if a writer's real name is likely to be confused with the name of another writer or notable individual, or if their real name is deemed to be unsuitable. Authors who write in fiction and non-fiction, or in different genres, may use pen names to avoid confusing their readers, as in the case mathematician Charles Dodgson, who wrote fantasy novels under the pen name Lewis Carroll. Charles Lutwidge Dodgson (ˈdɒdsən (27 January 1832 &ndash 14 January 1898 better known by the Pen name Lewis Carroll (/ˈkærəl/ was an English Some female authors use male pen names, particularly in the 19th century, when writing was a male-dominated profession. A pseudonym may also be used to hide the identity of the author, as in the case of exposé books about espionage or crime, or explicit erotic fiction. Investigative journalism is a type of reporting in which reporters deeply investigate a topic of interest often involving crime Political corruption, or some other Scandal In the sociological field, crime is the breach of a rule or Law for which some governing authority or force may ultimately prescribe a Punishment Some prolific authors adopt a pseudonym to disguise the extent of their published output, e. g. , Stephen King writing as Richard Bachman. Stephen Edwin King (born September 21, 1947) is an American Author, Screenwriter, Musician, Columnist, Richard Bachman is a Pseudonym used by Horror fiction author Stephen King. Co-authors may choose to publish under a single pseudonym, e. g. , Ellery Queen, P. J. Tracy, and Perri O'Shaughnessy. Ellery Queen is both a Fictional character and a Pseudonym used by two American cousins from Brooklyn, New York: Daniel (David Nathan P J Tracy is a Pseudonym for American mother-daughter writing team Patricia (P Perri O'Shaughnessy is the pen name for two sisters Mary and Pamela O'Shaughnessy who live in Hawaii and California
"Noms de guerre" were frequently adopted by recruits in the French Foreign Legion as part of the break with their past lives and by members of the French resistance during World War II. The French Resistance is the collective name used for the French Resistance movements which fought against the Nazi German World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including These pseudonyms are often adopted by resistance fighters, terrorists and guerrillas to hide their identities and protect their families from reprisal. A resistance movement is a group or collection of individual groups dedicated to fighting an Invader in an occupied country or the government of a sovereign nation Terrorism is the systematic use of terror especially as a means of coercion Guerrilla warfare is the unconventional warfare and combat with which a small group of combatants use mobile tactics (ambushes raids etc Some well-known noms de guerre include Carlos the Jackal for Ilich Ramírez Sánchez and Subcommandante Marcos for the leader of the Zapatista Army of National Liberation (EZLN). Ilich Ramírez Sánchez (born) is a Venezuelan born leftist Revolutionary. Subcomandante Marcos, also known as Delegado Cero in matters concerning the Other Campaign, describes himself as the spokesman for the Mexican rebel The Zapatista Army of National Liberation ( Ejército Zapatista de Liberación Nacional, EZLN) is an armed Revolutionary group based in Chiapas
In capoeira, a Brazilian martial art, an apelido (pseudonym) is traditionally given to a capoeirista (Capoeira practitioner) at their first batizado, or promotion ceremony. Capoeira (kapuˈejɾɐ is a brazilian art form that ritualizes movement from Martial arts, Games, and Dance. Capoeira (kapuˈejɾɐ is a brazilian art form that ritualizes movement from Martial arts, Games, and Dance. Capoeiristas refer to each other almost exclusively by their Capoeira names, a tradition that dates prior to practicing Capoeira being legalized in Brazil. Since punishments for practicing Capoeira were often harsh, it was used as a means of remaining anonymous and protecting fellow practitioners from being caught, as well as any retribution their families might otherwise endure.
For a person using a computer, a pseudonym can take the form of a handle, a user name, login name, avatar or, sometimes, screen name, nick or nickname. Users in a Computing context refers to one who uses a computer system An avatar is a computer user's representation of himself/herself or alter ego whether in the form of a three-dimensional model used in computer games a two-dimensional Icon Users in a Computing context refers to one who uses a computer system On the internet, pseudonymous remailers utilising cryptography can be used to achieve persistent pseudonymity, so that two-way communication can be achieved, and reputations can be established without linking a physical identity to a pseudonym. A pseudonymous remailer or nym server, as opposed to an Anonymous remailer, is an Internet software program designed to allow people to write Pseudonymous Cryptography (or cryptology; from Greek grc κρυπτός kryptos, "hidden secret" and grc γράφω gráphō, "I write" Pseudonymity is a word derived from Pseudonym, meaning 'false name' and describes a state of disguised identity resulting from the use of a pseudonym (also called nym Identity theft is a term used to refer to Fraud that involves stealing money or getting other benefits by pretending to be someone else
In online gaming clans, especially first person shooter games, in the demoscene, or in a distributed computing project using Internet-connected computers, users or players often create a "clan name" when joining. In computer and video gaming, a clan or guild is a group of players who regularly play together in a particular (or various different Multiplayer games The demoscene is a Computer art Subculture that specializes in producing demos, which are non-interactive audio-visual presentations that run in Distributed computing deals with Hardware and Software Systems containing more than one processing element or Storage element concurrent The Internet is a global system of interconnected Computer networks Often they add the "clan tag" to their existing nick, but some create a new name altogether. In Hacker culture, individuals will often use a handle or nym (short for pseudonym) as their public identity in RL or Real Life while keeping their actual identity secret.
When used by an actor, performer or model, a pseudonym is a stage name or screen name. An actor, actress, player or thespian (see terminology) is a person who Acts in a Dramatic production and who works A model is a person who is posed or displayed for the purpose of Art, Fashion, or other products and Advertising. A stage name, also called a screen name, is a Pseudonym used by Performers and Entertainers such as Actors who are members of a marginalized ethnic or religious group have often adopted stage names, typically changing their surname or entire name to mask their original background — as has been done in other fields as well. This phenomenon was common in the United States in the first half of the twentieth century. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Screen names are also used to create a more marketable name, as in the case of Creighton Tull Chaney, who adopted the pseudonym Lon Chaney, Jr., a reference to his famous father Lon Chaney, Sr.. Lon Chaney Jr ( February 10, 1906 – July 12, 1973) was an American Character actor, known mainly for his roles Lon Chaney ( April 1 1883 &ndash August 26 1930) nicknamed " The Man of a Thousand Faces," was an American
Pseudonyms are also used to comply with the rules of performing arts guilds (SAG, WGA, AFTRA, etc. The performing arts are those forms of Art which differ from the Plastic arts insofar as the former uses the artist's own Body, Face and presence A guild is an association of craftsmen in a particular trade The earliest guilds were formed as confraternities of workers The Screen Actors Guild ( SAG) is an American labor union representing over 120000 Film and television principal performers and background The Writers Guild of America is a generic term referring to the joint efforts of two different US labor unions The Writers Guild of America East (WGAE representing The American Federation of Television and Radio Artists (AFTRA is a performers' union that represents a wide variety of talent including actors in radio and television as well as radio ), which do not allow performers to use an existing name, in order to avoid confusion. For example, these rules required film and television actor Michael Fox to add a middle initial and become Michael J. Fox, to avoid being confused with another actor named Michael Fox. Michael J Fox (born Michael Andrew Fox; June 9 1961 is a Canadian / American
While most stage names are not used to conceal a person's identity, the exception is the pseudonym Alan Smithee, which is used by directors in the DGA to remove their name from a film they feel was edited or modified beyond their artistic satisfaction. For the 1997 film see An Alan Smithee Film Burn Hollywood Burn, Alan Smithee (or the alternate spellings Allen Smithee Alan Smythee Directors Guild of America ( DGA) is the labor union which represents the interests of film and television directors in the United States In theatre, the pseudonym George or Georgina Spelvin, David Agnew and Walter Plinge are used to hide the identity of a performer. George Spelvin, Georgette Spelvin, and Georgina Spelvin are the traditional Pseudonyms used in programs in American Theater by actors who don't David Agnew is a Pseudonym that was traditionally used on BBC television drama programmes in the 1970s where a writer's name could not be used for contractual This article is about the pseudonym for the Discworld character see Minor Discworld characters#Walter Plinge Walter Plinge is a Pseudonym Professional names are also common for DJs in radio broadcasting. A disc jockey (also known as DJ or deejay) is a person who selects and plays recorded music for an audience For the band see Broadcast (band Broadcasting is the distribution of audio and/or Video signals which transmit
Musicians and singers use pseudonyms to allow artists to collaborate with artists on other labels while avoiding the need to gain permission from their own labels. Rock singer-guitarist George Harrison, for example, played guitar on Cream's song "Badge" using a pseudonym. George Harrison, MBE (25 February 1943 – 29 November 2001 was an English rock Guitarist Singer - Songwriter, Author Cream were a 1960s British rock band " Badge " is a rock song by Cream, penned by Eric Clapton and George Harrison during a collaborative effort between Clapton Harrison and Ringo In classical music, some record companies issued recordings under pseudonyms in the 1950s and 1960s to avoid paying royalties. A number of popular budget LPs of piano music were released under the pseudonym Paul Procopolis. Paul Procopolis was a non-existent classical pianist who was credited as a performer on various recordings Pseudonyms are also used as stage names in Metal bands, like Pig Benis in Mushroomhead, and "133" in Slipknot. Some of these names have meanings to them as well, like that of Brian Hugh Warner, more commonly known as Marilyn Manson. Marilyn coming from Marilyn Monroe, and Manson from convicted serial killer Charles Manson.
Most hip hop artists prefer to use a pseudonym that represents some variation of their name, personality, or interests. Prime examples include Ol' Dirty Bastard (who was known under at least six aliases), Diddy (formerly known as P. Russell Tyrone Jones ( November 15 1968 – November 13 2004) was an American Rapper who went by the Stage name Sean John Combs (born November 4 1969 known by his Stage names Puff Daddy, P Diddy, and Puff Daddy), Ludacris, LL Cool J, Sam "Original Gangster" Biglari, and Chingy. James Todd Smith (born January 14 1968 better known as LL Cool J, is an American Rapper and actor Howard Bailey Jr (born March 9, 1980) better known by his Stage name Chingy, is an American Hip-Hop Recording artist Black metal artists also adopt pseudonyms, usually symbolizing satanic values, such as Nocturno Culto, Gaahl, Abbath, and Silenoz. Black metal is an extreme subgenre of heavy metal. It often employs fast tempos shrieked vocals highly distorted guitars played with Tremolo picking, Nocturno Culto (born Ted Skjellum in 1972 is a Norwegian musician best known as the Vocalist, lead guitarist and partial bassist In punk and hardcore punk, singers and band members often replace their real names with more "tough"-sounding stage names, such as Sid Vicious of the late 1970s band Sex Pistols and "Rat" of the early 1980s band The Varukers and the 2000s re-formation of Discharge. John Simon Ritchie (born May 10, 1957, died February 2, 1979) better known as Sid Vicious, was an English Punk The Sex Pistols are an English Punk rock band that formed in London in 1975 The Varukers are a UK anarchist hardcore punk band formed in 1979 by vocalist Anthony "Rat" Martin which produced its most influential recordings Discharge is a British Hardcore punk band formed in 1977 by Terry "Tez" Roberts and Roy "Rainy" Wainwright
Pseudonyms are also adopted for other reasons. In some cases, people choose a new name for political reasons. Some Jewish politicians adopted Hebrew family names upon making aliyah to Israel, dropping westernized surnames that may have been in the family for generations. Aliyah ( refers to Jewish Immigration to the Land of Israel (and since its establishment in 1948 the State of Israel) For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. David Ben Gurion, for example, was born David Grün in Poland. He adopted his Hebrew name in 1910, when he published his first article in a Zionist journal in Jerusalem. Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם, he-Latn Yerushaláyim; Arabic: ar القُدس, ar-Latn al-Quds) is the In the 1960s, black civil rights campaigner Malcolm X, (né Malcom Little), adopted the 'X' to represent his unknown African ancestral name which was lost when his ancestors were brought to North America as slaves. Malcolm X (born Malcolm Little; May 19 1925 February 21 1965 also known as El-Hajj Malik El- Shabazz, was an African American
Famous pseudonyms of people who were neither authors nor actors include the architect Le Corbusier (né Charles Édouard Jeanneret); and the statistician Student (ne William Sealey Gosset), discoverer of Student's t-distribution in statistics. An architect is a licensed individual who leads a design team in the Planning and Design of buildings and participates in oversight of Building Construction Charles-Édouard Jeanneret-Gris, who chose to be known as Le Corbusier ( October 6, 1887 – August 27, 1965) was a Swiss William Sealy Gosset ( June 13 1876 – October 16 1937) is famous as a Statistician, best known by his pen name Student In Probability and Statistics, Student's t -distribution (or simply the t -distribution) is a Probability distribution Statistics is a mathematical science pertaining to the collection analysis interpretation or explanation and presentation of Data.
When used by a radio operator, a pseudonym is a "handle," especially in Citizens' band radio. Citizens' Band radio ( CB) is in many countries a system of short-distance simplex radio communications between individuals on a selection of 40 channels within