Propane
IUPAC namePropane
Identifiers
CAS number[74-98-6]
PubChem6634
UN number1978
RTECS numberTX2275000
SMILESCCC
Properties
Molecular formulaC3H8
Molar mass44. IUPAC Nomenclature is a system of naming Chemical compounds and of describing the science of Chemistry in general CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for Chemical compounds Polymers biological sequences mixtures and Alloys They are also referred to PubChem is a Database of chemical Molecules The system is maintained by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI a component UN numbers or UN IDs are four-digit numbers that identify Hazardous substances, and articles (such as explosives flammable liquids toxic substances etc List of UN Numbers UN 1901 to UN 2000 Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances ( RTECS) is a Database of Toxicity information compiled from the open scientific literature without reference A chemical formula is a way of expressing information about the Atoms that constitute a particular Chemical compound, and how the relationship between those atoms changes Molar mass, symbol M, is the Mass of one mole of a substance ( Chemical element or Chemical compound) 096 g/mol
AppearanceColorless gas
Density1. The density of a material is defined as its Mass per unit Volume: \rho = \frac{m}{V} Different materials usually have different 83 kg/m3, gas
0. 5077 kg/L, liquid
Melting point

−187. The melting point of a solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to Liquid. 6 °C (85. 5 K)

Boiling point

−42. The boiling point of a liquid is the temperature at which the Vapor pressure of the liquid equals the environmental pressure surrounding the liquid 09 °C (231. 1 K)

Solubility in water0. Solubility is the characteristic Physical property referring to the ability of a given substance the Solute, to dissolve in a Solvent. Water is a common Chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all known forms of Life. 1 g/cm3 (37. 8 °C)
Hazards
MSDSExternal MSDS
EU classificationHighly flammable (F+)
NFPA 704
4
1
0

R-phrasesR12
S-phrases(S2), S9, S16
Explosive limits2. A material safety data sheet ( MSDS) is a form containing data regarding the properties of a particular substance and save the page --> This page provides supplementary chemical data on Propane. Council Directive 67/548/EEC of 27 June 1967 on the approximation of laws regulations and administrative provisions relating to the classification packaging and labelling Symbolism The four divisions are typically color-coded with blue indicating level of Health Hazard, red indicating R-phrases (short for Risk Phrases) are defined in Annex III of European Union Directive 67/548/EEC: Nature of special risks attributed to dangerous R-phrases (short for Risk Phrases) are defined in Annex III of European Union Directive 67/548/EEC: Nature of special risks attributed to dangerous S-phrases are defined in Annex IV of European Union Directive 67/548/EEC: Safety advice concerning dangerous substances and preparations. S-phrases are defined in Annex IV of European Union Directive 67/548/EEC: Safety advice concerning dangerous substances and preparations. S-phrases are defined in Annex IV of European Union Directive 67/548/EEC: Safety advice concerning dangerous substances and preparations. S-phrases are defined in Annex IV of European Union Directive 67/548/EEC: Safety advice concerning dangerous substances and preparations. 37–9. 5%
Related compounds
Related alkanesEthane
Butane
Supplementary data page
Structure and
properties
n, εr, etc. Alkanes, also known as Paraffins are Chemical compounds that consist only of the elements Carbon (C and Hydrogen (H (i ETHANE is a mnemonic indicating a protocol used by Emergency services to report situations which they may be faced with especially as it relates to major incidents where Butane, also called n -butane, is the unbranched Alkane with four Carbon Atoms CH3CH2CH2CH3 and save the page --> This page provides supplementary chemical data on Propane. and save the page --> This page provides supplementary chemical data on Propane. The refractive index (or index of Refraction) of a medium is a measure for how much the speed of light (or other waves such as sound waves is reduced inside the medium Measurement The relative static permittivity εr can be measured for static Electric fields as follows first the Capacitance of a test
Thermodynamic
data
Phase behaviour
Solid, liquid, gas
Spectral dataUV, IR, NMR, MS
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for
materials in their standard state
(at 25 °C, 100 kPa)

Infobox disclaimer and references

Propane is a three-carbon alkane, normally a gas, but compressible to a liquid that is transportable. and save the page --> This page provides supplementary chemical data on Propane. and save the page --> This page provides supplementary chemical data on Propane. Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy or ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry ( UV/ VIS) involves the Spectroscopy of Photons in the UV-visible Infrared spectroscopy (IR spectroscopy is the subset of Spectroscopy that deals with the Infrared region of the Electromagnetic spectrum. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, most commonly known as NMR spectroscopy, is the name given to a technique which exploits the magnetic properties of certain nuclei Mass spectrometry is an analytical technique that identifies the chemical composition of a compound or sample based on the Mass-to-charge ratio of charged particles In Chemistry, the standard state of a material is its state at 1 bar (100 Kilopascals exactly Carbon (kɑɹbən is a Chemical element with the symbol C and its Atomic number is 6 Alkanes, also known as Paraffins are Chemical compounds that consist only of the elements Carbon (C and Hydrogen (H (i It is derived from other petroleum products during oil or natural gas processing. Petroleum ( L petroleum, from Greek πετρέλαιον, lit Natural gas is a Gaseous Fossil fuel consisting primarily of Methane but including significant quantities of Ethane, Propane, It is commonly used as a fuel for engines, barbecues, and home heating systems. An engine is a mechanical device that produces some form of output from a given input barbeque block party Kansas cityjpg|thumb|right|275px|A barbecue on a trailer at a Block party in Kansas City.

When sold as fuel, it is commonly known as liquified petroleum gas (LPG or LP-gas) which can be a mixture of propane along with small amounts of propylene, butane, and butylene. Liquefied petroleum gas (also called LPG, GPL, LP Gas, or Autogas) is a mixture of Hydrocarbon Gases used as a Fuel Propene, also known as propylene, is an unsaturated organic compound having the Chemical formula C 3 H 6 Butane, also called n -butane, is the unbranched Alkane with four Carbon Atoms CH3CH2CH2CH3 Isomers Among the molecules which have the Chemical formula 48 four Isomers are Alkenes. The odorant ethanethiol is also added so that people can easily smell the gas in case of a leak. Ethanethiol is the Organic compound with the formula CH3CH2SH

## Properties and reactions

Propane undergoes combustion reactions in a similar fashion to other alkanes. Combustion or burning is a complex sequence of Exothermic chemical reactions between a Fuel and an Oxidant accompanied by the production of In the presence of excess oxygen, propane burns to form water and carbon dioxide. Water is a common Chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all known forms of Life. Carbon dioxide ( Chemical formula:) is a Chemical compound composed of two Oxygen Atoms covalently bonded to a single

C3H8 + 5 O2 → 3 CO2 + 4 H2O + heat

When not enough oxygen is present for complete combustion, propane burns to form water and carbon monoxide. Carbon monoxide, with the chemical formula CO is a colorless odorless tasteless yet highly toxic Gas.

2 C3H8 + 7 O2 → 6CO + 8 H2O + heat

Unlike natural gas, propane is heavier than air (1. Natural gas is a Gaseous Fossil fuel consisting primarily of Methane but including significant quantities of Ethane, Propane, 5 times denser). In its raw state, propane sinks and pools at the floor. Liquid propane will flash to a vapor at atmospheric pressure and appears white due to moisture condensing from the air.

When properly combusted, propane produces about 2,500 BTU per cubic foot of gas (91,600 BTU per liquid gallon). The gross heat of combustion of one normal cubic meter of propane is around 50 megajoules (≈13. The higher Heating value (HHValso known as the gross calorific value or gross energy of a Fuel is defined as the amount of Heat released by a specified In Physical sciences standard conditions for temperature and pressure are Standard sets of conditions for experimental measurements to allow comparisons to be made The joule (written in lower case ˈdʒuːl or /ˈdʒaʊl/ (symbol J) is the SI unit of Energy measuring heat, Electricity kWh) or 50 MJ/m3 in SI units.

Propane is nontoxic; however, when abused as an inhalant it poses a mild asphyxiation risk through oxygen deprivation. Oxygen (from the Greek roots ὀξύς (oxys (acid literally "sharp" from the taste of acids and -γενής (-genēs (producer literally begetteris the It must also be noted that commercial products contain hydrocarbons beyond propane, which may increase risk. Commonly stored under pressure at room temperature, propane and its mixtures expands and cools when released and may cause mild frostbite.

Propane combustion is much cleaner than gasoline, though not as clean as natural gas. Natural gas is a Gaseous Fossil fuel consisting primarily of Methane but including significant quantities of Ethane, Propane, The presence of C-C bonds, plus the multiple bonds of propylene and butylene, create organic exhausts besides carbon dioxide and water vapor during typical combustion. These bonds also cause propane to burn with a visible flame.

Greenhouse gas emissions factors for propane are 62. 7 kg CO2/ mBTU[1] or 1. 55 kg of CO2 per litre[2] or 73. 7 kg / gj[3].

## Uses

Retail sale of propane cylinders.

Propane is used as fuel in cooking on many barbecues, portable stoves and in motor vehicles. barbeque block party Kansas cityjpg|thumb|right|275px|A barbecue on a trailer at a Block party in Kansas City. A Portable stove is a stove specially designed to be portable and lightweight as for camping. The ubiquitous 4. 73-gallon (20 Lb. ) steel container is often dubbed a "barbecue tank". Propane remains a popular choice for barbecues and portable stoves because its low boiling point (-42 C) allows it to vaporize once it is released from its pressurized container. This results in a clean burning fuel that doesn't require a lot of equipment to vaporize. A simple nozzle will suffice. Propane powers some locomotives, buses, forklifts, and taxis and is used for heat and cooking in recreational vehicles and campers. A locomotive is a railway Vehicle that provides the motive power for a Train. A taxicab, also taxi or cab, is a type of Public transport for a single passenger or small group of passengers typically for a non-shared ride In North American English the term recreational vehicle, and its acronym RV, are generally used to refer to an enclosed piece of equipment dually used as both In many rural areas of North America, propane is used in furnaces, cooking stoves, water heaters, laundry dryers, and other heat-producing appliances. As of 2000, 6. 9 million American households use propane as their primary heating fuel. [4]

Commercially-available "propane" fuel, or LPG, is not pure. Liquefied petroleum gas (also called LPG, GPL, LP Gas, or Autogas) is a mixture of Hydrocarbon Gases used as a Fuel Typically in the USA and Canada, it is primarily propane (at least 90%), with the rest mostly butane and propylene (5% maximum), plus odorants. Butane, also called n -butane, is the unbranched Alkane with four Carbon Atoms CH3CH2CH2CH3 Propene, also known as propylene, is an unsaturated organic compound having the Chemical formula C 3 H 6 This is the HD-5 standard, (Heavy Duty-5%maximum allowable propylene content) written for internal combustion engines. LPG, when cracked from methane (natural gas) does not contain propylene, only when refined from crude oil. Methane is a Chemical compound with the molecular formula. It is the simplest Alkane, and the principal component of Natural gas. An oil refinery is an industrial Process plant where Crude oil is processed and refined into more useful Petroleum products, such as Gasoline Petroleum ( L petroleum, from Greek πετρέλαιον, lit It should be noted that not all products labeled "propane" conform to this standard. In Mexico, for example, the butane content is much higher.

#### Domestic and industrial fuel

In North America, local delivery trucks called "bobtails", with an average tank size of 3,000 gallons, fill up large tanks (sometimes called pigs) that are permanently installed on the property, or other service trucks exchange empty cylinders of propane with filled cylinders. Large tractor-trailer trucks called "cargo-liners", with an average tank size of 18,000 gallons, transport the propane from the pipeline/refinery to the local delivery plant. The bobtail and transport is not unique to the North American market, though the practice is not as common elsewhere, and the vehicles are generally referred to as tankers. In many countries, propane is delivered to consumers via small or medium-sized individual tanks.

Propane use is growing rapidly in non-industrialized areas of the world. Propane is replacing wood and other traditional fuel sources in such places, where it is now sometimes called "cooking gas".

As an aside, North American barbecue grills powered by propane cannot be used overseas. The "propane" sold overseas is actually a mixture of propane and butane. The warmer the country, the higher the butane content, commonly 50/50 and sometimes reaching 75% butane. Usage is calibrated to the different-sized nozzles found in non-U. S. grills. Americans who take their grills overseas — such as military personnel — can find U. S. -specification propane at AAFES military post exchanges. The Army & Air Force Exchange Service (or AAFES) is an agency of the United States Department of Defense.

Retail sale of propane in Monmouth, Oregon

North American industries using propane include glass makers, brick kilns, poultry farms, and other industries that need portable heat. Monmouth (ˈmɒnməθ is a city in Polk County, Oregon, United States.

#### Propane risks and alternate gas fuels

Propane is heavier than air. If a leak in a propane fuel system occurs, the gas will have a tendency to sink into any enclosed area and thus poses a risk of explosion and fire.

Propane is bought and stored in a liquid form (LPG) and thus fuel energy can be stored in a relatively small space. Compressed Natural Gas (CNG), largely methane, is another gas used as fuel but requires very high pressure to liquefy (which is dangerous) and therefore is much less efficient to store due to the large tank volume required. Thus propane is much more commonly used to fuel vehicles than natural gas and only requires about 5 atmospheres of pressure to keep it liquid at room temperature.

#### Refrigeration

Propane is also instrumental in providing off-the-grid refrigeration, also called gas absorption refrigerator. The term off the grid or off-grid refers to living in a self-sufficient manner without reliance on one or more public utilities The absorption refrigerator is a Refrigerator that utilizes a heat source (e Refrigerators built in the 1930s are still in regular use, with little or no maintenance. However, certain Servel refrigerators are subject to a recall for carbon monoxide poisoning. [1]

In highly purified form, propane (R-290) can serve as a direct replacement in mechanical refrigeration systems designed to use R-12, R-22 or R-134a chloro- or fluorocarbon based refrigerants. Today, the Unilever Ice Cream company and others are exploring the use of environmentally friendly propane as a refrigerant. A refrigerant is a compound used in a heat cycle that undergoes a Phase change from a Gas to a Liquid and back As an added benefit, users are finding that refrigerators converted to use propane are 9-15% more energy efficient.

#### Vehicle fuel

Main article: Autogas

Propane is also being used increasingly for vehicle fuels. Autogas is the common name for Liquified petroleum gas (LPG when it is used as a Fuel in Internal combustion engines in Vehicles. In the U. S. , 190,000 on-road vehicles use propane, and 450,000 forklifts use it for power. It is the third most popular vehicle fuel in America, behind gasoline and diesel. In other parts of the world, propane used in vehicles is known as autogas. About 9 million vehicles worldwide use autogas.

The advantage of propane is its liquid state at a moderate pressure. This allows fast refill times, affordable fuel tank construction, and ranges comparable to (though still less than) gasoline. Meanwhile it is noticeably cleaner (both in handling, and in combustion), results in less engine wear (due to carbon deposits) without diluting engine oil (often extending oil-change intervals), and until recently was a relative bargain in North America. Octane rating is a noticeably higher 110, which could result in more power, though exploiting this extra "octane" requires significant engine modification. The octane rating is a measure of the resistance of Gasoline and other Fuels to Detonation ( Engine knocking) in spark-ignition However, public filling stations are still rare. Many converted vehicles have provisions for topping off from "barbecue bottles. " Purpose-built vehicles are often in commercially-owned fleets, and have private fueling facilities.

Propane is generally stored and transported in steel cylinders as a liquid with a vapor space above the liquid. The vapor pressure in the cylinder is a function of temperature. When gaseous propane is drawn at a high rate the latent heat of vaporisation required to create the gas will cause the bottle to cool. (This is why water often condenses on the sides of the bottle and then freezes). In extreme cases this may cause such a large reduction in pressure that the process can no longer be supported. In addition, the lightweight, high-octane compounds vaporize before the heavier, low-octane ones. The octane rating is a measure of the resistance of Gasoline and other Fuels to Detonation ( Engine knocking) in spark-ignition Thus the ignition properties change as the tank empties. For these reasons, the liquid is often withdrawn using a dip tube.

#### Other

• Propane is used as a feedstock for the production of base petrochemicals in steam cracking. Petrochemicals are chemical products made from raw materials of Petroleum or other Hydrocarbon origin In Petroleum geology and Chemistry, cracking is the process whereby complex organic Molecules such as Kerogens or heavy Hydrocarbons
• Propane is used in some flamethrowers, as the fuel, or as the pressurizing gas. A flamethrower is a mechanical device designed to project a long controllable stream of Fire.
• Some propane becomes a feedstock for propyl alcohol, a common solvent. Propan-1-ol is a primary Alcohol with the formula CH3CH2CH2OH
• Propane is the primary fuel for hot air balloons. The hot air balloon is the oldest successful human-carrying Flight technology
• It is used in semiconductor manufacture to deposit silicon carbide
• Propane is mixed with silicone to form a propellant (sold as green gas) which is used to power gas guns used in airsoft combat gaming. Silicon carbide ( is a compound of Silicon and Carbon bonded together to form Ceramics but it also occurs in nature as the extremely rare mineral A propellant is a material that is used to move ("propel" an object Green Gas is the propellant typically used to drive Gas Blow Back Airsoft guns consisting of the gas Propane with Silicone oil added "Air rifle" and "Air pistol" redirect here For other uses see Air gun (disambiguation An air gun ( air rifle Airsoft is a modern combat Sport or recreational Hobby in which participants eliminate opponents by hitting each other with spherical non-metallic pellets
• Liquid Propane is commonly used in theme parks and in the movie industry as an inexpensive, high energy fuel for explosions and other special effects.

## Propane Tank Remainder Measurement

The only accurate way to measure the propane left in a propane tank is to weigh it. Engraved on the side of the tank should be the letters TW then a number. This number is the empty tank weight. For example, the typical 5 gallon propane tank might say TW 17. 2. The weight of the empty tank in the example is 17. 2 lbs. Next, weigh the tank on a bathroom scale to find the total current weight. Let's say that the current weight of the tank is 24. 2 lbs. To find the weight of propane simply subtract the tank weight from the total weight.

24. 2 lbs - 17. 2 lbs = 7 lbs

Each gallon of liquid propane weighs 4. 23 lbs. Divide 7 by 4. 23 to get the number of gallons currently in the tank.

7 ÷ 4. 23 ≈ 1. 66 gallons of propane

We can go a step further and find out how long 1. 66 gallons of propane will take to burn. Each gallon of propane contains 91,690 BTUs. In the example above we were left with approximately 1. 66 gallons of propane in the tank. Simply multiply the number of gallons by the number of BTUs contained in each.

1. 66 × 91,690 = 152,205. 4 BTUs

Next, find the BTU output of the appliance in question. These can usually be found on the manufactures website. Let's use 12,000 BTUs for our example. Divide the number of BTUs left in the tank by the number of BTUs that your appliance consumes per hour to get the total running time left for propane in the tank.

152,205 ÷ 12,000 ≈ 12. 68 hours of burn time.

## Sources

Home-storage propane tanks being transported through Nevada. Nevada ( is a state located in the western region of the United States of America.

Propane is produced as a byproduct of two other processes: natural gas processing and petroleum refining. Natural gas is a Gaseous Fossil fuel consisting primarily of Methane but including significant quantities of Ethane, Propane, Petroleum ( L petroleum, from Greek πετρέλαιον, lit

The processing of natural gas involves removal of butane, propane, and large amounts of ethane from the raw gas, to prevent condensation of these volatiles in natural gas pipelines. Butane, also called n -butane, is the unbranched Alkane with four Carbon Atoms CH3CH2CH2CH3 ETHANE is a mnemonic indicating a protocol used by Emergency services to report situations which they may be faced with especially as it relates to major incidents where Additionally, oil refineries produce some propane as a by-product of production of cracking petroleum into gasoline or heating oil. In Petroleum geology and Chemistry, cracking is the process whereby complex organic Molecules such as Kerogens or heavy Hydrocarbons

The supply of propane cannot be easily adjusted to account for increased demand because of the by-product nature of propane production. About 90% of U. S. propane is domestically produced.

The United States imports about 10% of the propane consumed each year with about 7% of that coming from Canada via pipeline and rail. The remaining 3% of imported propane comes to the United States from other sources via ocean transport.

After it is produced, North American propane is stored in huge salt caverns located in Fort Saskatchewan, Alberta, Canada, Mont Belvieu, Texas, and Conway, Kansas. Halite is the Mineral form of Sodium chloride, Na[[chlorine Cl]] commonly known as rock salt. A cave is a natural underground void large enough for a human to enter Mont Belvieu is a city in Chambers and Liberty Counties in the U These salt caverns were hollowed out in the 1940s[5] and can store up to 80 million barrels of propane, if not more. The 1940s decade ran from 1940 to 1949 Events and trends The 1940s was a period between the radical 1930s and the conservative 1950s which also leads the period to be When the propane is needed, most of it is shipped by pipelines to other areas of the Midwest, the North, and the South, for use by customers. Propane is also shipped by barge and rail car to selected U. S. areas.

## History

Propane was first identified as a volatile component in gasoline by Dr. Walter O. Snelling of the U.S. Bureau of Mines in 1910. For most of the 20th century the US Bureau of Mines (USBM was the primary United States Government agency conducting scientific research and disseminating information on The volatility of these lighter hydrocarbons caused them to be known as "wild" because of the high vapor pressures of unrefined gasoline. On March 31, the New York Times reported on Dr. Walter's work with liquefied gas and that ". . . a steel bottle will carry enough [gas] to light an ordinary home for three weeks. "[6]

It was during this time that Dr. Snelling, in cooperation with Frank P. Peterson, Chester Kerr and Arthur Kerr created ways to liquefy the LP Gases during the refining of natural gasoline. Together they established American Gasol Co. , the first commercial marketer of propane. Dr. Snelling had produced relatively pure propane by 1911 and on March 25, 1913 his method of processing and producing LP Gases was issued patent #1,056,845. [7] A separate method of producing LP Gas through compression was created by Frank Peterson and patented in 1912.

The 1920s saw increased production of LP Gas with the first year of recorded production totaling 223,000 gallons in 1922. In 1927, annual marketed LP Gas production reached one million gallons and by 1935, the annual sales of LP Gas had reached 56 million gallons. Major industry developments in the 1930s included the introduction of railroad tank car transport, gas odorization and the construction of local bottle filling plants. The year 1945 marked the first year that annual LP Gas sales reached a billion gallons. By 1947, 62% of all U. S. homes had been equipped with either natural gas or propane for cooking.

In 1950 1,000 propane-fueled buses were ordered by the Chicago Transit Authority and by 1958 sales in the U. Chicago Transit Authority, also known as CTA, is the operator of mass transit within the City of Chicago, Illinois. S. had reached 7 billion gallons annually. In 2004 was reported to be a growing $8 billion to$10 billion industry with over 15 billion gallons of propane being used annually in the U. S. [8]