Demonstrators march in the street while protesting the World Bank
and International Monetary Fund
on April 16
. Pro-Test is a British group that promotes and supports Animal testing in Medical research. Oxford is currently bidding for the 2010 Wikimania Conference Oxford () is a city, and the County town of Oxfordshire, The World Bank is an internationally supported Bank that provides financial and technical assistance to developing countries for development programs (e The International Monetary Fund ( IMF) is an International organization that oversees the Global financial system by following the Macroeconomic Events 1178 BC - A Solar eclipse may have marked the return of Odysseus, legendary King of Ithaca, to his kingdom Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
Protest expresses relatively overt reaction to events or situations: sometimes in favor, though more often opposed. Protesters may organize a protest as a way of publicly and forcefully making their opinions heard in an attempt to influence public opinion or government policy, or may undertake direct action to attempt to directly enact desired changes themselves. Direct action is political action which happens outside normal political channels via indirect actions such as electing representatives. 
Self-expression can, in theory, in practice or in appearance, be restricted by governmental policy, economic circumstances, religious orthodoxy, social structures, or media monopoly. For the government of parliamentary systems see Executive (government. "Popular press" redirects here note that the University of Wisconsin Press publishes under the imprint "The Popular Press" In Economics, a monopoly (from Greek monos, alone or single + polein, to sell exists when a specific individual or enterprise has sufficient When such restrictions occur, opposition may spill over into other areas such as culture, the streets or emigration. Culture (from the Latin cultura stemming from colere, meaning "to cultivate" generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic "Emigrant" redirects here For the Butterflies, see Catopsilia.
A protest can itself sometimes be the subject of a counter-protest. In such a case, counter-protesters demonstrate their support for the person, policy, action, etc. that is the subject of the original protest.
, peace protest in Washington DC. Events 668 - Eastern Roman Emperor Constans II is assassinated in his bath at Syracuse Italy. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century.
Unaddressed protest may grow and widen into dissent, activism, riots, insurgency, revolts, and political and/or social revolution, as in:
Forms of protest
Commonly recognized forms of protest include:
Protesters outside the Hotel Washington during the Million Worker March
. Dissent is a sentiment or philosophy of non-agreement or Opposition to an Idea (eg Activism, in a general sense can be described as intentional action to bring about social or political change Riots are a form of Civil disorders characterized by disorganized groups lashing out in a sudden and intense rash of Violence, Vandalism or other Rebellion is a refusal of obedienceIt may therefore be seen as encompassing a range of Behaviours from Civil disobedience and mass Nonviolent resistance A revolution (from the Latin revolutio, "a turnaround" is a fundamental change in power or organizational structures that takes place in a relatively The Protestant Reformation was a reform movement in Europe that began in 1517 though its roots lie further back in time In this article the inhabitants of the thirteen colonies that supported the American Revolution are primarily referred to as "Americans" with occasional references to "Patriots" This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. The French Revolution (1789–1799 was a period of political and social upheaval in the History of France, during which the French governmental structure previously an Anarchism in the United States spans a wide range of Anarchist Philosophy, from Individualist anarchism to Anarchist communism and other less Martin Luther King Jr ( January 15, 1929 April 4, 1968) was an American clergyman, Activist and prominent leader The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom was a large political rally that took place in Washington D The American Civil Rights Movement (1955–1968 refers to the reform movements in the United States aimed at abolishing racial discrimination against African The Stonewall riots were a series of spontaneous violent demonstrations against a police raid that took place in the early morning hours of June 28 1969 at the Stonewall Inn The City of New York The Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 culminating in the Tiananmen Square Massacre (referred to in Chinese as the June Fourth Incident, to avoid confusion with two ACT UP, or the AIDS Coalition to Unleash Power, "is a diverse non-partisan group of individuals. Protest activity surrounding the WTO Ministerial Conference of 1999, which was to be the launch of a new millennial round of Trade negotiations occurred Anti-capitalist Protests in Prague during the IMF and World Bank summit in September 2000 in Prague capital of the Czech Serbia (Србија Srbija) officially the Republic of Serbia (Република Србија Republika Srbija) is a Landlocked Country The February 15, 2003 anti-war protest was a coordinated day of protests across the world against the imminent invasion of Iraq. The Million Worker March was a rally against perceived attacks upon working families in America and what organizers described as millions of jobs lost during the Bush administration
Public demonstration or political rally
Some forms of direct action listed in this article are also public demonstrations or rallies. Direct action is political action which happens outside normal political channels via indirect actions such as electing representatives. A demonstration is an historically and geographically common form of Nonviolent action by groups of people
- Protest march, a historically and geographically common form of nonviolent action by groups of people. A demonstration is an historically and geographically common form of Nonviolent action by groups of people Nonviolence is a philosophy and strategy for social change that rejects the use of physical Violence.
- Picketing, a form of protest in which people congregate outside a place of work or location where an event is taking place. Often, this is done in an attempt to dissuade others from going in ("crossing the picket line"), but it can also be done to draw public attention to a cause.
- Street protesters, characteristically, work alone, gravitating towards areas of high foot traffic, and employing handmade placards such as sandwich boards or picket sign's in order to maximize exposure and interaction with the public. Street protesting is a form of individual public demonstration, more prevalent in larger cities. A sandwich board is a type of Advertisement composed of two boards (holding a message or graphic and being either Carried by a person with one board one in
- Die-ins are a form of protest where participants simulate being dead (with varying degrees of realism). Die-ins are a form of Protest where participants simulate being dead (with varying degrees of realism In the simplest form of a die-in, protesters simply lie down on the ground and pretend to be dead, sometimes covering themselves with signs or banners. Much of the effectiveness depends on the posture of the protesters, for when not properly executed, the protest might look more like a "sleep-in". For added realism, simulated wounds are sometimes painted on the bodies, or (usually "bloody") bandages are used.
- Protest song is a song which protests perceived problems in society. A protest song is a Song which Protests against perceived problems in Society. Every major movement in Western history has been accompanied by its own collection of protest songs, from slave emancipation to women's suffrage, the labor movement, civil rights, the anti-war movement, the feminist movement, the environmental movement. Emancipation is a term used to describe various efforts to obtain Political rights or equality, often for a specifically Disenfranchised group or more Suffrage (from the Latin suffragium, meaning "voting tablet" and figuratively "right to vote" probably from suffrago "hough" and originally The labour movement or labor movement is a broad term for the development of a collective organization of working people, to campaign in their own interest for better Feminism is a discourse that involves various movements theories, and Philosophies which are concerned with the issue of Gender difference, advocate Over time, the songs have come to protest more abstract, moral issues, such as injustice, racial discrimination, the morality of war in general (as opposed to purely protesting individual wars), globalization, inflation, social inequalities, and incarceration. List of racism-related topics|Racism by country Racism, by its simplest definition is the belief that race is the primary determinant of human traits and capacities and that War is an international relations Dispute, characterized by organized Violence between National Military units Globalization (or globalisation) in its literal sense is the process of transformation of local or regional phenomena into global ones In economics inflation or price inflation is a rise in the general level of prices of goods and services over a period of time Economic inequality refers to disparities in the distribution of Economic Assets and Income. Incarceration is the detention of a person in Jail or Prison.
- Radical cheerleading The idea is to ironically reappropriate the aesthetics of cheerleading, for example by changing the chants to promote feminism and left-wing causes. Radical cheerleading is a form of Cheerleading that originated in Florida, but has now spread across the United States as well as Canada Chant (from Old French chanter) is the Rhythmic speaking or Singing of Words or Sounds often primarily on one or two Feminism is a discourse that involves various movements theories, and Philosophies which are concerned with the issue of Gender difference, advocate Many radical cheerleaders (some of whom are male, transgender or non-gender identified) are in appearance far from the stereotypical image of a cheerleader. Transgender (trænzˈdʒɛndɚ from ( Latin) derivatives
Written evidence of political or economic power, or democratic justification may also be a way of protesting.
- Letters (to show political power by the volume of letters): For example, some letter writing campaigns especially with signed form letter
Pro-life activists demonstrating in front of the Supreme Court
in Washington, D. A petition is a request to change some thing most commonly made to a government official or public entity The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary.
Civil disobedience demonstrations
Any protest could be civil disobedience if a “ruling authority” says so, but the following are usually civil disobedience demonstrations:
- Public nudity or topfree (to protest indecency laws or as a publicity stunt for another protest such as a war protest) or animal mistreatment (e. Civil disobedience is the active refusal to obey certain Laws demands and commands of a Government, or of an occupying power, without resorting to physical Civil disobedience is the active refusal to obey certain Laws demands and commands of a Government, or of an occupying power, without resorting to physical Public nudity or nude in public (NIP refers to Nudity not in an entirely private context Topfreedom is a Social movement seeking the recognition of a right of women and girls to be topfree in public where men and boys have that right Decency is conformity to sociocultural standards of conduct and speech A publicity stunt is an event designed to attract the public 's attention to the promoters or their causes g. PETA's campaign against fur)
- Raasta roko (people blocking auto traffic with their bodies)
- Some other publicity stunts
As a residence
- Riot - Protests or attempts to end protests sometimes lead to rioting. A sit-in or sit-down is a form of direct action that involves one or more persons nonviolently occupying an area for a Protest, often to promote political social Raasta roko means "obstruct the road" in Hindi. It is a form of protest quite commonly practised in India. A publicity stunt is an event designed to attract the public 's attention to the promoters or their causes Peace camps are a form of physical Protest camp that is focused on Anti-war activity The term tent city is used to describe a variety of temporary housing facilities made using Tents. Riots are a form of Civil disorders characterized by disorganized groups lashing out in a sudden and intense rash of Violence, Vandalism or other
Protesting a government
Demonstration against the 2004 NATO summit
. This is an article on the ritualistic suicide practice For the record company see Self Immolation. Nonviolent resistance (or nonviolent action) is the practice of achieving socio-political goals through Symbolic Protests Civil disobedience, An occupation, as an act of Protest, is the entry into and holding of a building space or symbolic site A tax resister resists or refuses payment of a Tax because of opposition to the institution collecting the tax or to some of that institution’s policies A conscientious objector (CO is an individual who on religious moral or ethical grounds refuses to participate as a combatant in war or in some cases to take any role that would support Flag desecration is a term applied to various acts that intentionally deface a Flag, most often a National flag (though other flags can be defaced as well The 2004 Istanbul summit was held in Istanbul, Turkey from June 28 to June 29 2004 Istanbul (historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see the other Names of Istanbul) is the largest city of Turkey
Protesting a military shipment
- Port Militarization Resistance - protests which attempt to prevent military cargo shipments. Port Militarization Resistance (PMR is an anti-war organization in the United States.
By government employees
During a sporting event, under certain circumstances, one side may choose to play a game "under protest", usually when they feel the rules are not being correctly applied. A bully pulpit is a Public office of sufficiently high rank that provides the holder with an opportunity to speak out and be listened to on any matter Judicial activism is a pejorative term for the misuse of judicial power and is a neologism for the older classical term " board judicial review. Strike action, often simply called a strike, is a work stoppage caused by the mass refusal by Employees to perform work. A sit-down strike is a form of Civil disobedience in which an organized group of workers usually employed at a factory or other centralized location take possession of In labor disputes, a walkout is a labor strike, the act of employees collectively leaving the workplace as an act of protest Sport is an Activity that is governed by a set of rules or Customs and often engaged in competitively The event continues as normal, and the events causing the protest are reviewed after the fact. If the protest is held to be valid, then the results of the event are changed. Each sport has different rules for protests.
demonstration in London
against the Church of Scientology
. A lockout is a Work stoppage in which an Employer prevents employees from working A rent strike is a method of protest commonly employed against large Landlords In a rent strike a group of Tenants come together and agree to refuse to pay their A boycott is a form of Consumer activism involving the act of voluntarily abstaining from using buying or dealing with someone or some other organization as an expression of Consumer Court is the name given to special purpose courts mainly in India and elsewhere that deal with cases regarding consumer disputes and grievances The self-styled Anonymous (used as a Mass noun) is a label and Internet meme adopted within Internet culture to represent the actions of many online community London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. The Church of Scientology is the largest organization devoted to the practice and the promotion of the Scientology belief system.
Civil disobedience to censorship
Literature, art, culture
Usage in American English
In American English, the verb protest often acts transitively: The students protested the policy. A teach-in is a method of non-violent Protest, first employed against the U A zine (an abbreviation of the word Fanzine, or magazine ziːn "zeen" is most commonly a small circulation non-commercial Publication A soapbox is a raised Platform on which one stands to make an impromptu speech, often about a political subject Samizdat (самиздат was the clandestine copying and distribution of government-suppressed literature or other media in Soviet-bloc Graffiti (singular graffito; the plural is used as a Mass noun) is the name for images or lettering scratched scrawled painted or marked in any manner on property A precise definition of culture jamming is elusive It has been called a Resistance movement to Cultural hegemony, whereas some say the defining theme of culture jamming In the History of England, recusancy was a term used to describe the statutory offence of not complying with and conforming to the Established church or Phonology North American English regional phonology In many ways compared to English English, North American English is conservative in its Phonology. In Syntax, a transitive verb is a Verb that requires both a subject and one or more objects Some examples of sentences with transitive verbs Elsewhere one can still find intransitive usage: The students protested against the policy; or: The students protested in favor of the policy. In Grammar, an intransitive Verb does not take an object. In more technical terms an intransitive verb has only one argument (its subject
Early protests began with basic things such as a teach-in. These were organised from 1965 onwards, at these speakers representing different viewpoint debated issues.
Lebanese protest in Sydney during the 2006 Israel Lebanon conflict.
Economic effects of protests against companies
A study of 342 US protests covered by the New York Times newspaper in the period 1962 and 1990 showed that such public activities usually had an impact on the company's publicly-traded stock price. Year 1962 ( MCMLXII) was a Common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Year 1990 ( MCMXC) was a Common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar) Software for Fixed assets management and Stock control developed in 2004. The most intriguing aspect of the study's findings is that what mattered most was not the number of protest participants, but the amount of media coverage the event received. Stock prices fell an average of one-tenth of a percent for every paragraph printed about the event. 
- ^ St. " Anti-globalization " is a term that encompasses a number of related ideas In November-December 2006 the Desecration of a Ambedkar statue in Kanpur triggered off violent Protests by Dalits in Maharashtra, The First Amendment to the United States Constitution is part of the United States Bill of Rights that expressly prohibits the United States Congress The Politics of France take place in a framework of a semi-presidential representative democratic Republic, whereby the President of France Gandhigiri is an relatively new term in India which is used to express the tenets of Gandhism (the ideals of Mahatma Gandhi which include Satyagraha The Anti-caste-based-reservation protests 2006, that took place in parts of India, were in opposition to the decision of the Union Government of India, the multiparty For other events in May 1968 see 1968. Police are agents or agencies usually of the executive, empowered to enforce the law and to effect public and social order through the legitimatized use of force Port Militarization Resistance (PMR is an anti-war organization in the United States. Protest art or activist art refers to the signs banners and any other form of creative expression used by Activists to convey a particular cause or message There have been considerable protests against the Iraq War in the buildup to and following the 2003 invasion of Iraq. right to protest is a perceived human right arising out of a number of recognized Human rights. The Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 culminating in the Tiananmen Square Massacre (referred to in Chinese as the June Fourth Incident, to avoid confusion with two The fuel protests in the United Kingdom were a series of Campaigns held in the United Kingdom over the cost of Petrol and Diesel for road vehicle John Barned-Smith, "How We Rage: This Is Not Your Parents' Protest," Current (Winter 2007): 17-25.
- ^ Deseret Morning News, 13 Nov. 2007 issue, p. E3, Coverage of protests hurts firms, Cornell-Y. study says, Angie Welling
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