A projectile is any object propelled through space by the exertion of a force, which ceases after launch. In a general sense, even a football or baseball may be considered a projectile. A football is a Ball used to play one of the various sports known as Football. Baseball is a Bat-and-ball Sport played between two teams of nine players each It can cause damage (injury, property damage) to a person, animal or object it hits, depending on factors including size, shape, speed and hardness. Injury or bodily injury is Damage or Harm caused to the Structure or function of the Body caused by an outside agent or Property damage (or in the United Kingdom, criminal damage) is damage to or the destruction of public or private Property, caused either by a The shape ( OE sceap Eng created thing) of an object located in some space refers to the part of space occupied by the object as determined Speed is the rate of motion, or equivalently the rate of change in position often expressed as Distance d traveled per unit of Hardness refers to various properties of Matter in the Solid phase that give it high resistance to various kinds of shape change when Force Accordingly, in practice most projectiles are designed as weapons. A weapon is a Tool used either in Hunting, or attack or defence in Combat for the purpose of subduing enemy personnel or to destroy enemy weapons
Arrows, darts, spears, and similar weapons are fired using pure mechanical force applied by another solid object; apart from throwing without tools, mechanisms include the catapult, slingshot, and bow. An arrow is a pointed Projectile that is shot with a bow. It predates recorded history and is common to most Cultures. Darts are missile Weapons designed to fly such that a sharp often weighted point will strike first This is an article about a particle accelerator For uses of spear, see Spear or Spear (disambiguation. A catapult is any one of a number of non-handheld mechanical devices used to throw a Projectile a great distance without the aid of an explosive substance—particularly various A slingshot (also sometimes called a catapult, shanghai, or katty) is a small hand-powered projectile Weapon. A bow is a Weapon that projects arrows powered by the elasticity of the bow
Other weapons use the compression or expansion of gases as their motive force.
Blowguns and pneumatic rifles use compressed gases, while most other guns and firearms utilize expanding gases liberated by sudden chemical reactions. "Blowpipe" and "blow tube" redirect here For other uses of the terms see Glassblowing A blowgun (also called a blowpipe or "Air rifle" and "Air pistol" redirect here For other uses see Air gun (disambiguation An air gun ( air rifle A gun is a particular Weapon that propels Projectiles The projectile is generally fired through a hollow tube known as the gun's barrel. A firearm is a Tool that projects either single or multiple Projectiles at high velocity through a controlled explosion Light gas guns use a combination of these mechanisms. The light gas gun is an apparatus for physics experiments a highly specialized gun designed to generate very high velocities
Railguns utilize electromagnetic fields to provide a constant acceleration along the entire length of the device, greatly increasing the muzzle velocity. A railgun is a purely electrical Gun that accelerates a conductive projectile along a pair of metal rails using the same principles as the Homopolar motor. A gun's muzzle velocity is the speed at which the Projectile leaves the muzzle of the gun
Some projectiles provide propulsion during (part of) the flight by means of a rocket engine or jet engine. A rocket engine is a Jet engine that uses only Propellant mass for forming its high speed propulsive jet. specific --->A jet engine is a Reaction engine that discharges a fast moving jet of Fluid to In military terminology, a rocket is unguided, while a missile is guided. A rocket or rocket vehicle is a Missile, Aircraft or other Vehicle which obtains Thrust by the reaction of the A missile (see also pronunciation differences) is a self-propelled explosive Projectile used as a weapon towards a target Guided Missile is a London based Independent record label set up by Paul Kearney in 1994. Note the two meanings of "rocket": an ICBM is a missile with rocket engines.
Many projectiles, e. g. shells, contain an explosive charge. A shell is a payload-carrying Projectile, which as opposed to shot, contains an explosive or other filling though modern usage includes large solid projectiles With or without explosive charge a projectile can be designed to cause special damage, e. g. fire (see also early thermal weapons), or poisoning (see also arrow poison). Early thermal weapons were devices or substances used in Warfare during the classical and medieval periods (approx 8th century BC until the mid-16th Arrow poisons are used to poison arrow heads or darts for the purposes of hunting
Projectiles which do not contain an explosive charge are termed kinetic projectile, kinetic energy weapon, kinetic warhead or kinetic penetrator. Classic kinetic energy weapons are blunt projectiles such as rocks and round shot, pointed ones such as arrows, and somewhat pointed ones such as bullets. In Geology, rock is a naturally occurring aggregate of Minerals and/or Mineraloids The Earth's outer solid layer the ‘ Lithosphere Round shot is an obsolete solid Projectile without explosive charge fired from Small arms or Cannons As the name implies round shot is spherical An arrow is a pointed Projectile that is shot with a bow. It predates recorded history and is common to most Cultures. A bullet is a solid Projectile propelled by a Firearm or Air gun and is normally made from metal (usually Lead) Among projectiles which do not contain explosives are also railguns, coilguns, mass drivers, and kinetic energy penetrators. A railgun is a purely electrical Gun that accelerates a conductive projectile along a pair of metal rails using the same principles as the Homopolar motor. A coilgun is a type of synchronous Linear electric motor which is used as a Projectile accelerator that consists of one or more electromagnetic coils A mass driver or electromagnetic Catapult is a method of Non-rocket spacelaunch that would use a Linear motor to Accelerate A kinetic energy penetrator (also known as a KE weapon) is a type of Ammunition which like a Bullet, does not contain Explosives and uses All of these weapons work by attaining a high muzzle velocity (hypervelocity), and collide with their objective, releasing kinetic energy. A gun's muzzle velocity is the speed at which the Projectile leaves the muzzle of the gun The term hypervelocity usually refers to a very high Velocity, typically over 3000 meters per second (6700 mph 11000 km/h 10000 ft/s or Mach A collision is an isolated event in which two or more bodies (colliding bodies exert relatively strong forces on each other for a relatively short time The kinetic energy of an object is the extra Energy which it possesses due to its motion
Some kinetic weapons for targeting objects in spaceflight are anti-satellite weapons and anti-ballistic missiles. Spaceflight is the use of Space technology to fly a Spacecraft into and through Outer space. Anti-satellite weapons (ASATs are Space weapons designed to destroy Satellites for strategic military purposes An anti-ballistic missile (ABM is a Missile designed to counter Ballistic missiles (a missile for Missile defense) Since they need to attain a high velocity anyway, they can destroy their target with their released kinetic energy alone; explosives are not necessary. Compare the energy of TNT, 4. Trinitrotoluene ( TNT) is a Chemical compound with the formula C6H2(NO23CH3 6 MJ/kg, to the energy of a kinetic kill vehicle with a closing speed of 10 km/s, which is 50 MJ/kg. This saves costly weight and there is no detonation to be precisely timed. Detonation is a process of Supersonic Combustion in which a Shock wave is propagated forward due to energy release in a reaction zone behind it This method, however, requires direct contact with the target, which requires more accuracy.
With regard to anti-missile weapons, the Arrow missile and MIM-104 Patriot have explosives, but the Kinetic Energy Interceptor (KEI), Lightweight Exo-Atmospheric Projectile (LEAP, see RIM-161 Standard Missile 3), and THAAD being developed do not (see Missile Defense Agency). The Arrow "Interceptor" (טיל חץ /til xɛts/) ABM is a theater missile defense (TMD system it is the first missile developed by The MIM-104 Patriot is a Surface-to-air missile (SAM system the primary of its kind used by the United States Army and several allied nations The Kinetic Energy Interceptor ( KEI) is a planned US Missile defense program whose goal is to design develop and deploy Kinetic energy -based Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD formerly Theater High Altitude Area Defense is a United States Army project to develop a system to shoot down short- and medium-range The Missile Defense Agency ( MDA) is the section of the United States government's Department of Defense responsible for developing a layered defense
See also Hypervelocity terminal ballistics, Exoatmospheric Kill Vehicle (EKV). Terminal ballistics, a sub-field of Ballistics, is the study of the behavior of a Projectile when it hits its target Exoatmospheric Kill Vehicle (EKV can refer to two related missile defense concepts Most common the Raytheon -manufactured interceptor component
A kinetic projectile can also be dropped from aircraft. This is applied by replacing the explosives of a regular bomb e. g. by concrete, for a precision hit with less collateral damage. Collateral damage is damage that is unintended or incidental to the intended outcome A typical bomb has a mass of 900 kg and a speed of impact of 800 km/h (220 m/s). It is also applied for training the act of dropping a bomb with explosives.  This method has been used in Operation Iraqi Freedom and the subsequent military operations in Iraq by mating concrete-filled training bombs with JDAM GPS guidance kits, to attack vehicles and other relatively "soft" targets located too close to civilian structures for the use of conventional high explosive bombs. The Iraq War, also known as the Second Gulf War, the Occupation of Iraq, or the War in Iraq, is an ongoing Military campaign For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iraq topics. Overview The JDAM is not a weapon rather it is a "bolt-on" upgrade for unguided gravity bombs installed during build up of the munition by Naval Ordnancemen or Air Force Basic concept of GPS operation A GPS receiver calculates its position by carefully timing the signals sent by the constellation of GPS Satellites high above the Earth An explosive material is a material that either is chemically or otherwise Energetically unstable or produces a sudden expansion of the material usually accompanied
A kinetic bombardment may involve a projectile dropped from Earth orbit. A kinetic bombardment is the act of attacking a planetary surface with an inert Projectile, where the destructive force comes from the kinetic energy of the projectile impacting
A hypothetical kinetic weapon that travels at a significant fraction of the speed of light, usually found in science fiction, is termed a relativistic kill vehicle (RKV). A relativistic Kill vehicle (RKV or relativistic bomb is a hypothetical weapon system sometimes found in Science fiction.
|Projectile||Speed (m/s)||(ft/s)||(mph)||Kinetic energy|
|object falling 1 m||4. To help compare different Orders of magnitude, the following list describes various Speed levels between 1 A gun's muzzle velocity is the speed at which the Projectile leaves the muzzle of the gun Speed is the rate of motion, or equivalently the rate of change in position often expressed as Distance d traveled per unit of The kinetic energy of an object is the extra Energy which it possesses due to its motion 43 m/s||14. 5 ft/s||9. 9 mph||9. 8 J/kg|
|object falling 10 m||14 m/s||46 ft/s||31 mph||98 J/kg|
|thrown club (weapon) (expert thrower)||40 m/s||130 ft/s||90 mph||800 J/kg|
|object falling 100 m||45 m/s||150 ft/s||100 mph||980 J/kg|
|refined (= flexible) atlatl dart (expert thrower)||45 m/s||150 ft/s||100 mph||1000 J/kg|
|80-lb-draw pistol crossbow bolt||58 m/s||190 ft/s||130 mph||1. A club (also known as cudgel, baton, truncheon, night stick, and bludgeon) is among the simplest of all weapons An atlatl (from Nahuatl ahtlatl; in English pronounced or) or spear-thrower is a Tool that uses Leverage to achieve greater velocity A crossbow is a Weapon consisting of a bow mounted on a stock that shoots projectiles often called bolts 7 kJ/kg|
|paintball fired from marker||91 m/s||300 ft/s||204 mph||4. Paintball is a sport in which players eliminate opponents from play by hitting them with dye-filled breakable oil and gelatin paintballs usually shot from a carbon dioxide or compressed-gas 1 kJ/kg|
|175-lb-draw crossbow bolt||97 m/s||320 ft/s||217 mph||4. A crossbow is a Weapon consisting of a bow mounted on a stock that shoots projectiles often called bolts 7 kJ/kg|
|air gun pellet 6 mm BB||100 m/s||328 ft/s||224 mph||5 kJ/kg|
|rifle bullet 4. "Air rifle" and "Air pistol" redirect here For other uses see Air gun (disambiguation An air gun ( air rifle An air gun pellet is a non-spherical projectile designed to be fired from an Air gun. BB guns are a type of Air gun designed to shoot projectiles called BB after the Birdshot pellet of approximately the same size A rifle is a Firearm designed to be fired from the shoulder with a barrel that has a helical groove or pattern of grooves ("rifling" cut into the barrel walls 5 mm||150 m/s||492 ft/s||336 mph||11 kJ/kg|
|air gun pellet (conventional maximum)||244 m/s||800 ft/s||545 mph||29. "Air rifle" and "Air pistol" redirect here For other uses see Air gun (disambiguation An air gun ( air rifle 8 kJ/kg|
|9x19 mm (bullet of a pistol)||340 m/s||1116 ft/s||761 mph||58 kJ/kg|
|12. 7x99 mm (bullet of a heavy machine gun)||800 m/s||2625 ft/s||1790 mph||320 kJ/kg|
|5.56x45 mm (standard bullet used in many assault rifles)||920 m/s||3018 ft/s||2058 mph||470 kJ/kg|
|125x1400 mm (shell of a tank)||1700 m/s||5577 ft/s||3803 mph||1. For other uses of the phrase see Machine Gun (disambiguation. 556x45mm NATO, standardized under STANAG 4172 is a Rifle cartridge. A tank is a tracked, Armoured fighting vehicle designed for Front-line combat which combines Operational mobility and tactical 4 MJ/kg|
|2kg Tungsten Slug (from Experimental Railgun)||3000 m/s||9843 ft/s||6711 mph||4. A railgun is a purely electrical Gun that accelerates a conductive projectile along a pair of metal rails using the same principles as the Homopolar motor. 5 MJ/kg|
|ICBM reentry vehicle||up to 4 km/s||up to 13000 ft/s||up to 9000 mph||up to 8 MJ/kg|
|projectile of a light gas gun||up to 7 km/s||up to 23000 ft/s||up to 16000 mph||up to 24 MJ/kg|
|satellite in LEO||8 km/s||26000 ft/s||19000 mph||32 MJ/kg|
|Exoatmospheric Kill Vehicle||closing speed roughly 10 km/s||~33000 ft/s||~22000 mph||~ 50 MJ/kg|
|projectile (e. The light gas gun is an apparatus for physics experiments a highly specialized gun designed to generate very high velocities Exoatmospheric Kill Vehicle (EKV can refer to two related missile defense concepts Most common the Raytheon -manufactured interceptor component g. space debris) and target both in LEO||closing speed 0 - 16 km/s||~53000 ft/s||~36000 mph||~ 130 MJ/kg|
Ballistics analyze the projectile trajectory, the forces acting upon the projectile, and the impact that a projectile has on a target. Space debris or orbital debris, also called space junk and space waste are the objects in Orbit around Earth created by humans that no A Low Earth Orbit (LEO is generally defined as an Orbit within the locus extending from the Earth’s surface up to an altitude of 2000 km Ballistics ( gr βάλλειν ('ba'llein' "throw" is the science of Mechanics that deals with the motion behavior and effects of Projectiles Trajectory is the path a moving object follows through space The object might be a Projectile or a Satellite, for example A guided missile is not called a projectile. Guided Missile is a London based Independent record label set up by Paul Kearney in 1994.
An explosion, whether or not by a weapon, causes the debris to act as multiple high velocity projectiles. An explosive weapon, or device may also be designed to produce many high velocity projectiles by the break-up of its casing, these are correctly termed fragments. Fragmentation is the process by which the casing of an Artillery shell, Bomb, Grenade, etc is shattered by the detonating
The term projectile also refers to weapons or any other objects thrown, shot or otherwise directed to enemies in video games or computer games. A weapon is a Tool used either in Hunting, or attack or defence in Combat for the purpose of subduing enemy personnel or to destroy enemy weapons
Projectile is also the name of an annual anarchist film festival based in Newcastle UK *